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Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart O

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 178 → Subpart O

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart O

e-CFR data is current as of November 19, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 178 → Subpart O


Title 49: Transportation
PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


§178.800   Purpose and scope.

This subpart prescribes certain testing requirements for IBCs identified in subpart N of this part.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended by 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.801   General requirements.

(a) General. The test procedures prescribed in this subpart are intended to ensure that IBCs containing hazardous materials can withstand normal conditions of transportation and are considered minimum requirements. Each packaging must be manufactured and assembled so as to be capable of successfully passing the prescribed tests and of conforming to the requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter at all times while in transportation.

(b) Responsibility. It is the responsibility of the IBC manufacturer to assure that each IBC is capable of passing the prescribed tests. To the extent that an IBC assembly function, including final closure, is performed by the person who offers a hazardous material for transportation, that person is responsible for performing the function in accordance with §§173.22 and 178.2 of this subchapter.

(c) Definitions. For the purpose of this subpart:

(1) IBC design type refers to an IBC that does not differ in structural design, size, material of construction, wall thickness, manner of construction and representative service equipment.

(2) Design qualification testing is the performance of the drop, leakproofness, hydrostatic pressure, stacking, bottom-lift or top-lift, tear, topple, righting and vibration tests, as applicable, prescribed in this subpart, for each different IBC design type, at the start of production of that packaging.

(3) Periodic design requalification test is the performance of the applicable tests specified in paragraph (c)(2) of this section on an IBC design type, in order to requalify the design for continued production at the frequency specified in paragraph (e) of this section.

(4) Production inspection is the inspection that must initially be conducted on each newly manufactured IBC.

(5) Production testing is the performance of the leakproofness test in accordance with paragraph (f) of this section on each IBC intended to contain solids discharged by pressure or intended to contain liquids.

(6) Periodic retest and inspection is performance of the applicable test and inspections on each IBC at the frequency specified in §180.352 of this subchapter.

(7) Different IBC design type is one that differs from a previously qualified IBC design type in structural design, size, material of construction, wall thickness, or manner of construction, but does not include:

(i) A packaging which differs in surface treatment;

(ii) A rigid plastic IBC or composite IBC which differs with regard to additives used to comply with §§178.706(c), 178.707(c) or 178.710(c);

(iii) A packaging which differs only in its lesser external dimensions (i.e., height, width, length) provided materials of construction and material thicknesses or fabric weight remain the same;

(iv) A packaging which differs in service equipment.

(d) Design qualification testing. The packaging manufacturer shall achieve successful test results for the design qualification testing at the start of production of each new or different IBC design type. The service equipment selected for this design qualification testing shall be representative of the type of service equipment that will be fitted to any finished IBC body under the design. Application of the certification mark by the manufacturer shall constitute certification that the IBC design type passed the prescribed tests in this subpart.

(e) Periodic design requalification testing. (1) Periodic design requalification must be conducted on each qualified IBC design type if the manufacturer is to maintain authorization for continued production. The IBC manufacturer shall achieve successful test results for the periodic design requalification at sufficient frequency to ensure each packaging produced by the manufacturer is capable of passing the design qualification tests. Design requalification tests must be conducted at least once every 12 months.

(2) Changes in the frequency of design requalification testing specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section are authorized if approved by the Associate Administrator. These requests must be based on:

(i) Detailed quality assurance programs that assure that proposed decreases in test frequency maintain the integrity of originally tested IBC design types; and

(ii) Demonstrations that each IBC produced is capable of withstanding higher standards (e.g., increased drop height, hydrostatic pressure, wall thickness, fabric weight).

(f) Production testing and inspection. (1) Production testing consists of the leakproofness test prescribed in §178.813 of this subpart and must be performed on each IBC intended to contain solids discharged by pressure or intended to contain liquids. For this test:

(i) The IBC need not have its closures fitted, except that the IBC must be fitted with its primary bottom closure.

(ii) The inner receptacle of a composite IBC may be tested without the outer IBC body, provided the test results are not affected.

(2) Applicable inspection requirements in §180.352 of this subchapter must be performed on each IBC initially after production.

(g) Test samples. The IBC manufacturer shall conduct the design qualification and periodic design requalification tests prescribed in this subpart using random samples of IBCs, according to the appropriate test section.

(h) Selective testing of IBCs. Variation of a tested IBC design type is permitted without further testing, provided selective testing demonstrates an equivalent or greater level of safety than the design type tested and which has been approved by the Associate Administrator.

(i) Approval of equivalent packagings. An IBC differing from the standards in subpart N of this part, or tested using methods other than those specified in this subpart, may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. Such IBCs must be shown to be equally effective, and testing methods used must be equivalent.

(j) Proof of compliance. Notwithstanding the periodic design requalification testing intervals specified in paragraph (e) of this section, the Associate Administrator, or a designated representative, may at any time require demonstration of compliance by a manufacturer, through testing in accordance with this subpart, that packagings meet the requirements of this subpart. As required by the Associate Administrator, or a designated representative, the manufacturer shall either:

(1) Conduct performance tests or have tests conducted by an independent testing facility, in accordance with this subpart; or

(2) Make a sample IBC available to the Associate Administrator, or a designated representative, for testing in accordance with this subpart.

(k) Coatings. If an inner treatment or coating of an IBC is required for safety reasons, the manufacturer shall design the IBC so that the treatment or coating retains its protective properties even after withstanding the tests prescribed by this subpart.

(l) Record retention. Following each design qualification test and each periodic retest on an IBC, a test report must be prepared.

(1) The test report must be maintained at each location where the packaging is manufactured, certified, and a design qualification test or periodic retest is conducted as follows:

Responsible partyDuration
Person manufacturing the packagingAs long as manufactured and two years thereafter.
Person performing design testingDesign test maintained for a single or composite packaging for six years after the test is successfully performed and for a combination packaging or packaging intended for infectious substances for seven years after the test is successfully performed.
Person performing periodic retestingPerformance test maintained for a single or composite packaging for one year after the test is successfully performed and for a combination packaging or packaging intended for infectious substances for two years after the test is successfully performed.

(2) The test report must be made available to a user of a packaging or a representative of the Department upon request. The test report, at a minimum, must contain the following information:

(i) Name and address of test facility;

(ii) Name and address of the person certifying the IBC;

(iii) A unique test report identification;

(iv) Date of test report;

(v) Manufacturer of the IBC;

(vi) Description of the IBC design type (e.g., dimensions, materials, closures, thickness, representative service equipment, etc.);

(vii) Maximum IBC capacity;

(viii) Characteristics of test contents;

(ix) Test descriptions and results (including drop heights, hydrostatic pressures, tear propagation length, etc.); and

(x) The signature of the person conducting the test, and name of the person responsible for testing.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40038, Aug. 4, 1995; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 66 FR 33452, June 21, 2001; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 73 FR 57008, Oct. 1, 2008; 74 FR 2269, Jan. 14, 2009; 75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010; 78 FR 14715, Mar. 7, 2013; 78 FR 65487, Oct. 31, 2013; 80 FR 72929, Nov. 23, 2015]

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§178.802   Preparation of fiberboard IBCs for testing.

(a) Fiberboard IBCs and composite IBCs with fiberboard outer packagings must be conditioned for at least 24 hours in an atmosphere maintained:

(1) At 50 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 23° ±2 °C (73 °F ±4 °F); or

(2) At 65 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 20° ±2 °C (68 °F ±4 °F), or 27 °C ±2 °C (81 °F ±4 °F).

(b) Average values for temperature and humidity must fall within the limits in paragraph (a) of this section. Short-term fluctuations and measurement limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ±5 percent relative humidity without significant impairment of test reproducibility.

(c) For purposes of periodic design requalification only, fiberboard IBCs or composite IBCs with fiberboard outer packagings may be at ambient conditions.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.803   Testing and certification of IBCs.

Tests required for the certification of each IBC design type are specified in the following table. The letter X indicates that one IBC (except where noted) of each design type must be subjected to the tests in the order presented:

Performance testIBC type
Metal IBCsRigid plastic IBCsComposite IBCsFiber-board IBCsWooden IBCsFlexible IBCs
Vibration6 X6 X6 X6 X6 X1.5 X
Bottom lift2 XXXXX
Top lift2 X2 X2 X2 5 X
Stacking7 X7 X7 X7 X7 X5 X
Leakproofness3 X3 X3 X
Hydrostatic3 X3 X3 X
Drop4 X4 X4 X4 X4 X5 X
Topple5 X
Righting2 5 X
Tear5 X

1Flexible IBCs must be capable of withstanding the vibration test.

2This test must be performed only if IBCs are designed to be handled this way. For metal IBCs, at least one of the bottom lift or top lift tests must be performed.

3The leakproofness and hydrostatic pressure tests are required only for IBCs intended to contain liquids or intended to contain solids loaded or discharged under pressure.

4Another IBC of the same design type may be used for the drop test set forth in §178.810 of this subchapter.

5Another different flexible IBC of the same design type may be used for each test.

6The vibration test may be performed in another order for IBCs manufactured and tested under provisions of an exemption before October 1, 1994 and for non-DOT specification portable tanks tested before October 1, 1994, intended for export.

7This test must be performed only if the IBC is designed to be stacked.

[Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40039, Aug. 4, 1995, as amended at 64 FR 51919, Sept. 27, 1999; 66 FR 45386, 45390, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.810   Drop test.

(a) General. The drop test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types and performed periodically as specified in §178.801(e) of this subpart.

(b) Special preparation for the drop test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBCs intended to contain solids must be filled to not less than 95 percent of their maximum capacity, or if intended to contain liquids, to not less than 98 percent of their maximum capacity. Pressure relief devices must be removed and their apertures plugged or rendered inoperative.

(2) Fiberboard and wooden IBCs must be filled with a solid material to not less than 95 percent of their maximum capacity; the contents must be evenly distributed.

(3) Flexible IBCs must be filled to the maximum permissible gross mass; the contents must be evenly distributed.

(4) Rigid plastic IBCs and composite IBCs with plastic inner receptacles must be conditioned for testing by reducing the temperature of the packaging and its contents to −18 °C (0 °F) or lower. Test liquids must be kept in the liquid state, if necessary, by the addition of anti-freeze. Water/anti-freeze solutions with a minimum specific gravity of 0.95 for testing at −18 °C (0 °F) or lower are considered acceptable test liquids, and may be considered equivalent to water for test purposes. IBCs conditioned in this way are not required to be conditioned in accordance with §178.802.

(c) Test method. (1) Samples of all IBC design types must be dropped onto a rigid, non-resilient, smooth, flat and horizontal surface. The point of impact must be the most vulnerable part of the base of the IBC being tested. Following the drop, the IBC must be restored to the upright position for observation.

(2) IBC design types with a capacity of 0.45 cubic meters (15.9 cubic feet) or less must be subject to an additional drop test.

(d) Drop height. (1) For all IBCs, drop heights are specified as follows:

(i) Packing Group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet).

(ii) Packing Group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet).

(iii) Packing Group III: 0.8 m (2.6 feet).

(2) Drop tests are to be performed with the solid or liquid to be transported or with a non-hazardous material having essentially the same physical characteristics.

(3) The specific gravity and viscosity of a substituted non-hazardous material used in the drop test for liquids must be similar to the hazardous material intended for transportation. Water also may be used for the liquid drop test under the following conditions:

(i) Where the substances to be carried have a specific gravity not exceeding 1.2, the drop heights must be those specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section for each IBC design type; and

(ii) Where the substances to be carried have a specific gravity exceeding 1.2, the drop heights must be as follows:

(A) Packing Group I: SG × 1.5 m (4.9 feet).

(B) Packing Group II: SG × 1.0 m (3.3 feet).

(C) Packing Group III: SG × 0.67 m (2.2 feet).

(e) Criteria for passing the test. For all IBC design types, there may be no damage which renders the IBC unsafe to be transported for salvage or for disposable, and no loss of contents. The IBC shall be capable of being lifted by an appropriate means until clear of the floor for five minutes. A slight discharge from a closure upon impact is not considered to be a failure of the IBC provided that no further leakage occurs. A slight discharge (e.g., from closures or stitch holes) upon impact is not considered a failure of the flexible IBC provided that no further leakage occurs after the IBC has been raised clear of the ground.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 69 FR 76186, Dec. 20, 2004; 71 FR 78635, Dec. 29, 2006; 74 FR 2269, Jan. 14, 2009; 75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.811   Bottom lift test.

(a) General. The bottom lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the base.

(b) Special preparation for the bottom lift test. The IBC must be loaded to 1.25 times its maximum permissible gross mass, the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. All IBC design types must be raised and lowered twice by a lift truck with the forks centrally positioned and spaced at three quarters of the dimension of the side of entry (unless the points of entry are fixed). The forks must penetrate to three quarters of the direction of entry. The test must be repeated from each possible direction of entry.

(d) Criteria for passing the test. For all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the base, there may be no permanent deformation which renders the IBC unsafe for transportation and no loss of contents.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.812   Top lift test.

(a) General. The top lift test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top or, for flexible IBCs, from the side.

(b) Special preparation for the top lift test. (1) Metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types must be loaded to twice the maximum permissible gross mass with the load being evenly distributed.

(2) Flexible IBC design types must be filled to six times the maximum net mass, the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. (1) A metal or flexible IBC must be lifted in the manner for which it is designed until clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of five minutes.

(2) Rigid plastic and composite IBC design types must be:

(i) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied vertically, for a period of five minutes; and

(ii) Lifted by each pair of diagonally opposite lifting devices, so that the hoisting forces are applied towards the center at 45° to the vertical, for a period of five minutes.

(3) If not tested as indicated in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, a flexible IBC design type must be tested as follows:

(i) Fill the flexible IBC to 95% full with a material representative of the product to be shipped.

(ii) Suspend the flexible IBC by its lifting devices.

(iii) Apply a constant downward force through a specially designed platen. The platen will be a minimum of 60% and a maximum of 80% of the cross sectional surface area of the flexible IBC.

(iv) The combination of the mass of the filled flexible IBC and the force applied through the platen must be a minimum of six times the maximum net mass of the flexible IBC. The test must be conducted for a period of five minutes.

(v) Other equally effective methods of top lift testing and preparation may be used with approval of the Associate Administrator.

(d) Criteria for passing the test. For all IBC design types designed to be lifted from the top, there may be no permanent deformation which renders the IBC, including the base pallets when applicable, unsafe for transportation, and no loss of contents.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 33452, June 21, 2001; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 45042, July 31, 2003]

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§178.813   Leakproofness test.

(a) General. The leakproofness test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types and on all production units intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids.

(b) Special preparation for the leakproofness test. Vented closures must either be replaced by similar non-vented closures or the vent must be sealed. For metal IBC design types, the initial test must be carried out before the fitting of any thermal insulation equipment. The inner receptacle of a composite IBC may be tested without the outer packaging provided the test results are not affected.

(c) Test method and pressure applied. The leakproofness test must be carried out for a suitable length of time using air at a gauge pressure of not less than 20 kPa (2.9 psig). Leakproofness of IBC design types must be determined by coating the seams and joints with a heavy oil, a soap solution and water, or other methods suitable for the purpose of detecting leaks. Other methods, if at least equally effective, may be used in accordance with appendix B of this part, or if approved by the Associate Administrator, as provided in §178.801(i)).

(d) Criterion for passing the test. For all IBC design types intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids, there may be no leakage of air from the IBC.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 64 FR 10782, Mar. 5, 1999; 66 FR 45185, 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.814   Hydrostatic pressure test.

(a) General. The hydrostatic pressure test must be conducted for the qualification of all metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBC design types intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged under pressure or intended to contain liquids.

(b) Special preparation for the hydrostatic pressure test. For metal IBCs, the test must be carried out before the fitting of any thermal insulation equipment. For all IBCs, pressure relief devices and vented closures must be removed and their apertures plugged or rendered inoperative.

(c) Test method. Hydrostatic gauge pressure must be measured at the top of the IBC. The test must be carried out for a period of at least 10 minutes applying a hydrostatic gauge pressure not less than that indicated in paragraph (d) of this section. The IBCs may not be mechanically restrained during the test.

(d) Hydrostatic gauge pressure applied. (1) For metal IBC design types, 31A, 31B, 31N: 65 kPa gauge pressure (9.4 psig).

(2) For metal IBC design types 21A, 21B, 21N, 31A, 31B, 31N: 200 kPa (29 psig). For metal IBC design types 31A, 31B and 31N, the tests in paragraphs (d)(1) and (d)(2) of this section must be conducted consecutively.

(3) For metal IBCs design types 21A, 21B, and 21N, for Packing Group I solids: 250 kPa (36 psig) gauge pressure.

(4) For rigid plastic IBC design types 21H1 and 21H2 and composite IBC design types 21HZ1 and 21HZ2: 75 kPa (11 psig).

(5) For rigid plastic IBC design types 31H1 and 31H2 and composite IBC design types 31HZ1 and 31HZ2: whichever is the greater of:

(i) The pressure determined by any one of the following methods:

(A) The gauge pressure (pressure in the IBC above ambient atmospheric pressure) measured in the IBC at 55 °C (131 °F) multiplied by a safety factor of 1.5. This pressure must be determined on the basis of the IBC being filled and closed to no more than 98 percent capacity at 15 °C (60 °F);

(B) If absolute pressure (vapor pressure of the hazardous material plus atmospheric pressure) is used, 1.5 multiplied by the vapor pressure of the hazardous material at 55 °C (131 °F) minus 100 kPa (14.5 psi). If this method is chosen, the hydrostatic test pressure applied must be at least 100 kPa gauge pressure (14.5 psig); or

(C) If absolute pressure (vapor pressure of the hazardous material plus atmospheric pressure) is used, 1.75 multiplied by the vapor pressure of the hazardous material at 50 °C (122 °F) minus 100 kPa (14.5 psi). If this method is chosen, the hydrostatic test pressure applied must be at least 100 kPa gauge pressure (14.5 psig); or

(ii) Twice the greater of: (A) The static pressure of the hazardous material on the bottom of the IBC filled to 98 percent capacity; or

(B) The static pressure of water on the bottom of the IBC filled to 98 percent capacity.

(e) Criteria for passing the test(s). (1) For metal IBCs, subjected to the 65 kPa (9.4 psig) test pressure specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section, there may be no leakage or permanent deformation that would make the IBC unsafe for transportation.

(2) For metal IBCs intended to contain liquids, when subjected to the 200 kPa (29 psig) and the 250 kPa (36 psig) test pressures specified in paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) of this section, respectively, there may be no leakage.

(3) For rigid plastic IBC types 21H1, 21H2, 31H1, and 31H2, and composite IBC types 21HZ1, 21HZ2, 31HZ1, and 31HZ2, there may be no leakage and no permanent deformation which renders the IBC unsafe for transportation.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45185, 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.815   Stacking test.

(a) General. The stacking test must be conducted for the qualification of all IBC design types intended to be stacked.

(b) Special preparation for the stacking test. (1) All IBCs except flexible IBC design types must be loaded to their maximum permissible gross mass.

(2) The flexible IBC must be filled to not less than 95 percent of its capacity and to its maximum net mass, with the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. (1) Design Qualification Testing. All IBCs must be placed on their base on level, hard ground and subjected to a uniformly distributed superimposed test load for a period of at least five minutes (see paragraph (c)(5) of this section).

(2) Fiberboard, wooden and composite IBCs with outer packagings constructed of other than plastic materials must be subject to the test for 24 hours.

(3) Rigid plastic IBC types and composite IBC types with plastic outer packagings (11HH1, 11HH2, 21HH1, 21HH2, 31HH1 and 31HH2) which bear the stacking load must be subjected to the test for 28 days at 40 °C (104 °F).

(4) For all IBCs, the load must be applied by one of the following methods:

(i) One or more IBCs of the same type loaded to their maximum permissible gross mass and stacked on the test IBC;

(ii) The calculated superimposed test load weight loaded on either a flat plate or a reproduction of the base of the IBC, which is stacked on the test IBC.

(5) Calculation of superimposed test load. For all IBCs, the load to be placed on the IBC must be 1.8 times the combined maximum permissible gross mass of the number of similar IBCs that may be stacked on top of the IBC during transportation.

(d) Periodic Retest. (1) The package must be tested in accordance with paragraph (c) of this section; or

(2) The packaging may be tested using a dynamic compression testing machine. The test must be conducted at room temperature on an empty, unsealed packaging. The test sample must be centered on the bottom platen of the testing machine. The top platen must be lowered until it comes in contact with the test sample. Compression must be applied end to end. The speed of the compression tester must be one-half inch plus or minus one-fourth inch per minute. An initial preload of 50 pounds must be applied to ensure a definite contact between the test sample and the platens. The distance between the platens at this time must be recorded as zero deformation. The force “A” then to be applied must be calculated using the applicable formula:

Liquids: A = (1.8)(n − 1) [w + (s × v × 8.3 × .98)] × 1.5;

or

Solids: A = (1.8)(n − 1) [w + (s × v × 8.3 × .95)] × 1.5

Where:

A = applied load in pounds.

n = maximum number of IBCs being stacked during transportation.

w = maximum weight of one empty container in pounds.

s = specific gravity (liquids) or density (solids) of the lading.

v = actual capacity of container (rated capacity + outage) in gallons.

and:

8.3 corresponds to the weight in pounds of 1.0 gallon of water.

1.5 is a compensation factor converting the static load of the stacking test into a load suitable for dynamic compression testing.

(e) Criteria for passing the test. (1) For metal, rigid plastic, and composite IBCs, there may be no permanent deformation, which renders the IBC unsafe for transportation, and no loss of contents.

(2) For fiberboard and wooden IBCs, there may be no loss of contents and no permanent deformation, which renders the whole IBC, including the base pallet, unsafe for transportation.

(3) For flexible IBCs, there may be no deterioration, which renders the IBC unsafe for transportation, and no loss of contents.

(4) For the dynamic compression test, a container passes the test if, after application of the required load, there is no permanent deformation to the IBC, which renders the whole IBC, including the base pallet, unsafe for transportation; in no case may the maximum deflection exceed one inch.

[75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.816   Topple test.

(a) General. The topple test must be conducted for the qualification of all flexible IBC design types.

(b) Special preparation for the topple test. The flexible IBC must be filled to not less than 95 percent of its capacity and to its maximum net mass, with the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. A flexible IBC must be toppled onto any part of its top upon a rigid, non-resilient, smooth, flat, and horizontal surface.

(d) Topple height. For all flexible IBCs, the topple height is specified as follows:

(1) Packing Group I: 1.8 m (5.9 feet).

(2) Packing Group II: 1.2 m (3.9 feet).

(3) Packing Group III: 0.8 m (2.6 feet).

(e) Criteria for passing the test. For all flexible IBCs, there may be no loss of contents. A slight discharge (e.g., from closures or stitch holes) upon impact is not considered to be a failure, provided no further leakage occurs.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.817   Righting test.

(a) General. The righting test must be conducted for the qualification of all flexible IBCs designed to be lifted from the top or side.

(b) Special preparation for the righting test. The flexible IBC must be filled to not less than 95 percent of its capacity and to its maximum net mass, with the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. The flexible IBC, lying on its side, must be lifted at a speed of at least 0.1 m/second (0.33 ft/s) to an upright position, clear of the floor, by one lifting device, or by two lifting devices when four are provided.

(d) Criterion for passing the test. For all flexible IBCs, there may be no damage to the IBC or its lifting devices which renders the IBC unsafe for transportation or handling.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.818   Tear test.

(a) General. The tear test must be conducted for the qualification of all flexible IBC design types.

(b) Special preparation for the tear test. The flexible IBC must be filled to not less than 95 percent of its capacity and to its maximum net mass, the load being evenly distributed.

(c) Test method. Once the IBC is placed on the ground, a 100-mm (4-inch) knife score, completely penetrating the wall of a wide face, is made at a 45° angle to the principal axis of the IBC, halfway between the bottom surface and the top level of the contents. The IBC must then be subjected to a uniformly distributed superimposed load equivalent to twice the maximum net mass. The load must be applied for at least five minutes. An IBC which is designed to be lifted from the top or the side must, after removal of the superimposed load, be lifted clear of the floor and maintained in that position for a period of five minutes.

(d) Criterion for passing the test. The IBC passes the tear test if the cut does not propagate more than 25 percent of its original length.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.819   Vibration test.

(a) General. The vibration test must be conducted for the qualification of all rigid IBC design types. Flexible IBC design types must be capable of withstanding the vibration test.

(b) Test method. (1) A sample IBC, selected at random, must be filled and closed as for shipment. IBCs intended for liquids may be tested using water as the filling material for the vibration test.

(2) The sample IBC must be placed on a vibrating platform with a vertical or rotary double-amplitude (peak-to-peak displacement) of one inch. The IBC must be constrained horizontally to prevent it from falling off the platform, but must be left free to move vertically and bounce.

(3) The test must be performed for one hour at a frequency that causes the package to be raised from the vibrating platform to such a degree that a piece of material of approximately 1.6-mm (0.063-inch) thickness (such as steel strapping or paperboard) can be passed between the bottom of the IBC and the platform. Other methods at least equally effective may be used (see §178.801(i)).

(c) Criteria for passing the test. An IBC passes the vibration test if there is no rupture or leakage.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38074, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40038, Aug. 4, 1995; Amdt. 178-110, 60 FR 49111, Sept. 21, 1995; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010]

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