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Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart N

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 178 → Subpart N

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart N

e-CFR data is current as of November 15, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 178 → Subpart N


Title 49: Transportation
PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


§178.700   Purpose, scope and definitions.

(a) This subpart prescribes requirements applying to IBCs intended for the transportation of hazardous materials. Standards for these packagings are based on the UN Recommendations.

(b) Terms used in this subpart are defined in §171.8 of this subchapter and in paragraph (c) of this section.

(c) The following definitions pertain to the IBC standards in this subpart.

(1) Body means the receptacle proper (including openings and their closures, but not including service equipment) that has a volumetric capacity of not more than 3 cubic meters (3,000 L, 793 gallons, or 106 cubic feet).

(2) Service equipment means filling and discharge, pressure relief, safety, heating and heat-insulating devices and measuring instruments.

(3) Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, handling, protective or stabilizing members of the body or stacking load bearing structural members (such as metal cages).

(4) Maximum permissible gross mass means the mass of the body, its service equipment, structural equipment and the maximum net mass (see §171.8 of this subchapter).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40038, Aug. 4, 1995; 66 FR 45386, 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 73 FR 57008, Oct. 1, 2008; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.702   IBC codes.

(a) Intermediate bulk container code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section; followed by the capital letter(s) specified in paragraph (a)(2) of this section; followed, when specified in an individual section, by a numeral indicating the category of intermediate bulk container.

(1) IBC code number designations are as follows:

TypeFor solids, dischargedFor liquids
by gravityUnder pressure of more than 10 kPa (1.45 psig)
Rigid112131
Flexible13

(2) Intermediate bulk container code letter designations are as follows:

“A” means steel (all types and surface treatments).

“B” means aluminum.

“C” means natural wood.

“D” means plywood.

“F” means reconstituted wood.

“G” means fiberboard.

“H” means plastic.

“L” means textile.

“M” means paper, multiwall.

“N” means metal (other than steel or aluminum).

(b) For composite IBCs, two capital letters are used in sequence following the numeral indicating IBC design type. The first letter indicates the material of the IBC inner receptacle. The second letter indicates the material of the outer IBC. For example, 31HA1 is a composite IBC with a plastic inner receptacle and a steel outer packaging.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.703   Marking of IBCs.

(a) The manufacturer shall:

(1) Mark every IBC in a durable and clearly visible manner. The marking may be applied in a single line or in multiple lines provided the correct sequence is followed with the information required by this section in letters, numerals and symbols of at least 12 mm in height. This minimum marking size applies only to IBCs manufactured after October 1, 2001). The following information is required in the sequence presented:

(i) Except as provided in §178.503(e)(1)(ii), the United Nations symbol as illustrated in §178.503(e)(1)(i). For metal IBCs on which the marking is stamped or embossed, the capital letters “UN” may be applied instead of the symbol.

(ii) The code number designating IBC design type according to §178.702(a). The letter “W” must follow the IBC design type identification code on an IBC when the IBC differs from the requirements in subpart N of this part, or is tested using methods other than those specified in this subpart, and is approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with the provisions in §178.801(i).

(iii) A capital letter identifying the performance standard under which the design type has been successfully tested, as follows:

(A) X—for IBCs meeting Packing Group I, II and III tests;

(B) Y—for IBCs meeting Packing Group II and III tests; and

(C) Z—for IBCs meeting only Packing Group III tests.

(iv) The month (designated numerically) and year (last two digits) of manufacture.

(v) The country authorizing the allocation of the mark. The letters ‘USA’ indicate that the IBC is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(vi) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subparts N and O of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(vii) The stacking test load in kilograms (kg). For IBCs not designed for stacking, the figure “0” must be shown.

(viii) The maximum permissible gross mass in kg.

(2) The following are examples of symbols and required markings:

(i) For a metal IBC containing solids discharged by gravity made from steel:

eCFR graphic er26jy94.000.gif

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(ii) For a flexible IBC containing solids discharged by gravity and made from woven plastic with a liner:

eCFR graphic er26jy94.001.gif

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(iii) For a rigid plastic IBC containing liquids, made from plastic with structural equipment withstanding the stack load and with a manufacturer's symbol in place of the manufacturer's name and address:

eCFR graphic er26jy94.002.gif

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(iv) For a composite IBC containing liquids, with a rigid plastic inner receptacle and an outer steel body and with the symbol of a DOT approved third-party test laboratory:

eCFR graphic er26jy94.003.gif

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(b) Additional marking. In addition to markings required in paragraph (a) of this section, each IBC must be marked as follows in a place near the markings required in paragraph (a) of this section that is readily accessible for inspection. Where units of measure are used, the metric unit indicated (e.g., 450 L) must also appear.

(1) For each rigid plastic and composite IBC, the following markings must be included:

(i) Rated capacity in L of water at 20 °C (68 °F);

(ii) Tare mass in kilograms;

(iii) Gauge test pressure in kPa;

(iv) Date of last leakproofness test, if applicable (month and year); and

(v) Date of last inspection (month and year).

(2) For each metal IBC, the following markings must be included on a metal corrosion-resistant plate:

(i) Rated capacity in L of water at 20 °C (68 °F);

(ii) Tare mass in kilograms;

(iii) Date of last leakproofness test, if applicable (month and year);

(iv) Date of last inspection (month and year);

(v) Maximum loading/discharge pressure, in kPa, if applicable;

(vi) Body material and its minimum thickness in mm; and

(vii) Serial number assigned by the manufacturer.

(3) Markings required by paragraph (b)(1) or (b)(2) of this section may be preceded by the narrative description of the marking, e.g. “Tare Mass: *  *  *” where the “*  *  *” are replaced with the tare mass in kilograms of the IBC.

(4) For each fiberboard and wooden IBC, the tare mass in kg must be shown.

(5) Each flexible IBC may be marked with a pictogram displaying recommended lifting methods.

(6) For each composite IBC, the inner receptacle must be marked with at least the following information:

(i) The code number designating the IBC design type, the name and address or symbol of the manufacturer, the date of manufacture and the country authorizing the allocation of the mark as specified in paragraph (a) of this section. The date of manufacture of the inner receptacle may be different from the marked date of manufacture required by §178.703(a)(1)(iv) or by §180.352(d)(1)(iv) of this subchapter; and

(ii) When a composite IBC is designed in such a manner that the outer casing is intended to be dismantled for transport when empty (such as, for the return of the IBC for reuse to the original consignor), each of the parts intended to be detached when so dismantled must be marked with the month and year of manufacture and the name or symbol of the manufacturer.

(7) The symbol applicable to an IBC designed for stacking or not designed for stacking, as appropriate, must be marked on all IBCs manufactured, repaired or remanufactured after January 1, 2011 as follows:

(i)

eCFR graphic er04ja10.097.gif

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(ii) Display the symbol in a durable and visible manner.

(iii) The symbol must be a square with each side being not less than 100 mm (3.9 inches) by 100 mm (3.9 inches) as measured from the corner printer marks shown on the figures in paragraph (b)(7)(i) of this section. Where dimensions are not specified, all features must be in approximate proportion to those shown.

(A) Transitional exception. A marking in conformance with the requirements of this paragraph in effect on December 31, 2014, may continue to be applied to all IBCs manufactured, repaired or remanufactured between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2016.

(B) For domestic transportation, an IBC marked prior to January 1, 2017 and in conformance with the requirements of this paragraph in effect on December 31, 2014, may continue in service until the end of its useful life.

(iv) For IBCs designed for stacking, the maximum permitted stacking load applicable when the IBC is in use must be displayed with the symbol. The mass in kilograms (kg) marked above the symbol must not exceed the load imposed during the design test, as indicated by the marking in paragraph (a)(1)(vii) of this section, divided by 1.8. The letters and numbers indicating the mass must be at least 12 mm (0.48 inches).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-119, 62 FR 24743, May 6, 1997; 64 FR 10782, Mar. 5, 1999; 65 FR 50462, Aug. 18, 2000; 65 FR 58632, Sept. 29, 2000; 66 FR 33451, June 21, 2001; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 74 FR 2269, Jan. 14, 2009; 75 FR 74, Jan. 4, 2010; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010; 76 FR 3389, Jan. 19, 2011; 80 FR 1168, Jan. 8, 2015; 83 FR 55810, Nov. 7, 2018]

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§178.704   General IBC standards.

(a) Each IBC must be resistant to, or protected from, deterioration due to exposure to the external environment. IBCs intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant.

(b) All service equipment must be so positioned or protected as to minimize potential loss of contents resulting from damage during IBC handling and transportation.

(c) Each IBC, including attachments, and service and structural equipment, must be designed to withstand, without loss of hazardous materials, the internal pressure of the contents and the stresses of normal handling and transport. An IBC intended for stacking must be designed for stacking. Any lifting or securing features of an IBC must be of sufficient strength to withstand the normal conditions of handling and transportation without gross distortion or failure and must be positioned so as to cause no undue stress in any part of the IBC.

(d) An IBC consisting of a packaging within a framework must be so constructed that:

(1) The body is not damaged by the framework;

(2) The body is retained within the framework at all times; and

(3) The service and structural equipment are fixed in such a way that they cannot be damaged if the connections between body and frame allow relative expansion or motion.

(e) Bottom discharge valves must be secured in the closed position and the discharge system suitably protected from damage. Valves having lever closures must be secured against accidental opening. The open or closed position of each valve must be readily apparent. For each IBC containing a liquid, a secondary means of sealing the discharge aperture must also be provided, e.g., by a blank flange or equivalent device.

(f) IBC design types must be constructed in such a way as to be bottom-lifted or top-lifted as specified in §§178.811 and 178.812.

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 61942, Oct. 30, 2003]

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§178.705   Standards for metal IBCs.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to metal IBCs intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal IBC types are designated:

(1) 11A, 11B, 11N for solids that are loaded or discharged by gravity.

(2) 21A, 21B, 21N for solids that are loaded or discharged at a gauge pressure greater than 10 kPa (1.45 psig).

(3) 31A, 31B, 31N for liquids.

(b) Definitions for metal IBCs:

(1) Metal IBC means an IBC with a metal body, together with appropriate service and structural equipment.

(2) Protected means providing the IBC body with additional external protection against impact and abrasion. For example, a multi-layer (sandwich) or double wall construction or a frame with a metal lattice-work casing.

(c) Construction requirements for metal IBCs are as follows:

(1) Body. The body must be made of ductile metal materials. Welds must be made so as to maintain design type integrity of the receptacle under conditions normally incident to transportation.

(i) The use of dissimilar metals must not result in deterioration that could affect the integrity of the body.

(ii) Aluminum IBCs intended to contain flammable liquids must have no movable parts, such as covers and closures, made of unprotected steel liable to rust, which might cause a dangerous reaction from friction or percussive contact with the aluminum.

(iii) Metals used in fabricating the body of a metal IBC must meet the following requirements:

(A) For steel, the percentage elongation at fracture must not be less than 10,000/Rm with a minimum of 20 percent; where Rm = minimum tensile strength of the steel to be used, in N/mm2; if U.S. Standard units of psi are used for tensile strength then the ratio becomes 10,000 × (145/Rm).

(B) For aluminum, the percentage elongation at fracture must not be less than 10,000/(6Rm) with an absolute minimum of eight percent; if U.S. Standard units of psi are used for tensile strength then the ratio becomes 10,000 × 145 / (6Rm).

(C) Specimens used to determine the elongation at fracture must be taken transversely to the direction of rolling and be so secured that:

Lo = 5d

or

Lo = 5.65 √A

where:

Lo = gauge length of the specimen before the test

d = diameter

A = cross-sectional area of test specimen.

(iv) Minimum wall thickness:

(A) For a reference steel having a product of Rm × Ao = 10,000, where Ao is the minimum elongation (as a percentage) of the reference steel to be used on fracture under tensile stress (Rm × Ao = 10,000 × 145; if tensile strength is in U.S. Standard units of pounds per square inch), the wall thickness must not be less than:

Capacity (C) in liters1Wall thickness (T) in mm
Types 11A, 11B, 11N Types 21A, 21B, 21N, 31A, 31B, 31N
Unprotected Protected Unprotected Protected
C≤10002.01.52.52.0
1000<C≤2000T = C/2000 + 1.5T = C/2000 + 1.0T = C/2000 + 2.0T = C/2000 + 1.5
2000<C≤3000T = C/2000 + 1.5T = C/2000 + 1.0T = C/1000 + 1.0T = C/2000 + 1.5

(B) For metals other than the reference steel described in paragraph (c)(1)(iii)(A) of this section, the minimum wall thickness is the greater of 1.5 mm (0.059 inches) or as determined by use of the following equivalence formula:

Formula for Metric Units

eCFR graphic ep26jn96.000.gif

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Formula for U.S. Standard Units

eCFR graphic ep26jn96.001.gif

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where:

e1 = required equivalent wall thickness of the metal to be used (in mm or if eo is in inches, use formula for U.S. Standard units).

eo = required minimum wall thickness for the reference steel (in mm or if eo is in inches, use formula for U.S. Standard units).

Rm1 = guaranteed minimum tensile strength of the metal to be used (in N/mm2 or for U.S. Standard units, use psi).

A1 = minimum elongation (as a percentage) of the metal to be used on fracture under tensile stress (see paragraph (c)(1) of this section).

(C) For purposes of the calculation described in paragraph (c)(1)(iv)(B) of this section, the guaranteed minimum tensile strength of the metal to be used (Rm1) must be the minimum value according to material standards. However, for austenitic (stainless) steels, the specified minimum value for Rm, according to the material standards, may be increased by up to 15% when a greater value is provided in the material inspection certificate. When no material standard exists for the material in question, the value of Rm must be the minimum value indicated in the material inspection certificate.

(2) Pressure relief. The following pressure relief requirements apply to IBCs intended for liquids:

(i) IBCs must be capable of releasing a sufficient amount of vapor in the event of fire engulfment to ensure that no rupture of the body will occur due to pressure build-up. This can be achieved by spring-loaded or non-reclosing pressure relief devices or by other means of construction.

(ii) The start-to-discharge pressure may not be higher than 65 kPa (9 psig) and no lower than the vapor pressure of the hazardous material plus the partial pressure of the air or other inert gases, measured in the IBC at 55 °C (131 °F), determined on the basis of a maximum degree of filling as specified in §173.35(d) of this subchapter. This does not apply to fusible devices unless such devices are the only source of pressure relief for the IBC. Pressure relief devices must be fitted in the vapor space.

(d) Metal IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40038, Aug. 4, 1995; Amdt. 178-117, 61 FR 50629, Sept. 26, 1996; 66 FR 33452, June 21, 2001; 66 FR 45386, 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010; 78 FR 1097, Jan. 7, 2013]

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§178.706   Standards for rigid plastic IBCs.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic IBCs intended to contain solids or liquids. Rigid plastic IBC types are designated:

(1) 11H1 fitted with structural equipment designed to withstand the whole load when IBCs are stacked, for solids which are loaded or discharged by gravity.

(2) 11H2 freestanding, for solids which are loaded or discharged by gravity.

(3) 21H1 fitted with structural equipment designed to withstand the whole load when IBCs are stacked, for solids which are loaded or discharged under pressure.

(4) 21H2 freestanding, for solids which are loaded or discharged under pressure.

(5) 31H1 fitted with structural equipment designed to withstand the whole load when IBCs are stacked, for liquids.

(6) 31H2 freestanding, for liquids.

(b) Rigid plastic IBCs consist of a rigid plastic body, which may have structural equipment, together with appropriate service equipment.

(c) Rigid plastic IBCs must be manufactured from plastic material of known specifications and be of a strength relative to its capacity and to the service it is required to perform. In addition to conformance to §173.24 of this subchapter, plastic materials must be resistant to aging and to degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation.

(1) If protection against ultraviolet radiation is necessary, it must be provided by the addition of a pigment or inhibiter such as carbon black. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the IBC body. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments or inhibitors, other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if changes in the carbon black content, the pigment content or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction.

(2) Additives may be included in the composition of the plastic material to improve the resistance to aging or to serve other purposes, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material of construction.

(3) No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used in the manufacture of rigid plastic IBCs.

(4) Rigid plastic IBCs intended for the transportation of liquids must be capable of releasing a sufficient amount of vapor to prevent the body of the IBC from rupturing if it is subjected to an internal pressure in excess of that for which it was hydraulically tested. This may be achieved by spring-loaded or non-reclosing pressure relief devices or by other means of construction.

(d) Rigid plastic IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.707   Standards for composite IBCs.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to composite IBCs intended to contain solids and liquids. To complete the marking codes listed below, the letter “Z” must be replaced by a capital letter in accordance with §178.702(a)(2) to indicate the material used for the outer packaging. Composite IBC types are designated:

(1) 11HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged by gravity.

(2) 11HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged by gravity.

(3) 21HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged under pressure.

(4) 21HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged under pressure.

(5) 31HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for liquids.

(6) 31HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for liquids.

(b) Definitions for composite IBC types:

(1) A composite IBC is an IBC which consists of a rigid outer packaging enclosing a plastic inner receptacle together with any service or other structural equipment. The outer packaging of a composite IBC is designed to bear the entire stacking load. The inner receptacle and outer packaging form an integral packaging and are filled, stored, transported, and emptied as a unit.

(2) The term plastic means polymeric materials (i.e., plastic or rubber).

(3) A “rigid” inner receptacle is an inner receptacle which retains its general shape when empty without closures in place and without benefit of the outer casing. Any inner receptacle that is not “rigid” is considered to be “flexible.”

(c) Construction requirements for composite IBCs with plastic inner receptacles are as follows:

(1) The outer packaging must consist of rigid material formed so as to protect the inner receptacle from physical damage during handling and transportation, but is not required to perform the secondary containment function. It includes the base pallet where appropriate. The inner receptacle is not intended to perform a containment function without the outer packaging.

(2) A composite IBC with a fully enclosing outer packaging must be designed to permit assessment of the integrity of the inner container following the leakproofness and hydraulic tests. The outer packaging of 31HZ2 composite IBCs must enclose the inner receptacles on all sides.

(3) The inner receptacle must be manufactured from plastic material of known specifications and be of a strength relative to its capacity and to the service it is required to perform. In addition to conformance with the requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter, the material must be resistant to aging and to degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation. The inner receptacle of 31HZ2 composite IBCs must consist of at least three plies of film.

(i) If necessary, protection against ultraviolet radiation must be provided by the addition of pigments or inhibitors such as carbon black. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the inner receptacle. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments, or inhibitors, other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content, the pigment content, or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction.

(ii) Additives may be included in the composition of the plastic material of the inner receptacle to improve resistance to aging, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material.

(iii) No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used in the manufacture of inner receptacles.

(iv) Composite IBCs intended for the transportation of liquids must be capable of releasing a sufficient amount of vapor to prevent the body of the IBC from rupturing if it is subjected to an internal pressure in excess of that for which it was hydraulically tested. This may be achieved by spring-loaded or non-reclosing pressure relief devices or by other means of construction.

(4) The strength of the construction material comprising the outer packaging and the manner of construction must be appropriate to the capacity of the composite IBC and its intended use. The outer packaging must be free of any projection that might damage the inner receptacle.

(i) Outer packagings of natural wood must be constructed of well seasoned wood that is commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the outer packaging. The tops and bottoms may be made of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard or particle board. Materials other than natural wood may be used for construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging.

(ii) Outer packagings of plywood must be made of well-seasoned, rotary cut, sliced, or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the casing. All adjacent plies must be glued with water-resistant adhesive. Materials other than plywood may be used for construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging. Outer packagings must be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or be assembled by equally suitable devices.

(iii) Outer packagings of reconstituted wood must be constructed of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard or particle board. Materials other than reconstituted wood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of reconstituted wood outer packaging.

(iv) Fiberboard outer packagings must be constructed of strong, solid, or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall).

(A) Water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 grams per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot)—see ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.

(B) The ends of fiberboard outer packagings may have a wooden frame or be constructed entirely of wood. Wooden battens may be used for reinforcements.

(C) Manufacturers' joints in the bodies of outer packagings must be taped, lapped and glued, or lapped and stitched with metal staples.

(D) Lapped joints must have an appropriate overlap.

(E) Where closing is effected by gluing or taping, a water-resistant adhesive must be used.

(F) All closures must be sift-proof.

(v) Outer packagings of plastic materials must be constructed in accordance with the relevant provisions of paragraph (c)(3) of this section.

(5) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable pallet, must be suitable for the mechanical handling of an IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

(i) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions that may cause damage to the IBC in handling.

(ii) The outer packaging must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transportation. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the IBC.

(iii) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the inner receptacle.

(iv) The load-bearing surfaces of IBCs intended for stacking must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner. An IBC intended for stacking must be designed so that loads are not supported by the inner receptacle.

(6) Intermediate IBCs of type 31HZ2 must be limited to a capacity of not more than 1,250 L.

(d) Composite IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-119, 62 FR 24743, May 6, 1997; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.708   Standards for fiberboard IBCs.

(a) The provisions of this section apply to fiberboard IBCs intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged by gravity. Fiberboard IBCs are designated: 11G.

(b) Definitions for fiberboard IBC types:

(1) Fiberboard IBCs consist of a fiberboard body with or without separate top and bottom caps, appropriate service and structural equipment, and if necessary an inner liner (but no inner packaging).

(2) Liner means a separate tube or bag, including the closures of its openings, inserted in the body but not forming an integral part of it.

(c) Construction requirements for fiberboard IBCs are as follows:

(1) Top lifting devices are prohibited in fiberboard IBCs.

(2) Fiberboard IBCs must be constructed of strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall) that is appropriate to the capacity of the outer packaging and its intended use. Water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 grams per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot)—see ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.

(i) The walls, including top and bottom, must have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 Joules (11 foot-pounds of energy) measured according to ISO 3036 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Manufacturers' joints in the bodies of IBCs must be made with an appropriate overlap and be taped, glued, stitched with metal staples or fastened by other means at least equally effective. Where joints are made by gluing or taping, a water-resistant adhesive must be used. Metal staples must pass completely through all pieces to be fastened and be formed or protected so that any inner liner cannot be abraded or punctured by them.

(3) The strength of the material used and the construction of the liner must be appropriate to the capacity of the IBC and the intended use. Joints and closures must be sift-proof and capable of withstanding pressures and impacts liable to occur under normal conditions of handling and transport.

(4) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable pallet, must be suitable for the mechanical handling of an IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

(i) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions that may cause damage to the IBC in handling.

(ii) The outer packaging must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transport. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the IBC.

(iii) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the inner liner.

(iv) The load-bearing surfaces of IBCs intended for stacking must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner.

(d) Fiberboard IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.709   Standards for wooden IBCs.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to wooden IBCs intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged by gravity. Wooden IBC types are designated:

(1) 11C Natural wood with inner liner.

(2) 11D Plywood with inner liner.

(3) 11F Reconstituted wood with inner liner.

(b) Definitions for wooden IBCs:

(1) Wooden IBCs consist of a rigid or collapsible wooden body together with an inner liner (but no inner packaging) and appropriate service and structural equipment.

(2) Liner means a separate tube or bag, including the closures of its openings, inserted in the body but not forming an integral part of it.

(c) Construction requirements for wooden IBCs are as follows:

(1) Top lifting devices are prohibited in wooden IBCs.

(2) The strength of the materials used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the IBC.

(i) Natural wood used in the construction of an IBC must be well-seasoned, commercially dry, and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the IBC. Each IBC part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and integrity. IBC parts are equivalent to one piece when a suitable method of glued assembly is used (i.e., a Lindermann joint, tongue and groove joint, ship lap or rabbet joint, or butt joint with at least two corrugated metal fasteners at each joint, or when other methods at least equally effective are used). Materials other than natural wood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging.

(ii) Plywood used in construction of bodies must be at least 3-ply. Plywood must be made of well-seasoned, rotary-cut, sliced or sawn veneer, commercially dry, and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the body. All adjacent plies must be glued with water-resistant adhesive. Materials other than plywood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging.

(iii) Reconstituted wood used in construction of bodies must be water resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard or particle board. Materials other than reconstituted wood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging.

(iv) Wooden IBCs must be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or be assembled by similar devices.

(3) The strength of the material used and the construction of the liner must be appropriate to the capacity of the IBC and its intended use. Joints and closures must be sift-proof and capable of withstanding pressures and impacts liable to occur under normal conditions of handling and transportation.

(4) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable pallet, must be suitable for the mechanical handling of an IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

(i) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions that may cause damage to the IBC in handling.

(ii) The outer packaging must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transportation. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the IBC.

(iii) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the inner liner.

(iv) The load-bearing surfaces of IBCs intended for stacking must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner.

(d) Wooden IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010]

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§178.710   Standards for flexible IBCs.

(a) The provisions of this section apply to flexible IBCs intended to contain solid hazardous materials. Flexible IBC types are designated:

(1) 13H1 woven plastic without coating or liner.

(2) 13H2 woven plastic, coated.

(3) 13H3 woven plastic with liner.

(4) 13H4 woven plastic, coated and with liner.

(5) 13H5 plastic film.

(6) 13L1 textile without coating or liner.

(7) 13L2 textile, coated.

(8) 13L3 textile with liner.

(9) 13L4 textile, coated and with liner.

(10) 13M1 paper, multiwall.

(11) 13M2 paper, multiwall, water resistant.

(b) Definitions for flexible IBCs:

(1) Flexible IBCs consist of a body constructed of film, woven plastic, woven fabric, paper, or combination thereof, together with any appropriate service equipment and handling devices, and if necessary, an inner coating or liner.

(2) Woven plastic means a material made from stretched tapes or monofilaments.

(3) Handling device means any sling, loop, eye, or frame attached to the body of the IBC or formed from a continuation of the IBC body material.

(c) Construction requirements for flexible IBCs are as follows:

(1) The strength of the material and the construction of the flexible IBC must be appropriate to its capacity and its intended use.

(2) All materials used in the construction of flexible IBCs of types 13M1 and 13M2 must, after complete immersion in water for not less than 24 hours, retain at least 85 percent of the tensile strength as measured originally on the material conditioned to equilibrium at 67 percent relative humidity or less.

(3) Seams must be stitched or formed by heat sealing, gluing or any equivalent method. All stitched seam-ends must be secured.

(4) In addition to conformance with the requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter, flexible IBCs must be resistant to aging and degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation.

(5) For plastic flexible IBCs, if necessary, protection against ultraviolet radiation must be provided by the addition of pigments or inhibitors such as carbon black. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the container. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments, or inhibitors, other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content, the pigment content or the inhibitor content does not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction. Additives may be included in the composition of the plastic material to improve resistance to aging, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material.

(6) No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used in the manufacture of plastic flexible IBCs. This does not preclude the re-use of component parts such as fittings and pallet bases, provided such components have not in any way been damaged in previous use.

(7) When flexible IBCs are filled, the ratio of height to width may not be more than 2:1.

(d) Flexible IBCs: (1) May not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 56 L (15 gallons); and

(2) Must be designed and tested to a capacity of no less than 50 kg (110 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-108, 60 FR 40038, Aug. 4, 1995; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010]

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