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Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

Title 7 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 51 → Subpart

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → Subpart


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 51—FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)


§51.2540   General.

(a) Compliance with the provisions of these standards shall not excuse failure to comply with provisions of applicable Federal or State laws.

(b) These standards are applicable to pistachio nuts in the shell which may be in a natural, dyed, raw, roasted, or salted state; or in any combination thereof. However, nuts of obviously dissimilar forms shall not be commingled.

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§51.2541   U.S. Fancy, U.S. Extra No. 1, U.S. No. 1 And U.S. Select Grades.

“U.S. Fancy,” “U.S. Extra No. 1,” “U.S. No. 1,” and “U.S. Select” consists of pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Free from:

(i) Foreign material;

(ii) Loose kernels;

(iii) Shell pieces;

(iv) Particles and dust; and,

(v) Blanks.

(b) Shells:

(1) Free from:

(i) Non-split shells; and,

(ii) Shells not split on suture.

(2) Free from damage by:

(i) Adhering hull material;

(ii) Light stained;

(iii) Dark stained; and,

(iv) Other External (shell) defects.

(c) Kernels:

(1) Well dried, or, very well dried when specified in connection with the grade.

(2) Free from damage by:

(i) Immature kernels;

(ii) Kernel spotting; and,

(iii) Other Internal (kernel) defects.

(3) Free from serious damage by:

(i) Minor insect or vertebrate injury;

(ii) Insect damage;

(iii) Mold;

(iv) Rancidity;

(v) Decay; and,

(vi) Other Internal (kernel) defects.

(d) The nuts are of a size not less than 3064 inch in diameter as measured by a round hole screen.

(e) For tolerances, see §51.2544.

[68 FR 50682, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2542   U.S. Artificially Opened.

“U.S. Artificially Opened” consists of artificially opened pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic Requirements:

(1) Free from:

(i) Foreign material;

(ii) Loose kernels;

(iii) Shell pieces;

(iv) Particles and dust; and,

(v) Blanks.

(b) Shells:

(1) Free from:

(i) Non-split shells; and,

(ii) Shells not split on suture.

(2) Free from damage by:

(i) Adhering hull material;

(ii) Light stained;

(iii) Dark stained; and,

(iv) Other External (shell) defects.

(c) Kernels:

(1) Well dried, or, very well dried when specified in connection with the grade.

(2) Free from damage by:

(i) Immature kernels;

(ii) Kernel spotting; and,

(iii) Other Internal (kernel) defects.

(3) Free from serious damage by:

(i) Minor insect or vertebrate injury;

(ii) Insect damage;

(iii) Mold;

(iv) Rancidity;

(v) Decay; and,

(vi) Other Internal (kernel) defects.

(d) The nuts are of a size not less than 3064 inch in diameter as measured by a round hole screen.

(e) For tolerances, see §51.2544.

[68 FR 50683, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2543   U.S. Non-Split.

“U.S. Non-Split” consists of non-split pistachio nuts in the shell which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Free from:

(i) Foreign material;

(ii) Loose kernels;

(iii) Shell pieces;

(iv) Particles and dust; and,

(v) Blanks.

(b) Shells:

(1) Free from damage by:

(i) Adhering hull material; and,

(ii) Dark stain.

(c) Kernels:

(1) Well dried, or very well dried when specified in connection with the grade.

(2) Free from damage by:

(i) Immature kernels;

(ii) Kernel spotting; and,

(iii) Other internal (kernel) defects.

(3) Free from serious damage by:

(i) Minor insect or vertebrate injury;

(ii) Insect damage;

(iii) Mold;

(iv) Rancidity;

(v) Decay; and,

(vi) Other Internal (kernel) defects.

(d) The nuts are of a size not less than 3064 inch in diameter as measured by a round hole screen.

(e) For Tolerances, see §51.2544.

[68 FR 50683, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2544   Tolerances.

(a) In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling, the tolerances in Tables I, II, and III of this section are provided.

Table I—Tolerances

[Percent]

Factor U.S. fancy U.S. extra No. 1 U.S. No. 1 U.S. select U.S. artificially opened U.S. non-split
External (shell) Defects (tolerances by weight):
(a) Non-split and not split on suture2361010N/A
(1) Non-split included in (a)12344N/A
(b) Adhering hull material111222
(c) Light stained71225N/AN/AN/A
(1) Dark stained, included in (c)233333
(d) Damage by other means112310N/A
(e) Total External Defects916N/AN/AN/AN/A
(f) Undersized (Less than 3064 inch in diameter)555545

Table II—Tolerances

Factor
internal (kernel) defects
(tolerances by weight)
U.S. fancy
(percent)
U.S. extra
No. 1
(percent)
U.S. No. 1
(percent)
U.S. select
(percent)
U.S. artificially opened
(percent)
U.S. non-split
(percent)
(a) Damage366666
(b) Serious Damage (Minor Insect or Vertebrate Injury, Mold, Rancid, Decay)344444
(1) Insect Damage, included in (b)122222
(c) Total Internal Defects489999

Table III—Tolerances

[Percent]

Factor U.S. fancy U.S. extra No. 1 U.S. No. 1 U.S. selectU.S. artificially opened U.S. non-split
Other Defects (tolerances by weight):
(a) Shell pieces and blanks222222
(1) Blanks, included in (a)111111
(b) Foreign material (No glass, metal or live insects shall be permitted).25.25.25.25.25.25
(c) Particles and dust.25.25.25.25.25.25
(d) Loose kernels456666

(b) [Reserved]

[68 FR 50683, Aug. 22, 2003, as amended at 69 FR 76835, Dec. 23, 2004]

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§51.2545   Application of tolerances.

The tolerances for the grades apply to the entire lot and shall be based on a composite sample drawn from containers throughout the lot. Any container or group of containers which have nuts obviously different in quality or size from those in the majority of the containers shall be considered a separate lot and shall be sampled separately.

[68 FR 50684, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2546   Size.

Nuts may be considered as meeting a size designation specified in Table IV or a range in number of nuts per ounce, provided, the weight of 10 percent, by count, of the largest nuts in a sample does not exceed 1.50 times the weight of 10 percent, by count, of the smallest and the average number of nuts per ounce is not more than one-half nut above or below the extremes of the range specified.

Table IV—Nut Size

Size designations Average number of nuts per ounce1
ColossalLess than 18.
Extra Large18 to 20.
Large21 to 25.
Medium26 to 30.
SmallMore than 30.

1Before Roasting.

[68 FR 50684, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2547   Definitions.

(a) Well dried means the kernel is firm and crisp.

(b) Very well dried means the kernel is firm and crisp and the average moisture content of the lot does not exceed 7.00 percent or is specified. (See §51.2548.)

(c) Loose kernels means edible kernels or kernel portions which are out of the shell and which cannot be considered particles and dust.

(d) External (shell) defects means any blemish affecting the hard covering around the kernel. Such defects include, but are not limited to, non-split shells, shells not split on suture, adhering hull material, light stained, or dark stained.

(1) Damage by external (shell) defects means any specific defect described in paragraphs (d)(1) (i) through (v) of this section, or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edible or marketing quality of the individual shell or of the lot. (For tolerances see §51.2544, Table I.)

(i) Non-split shells means shells are not opened or are partially opened and will not allow an 181000 (.018) inch thick by 14 (.25) inch wide gauge to slip into the opening.

(ii) Not split on suture means shells are split other than on the suture and will allow an 181000 (.018) inch thick by 14 (.25) inch wide gauge to slip into the opening.

(iii) Adhering hull material means an aggregate amount covers more than one-eighth of the total shell surface, or when readily noticeable on dyed shells.

(iv) Light stained on raw or roasted nuts, means an aggregate amount of yellow to light brown or light gray discoloration is noticeably contrasting with the predominate color of the shell and affects more than one-fourth of the total shell surface or, on dyed nuts, when readily noticeable.

(v) Dark stained on raw or roasted nuts, means an aggregate amount of dark brown, dark gray or black discoloration affects more than one-eighth of the total shell surface, or, on dyed nuts, when readily noticeable, provided that speckled appearing stain located within the area of one-fourth of the shell nearest the stem end shall be disregarded.

(e) Internal (kernel) defects means any blemish affecting the kernel. Such defects include, but are not limited to evidence of insects, immature kernels, rancid kernels, mold, or decay.

(1) Damage by internal (kernel) defects means any specific defect described in paragraphs (e)(1)(i) through (ii) of this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance or the edible or marketing quality of the individual kernel or of the lot. (For tolerances see §51.2544, Table II.)

(i) Immature kernels are excessively thin or when a kernel fills less than three-fourths, but not less than one-half the shell cavity.

(ii) Kernel spotting refers to dark brown or dark gray spots aggregating more than one-eighth of the surface of the kernel.

(2) Serious damage by internal (kernel) defects means any specific defect described in paragraphs (e)(2)(i) through (v) of this section; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which seriously detracts from the appearance or the edible or the marketing quality of the individual kernel or of the lot. (For tolerances see §51.2544, Table II.)

(i) Minor insect or vertebrate injury means the kernel shows conspicuous evidence of feeding.

(ii) Insect damage is an insect, insect fragment, web or frass attached to the kernel. No live insects shall be permitted.

(iii) Mold which is readily visible on the shell or kernel.

(iv) Rancidity means the kernel is distinctly rancid to taste. Staleness of flavor shall not be classed as rancidity.

(v) Decay means one-sixteenth or more of the kernel surface is decomposed.

(f) Other defects means defects which cannot be considered internal defects or external defects. Such defects include, but are not limited to shell pieces, blanks, foreign material or particles and dust. The following shall be considered other defects. (For tolerances see §51.2544, Table III.)

(1) Shell pieces means open in-shell nuts not containing a kernel, half shells or pieces of shell which are loose in the sample.

(2) Blank means a non-split shell not containing a kernel or containing a kernel that fills less than one-half the shell cavity.

(3) Foreign material means leaves, sticks, loose hulls or hull pieces, dirt, rocks, insects or insect fragments not attached to nuts, or any substance other than pistachio shells or kernels. Glass, metal or live insects shall not be permitted.

(4) Particles and dust means pieces of nut kernels which will pass through a 564 inch round opening.

(5) Undersize means pistachio nuts in the shell which fall through a 3064 inch round hole screen.

[68 FR 50684, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2548   Average moisture content determination.

(a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except when nuts are specified as “very well dried.” It may be carried out upon request in connection with grade analysis or as a separate determination.

(b) Nuts shall be obtained from a randomly drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the air-oven method or other officially approved methods or devices. Results obtained by methods or devices not officially approved may be reported and shall include a description of the method or device and the owner of any equipment used.

[68 FR 50685, Aug. 22, 2003]

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§51.2549   Metric conversion table.

Use the following table for metric conversion:

Inches Millimeters
564 1.98
18100 .46
14 6.35
3064 11.88
OuncesGrams
128.35
256.70

[68 FR 50685, Aug. 22, 2003]

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