178.708 Standards for fiberboard IBCs.§ 178.708 Standards for fiberboard IBCs.
(a) The provisions of this section apply to fiberboard IBCs intended to contain solids that are loaded or discharged by gravity. Fiberboard IBCs are designated: 11G.
(b) Definitions for fiberboard IBC types:
(1) Fiberboard IBCs consist of a fiberboard body with or without separate top and bottom caps, appropriate service and structural equipment, and if necessary an inner liner (but no inner packaging).
(2) Liner means a separate tube or bag, including the closures of its openings, inserted in the body but not forming an integral part of it.
(c) Construction requirements for fiberboard IBCs are as follows:
(1) Top lifting devices are prohibited in fiberboard IBCs.
(2) Fiberboard IBCs must be constructed of strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall) that is appropriate to the capacity of the outer packaging and its intended use. Water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 grams per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot) - see ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.
(i) The walls, including top and bottom, must have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 Joules (11 foot-pounds of energy) measured according to ISO 3036 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) Manufacturers' joints in the bodies of IBCs must be made with an appropriate overlap and be taped, glued, stitched with metal staples or fastened by other means at least equally effective. Where joints are made by gluing or taping, a water-resistant adhesive must be used. Metal staples must pass completely through all pieces to be fastened and be formed or protected so that any inner liner cannot be abraded or punctured by them.
(3) The strength of the material used and the construction of the liner must be appropriate to the capacity of the IBC and the intended use. Joints and closures must be sift-proof and capable of withstanding pressures and impacts liable to occur under normal conditions of handling and transport.
(4) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable pallet, must be suitable for the mechanical handling of an IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.
(i) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions that may cause damage to the IBC in handling.
(ii) The outer packaging must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transport. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the IBC.
(iii) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the inner liner.
(iv) The load-bearing surfaces of IBCs intended for stacking must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner.
(d) Fiberboard IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]