178.61 Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded seam.§ 178.61 Specification 4BW welded steel cylinders with electric-arc welded seam.
(a) Type, size, pressure, and application. A DOT 4BW cylinder has a spherical or cylindrical design, a water capacity of 1,000 pounds or less, and a service pressure range of 225 to 500 psig. Closures made by the spinning process are not authorized.
(1) Spherical designs are permitted to have only one circumferentially electric-arc welded seam.
(2) Cylindrical designs must be of circumferentially welded electric-arc construction; longitudinally electric-arc welded seams are permitted.
(b) Steel. (1) The steel used in the construction of the cylinder must be as specified in table 1 of appendix A to this part. The cylinder manufacturer must maintain a record of intentionally added alloying elements.
(2) Material for heads must meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(1) of this section or be open hearth, electric or basic oxygen carbon steel of uniform quality. Content percent may not exceed the following: Carbon 0.25, Manganese 0.60, Phosphorus 0.045, Sulfur 0.050. Heads must be hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with a maximum ratio of 2:1. If low carbon steel is used, the thickness of such heads must be determined by using a maximum wall stress of 24,000 psi in the formula described in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.
(c) Identification of material. Pressure-retaining materials must be identified by any suitable method that does not compromise the integrity of the cylinder. Plates and billets for hotdrawn cylinders must be marked with the heat number.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and the following:
(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface is required. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. Heads must be concave to pressure.
(2) Circumferential seams must be by electric-arc welding. Joints must be butt with one member offset (joggle butt) or with a lap joint. Joints must have a minimum overlap of at least four (4) times nominal sheet thickness.
(3) Longitudinal electric-arc welded seams (in shells) must be of the butt welded type. Welds must be made by a machine process including automatic feed and welding guidance mechanisms. Longitudinal seams must have complete joint penetration, and must be free from undercuts, overlaps or abrupt ridges or valleys. Misalignment of mating butt edges may not exceed 1/6 inch of nominal sheet thickness or 1/32 inch whichever is less. All joints with nominal sheet thickness up to and including 1/8 inch must be tightly butted. When nominal sheet thickness is greater than 1/8 inch, the joint must be gapped with maximum distance equal to one-half the nominal sheet thickness or 1/32 inch whichever is less. Joint design, preparation, and fit-up must be such that requirements of this paragraph (d) are satisfied.
(4) Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(5)(i) Welds of the cylinders must be subjected to radioscopic or radiographic examination as follows:
(ii) Radioscopy or radiography must be in conformance with CGA C-3 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Maximum joint efficiency will be 1.0 when each longitudinal seam is examined completely. Maximum joint efficiency will be 0.90 when one cylinder from each lot of 50 consecutively welded cylinders is spot examined. In addition, one out of the first five cylinders welded following a shutdown of welding operations exceeding four hours must be spot examined. Spot radiographs, when required, must be made of a finished welded cylinder and must include the circumferential weld for 2 inches in both directions from the intersection of the longitudinal and circumferential welds and include at least 6 inches of the longitudinal weld. Maximum joint efficiency of 0.75 will be permissible without radiography or radioscopy. When fluoroscopic examination is used, permanent film records need not be retained. Circumferential welds need not be examined, except as part of spot examination.
(e) Welding of attachments. The attachment to the tops and bottoms only of cylinders by welding of neckrings, footrings, handles, bosses, pads and valve protection rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.
(f) Wall thickness. (1) For outside diameters over 6 inches the minimum wall thickness must be 0.078 inch. In any case, the minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress calculated by the formula listed in paragraph (f)(2) of this section may not exceed the lesser value of any of the following:
(i) The value referenced in paragraph (b) of this section for the particular material under consideration.
(ii) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the material determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.
(iii) 35,000 psig.
(2) Stress must be calculated by the following formula:S = [2P(1.3D 2 + 0.4d 2)]/[E(D 2 − d 2)] Where: S = wall stress, psig; P = service pressure, psig; D = outside diameter, inches; d = inside diameter, inches; and E = joint efficiency of the longitudinal seam (from paragraph (d) of this section).
(3) For a cylinder with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of tangential length to outside diameter may not exceed 4 to 1 (4:1).
(g) Heat treatment. Cylinders must be heat treated in accordance with the following requirements:
(1) Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated prior to test by the applicable method referenced in table 1 of appendix A to this part. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations, but may be done before, during or after the brazing operations (see paragraph (n) of this section for weld repairs).
(2) Heat treatment is not required after welding of weldable low-carbon parts to attachments of similar material which have been previously welded to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.
(h) Openings in cylinders. Openings in cylinders must comply with the following requirements:
(1) All openings must be in heads or bases.
(2) Each opening in a spherical-type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad of weldable steel securely attached to the cylinder by fusion welding.
(3) Each opening in a cylindrical-type cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss, or pad securely attached to the cylinder by welding.
(4) If threads are used, they must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads must be of length not less than as specified for American Standard Taper Pipe Threads.
(iii) Straight threads, having at least four (4) engaged threads, must have a tight fit and calculated shear strength at least ten (10) times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, adequate to prevent leakage, are required.
(iv) A brass fitting may be brazed to the steel boss or flange on cylinders used as component parts of handheld fire extinguishers.
(i) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:
(1) Lot testing. (i) At least one (1) cylinder randomly selected out of each lot of 200 or fewer must be tested by the water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) Each selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure.
(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.
(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(2) Pressure testing. (i) The remaining cylinders in each lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure, water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of two (2) times service pressure and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.
(3) Burst testing. One finished cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 500 or less successively produced must be hydrostatically tested to four (4) times service pressure without bursting. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(j) Mechanical tests. Mechanical tests must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, elongation as a percentage, and reduction of area of material as a percentage, as follows:
(1) Specimens must be taken from one cylinder after heat treatment as illustrated in appendix A to this subpart, chosen at random from each lot of 200 or fewer, as follows:
(i) One specimen must be taken longitudinally from the body section at least 90 degrees away from the weld.
(ii) One specimen must be taken from either head on a cylinder when both heads are made of the same material. However, if the two heads are made of differing materials, a specimen must be taken from each head.
(iii) If due to welded attachments on the top head there is insufficient surface from which to take a specimen, it may be taken from a representative head of the same heat treatment as the test cylinder.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) When a cylinder wall is 3/16 inch thick or less, one the following gauge lengths is authorized: A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, or a gauge length at least twenty-four (24) times the thickness with a width not over six (6) times the thickness.
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within 1 inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold, by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are taken, and prepared in this manner, the inspector's report must show, in connection with the record of physical tests, detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “off-set” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2-percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2-percent offset.
(iii) For strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psig, and the strain indicator reading must be set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(k) Elongation. Mechanical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2-inch gauge length or at least 20 percent in other cases. However, elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 percent for 2-inch specimens, and by 1 percent in other cases, for each 7,500 psi increase of tensile strength above 50,000 psig. The tensile strength may be incrementally increased by four increments of 7,500 psig for a maximum total of 30,000 psig.
(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be subjected to the following tests:
(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be removed from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or fewer. The specimen must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with the requirements of CGA C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be removed from the cylinder or welded test plate used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (m)(1) of this section. Specimens must be taken from across the longitudinal seam and must be prepared and tested in conformance with the requirements of CGA C-3. If the specimen fails to meet the requirements, one specimen each must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot as the previously tested cylinder or added test plate and tested. If either of these latter two specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(3) Alternate guided bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gauge lines a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (k) of this section. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, one additional specimen must be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested as the previously tested cylinder or added test plate. If either of these latter two specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(m) Rejected cylinders. (1) Unless otherwise stated, if a sample cylinder or specimen taken from a lot of cylinders fails the prescribed test, then two additional specimens must be selected from the same lot and subjected to the prescribed test. If either of these fails the test, then the entire lot must be rejected.
(2) Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment is authorized for a rejected cylinder in accordance with this paragraph (m)(2). After reheat treatment, a cylinder must pass all prescribed tests in this section to be considered acceptable. Repair of welded seams by welding is authorized. For cylinders less than or equal to an outside diameter of 6 inches, welded seam repairs greater than 1 inch in length shall require reheat treatment of the cylinder. For cylinders greater than an outside diameter of 6 inches, welded seam repairs greater than 3 inches in length shall require reheat treatment.
(n) Markings. (1) Markings must be as required in § 178.35 and in addition must be stamped plainly and permanently in one of the following locations on the cylinder:
(i) On shoulders and top heads whose wall thickness is not less than 0.087 inch thick.
(ii) On side wall adjacent to top head for side walls not less than 0.090 inch thick.
(iii) On a cylindrical portion of the shell that extends beyond the recessed bottom of the cylinder constituting an integral and non-pressure part of the cylinder.
(iv) On a plate attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least six retest dates; the plate must be at least 1/16-inch thick and must be attached by welding at a temperature of 1,100 °F, throughout all edges of the plate.
(v) On the neck, neckring, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top of the cylinder.
(vi) On the footring permanently attached to the cylinder, provided the water capacity of the cylinder does not exceed 30 pounds.
(2) Embossing the cylinder head or side wall is not permitted.
(o) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the inspector's report must indicate the type and amount of radiography.[85 FR 85428, Dec. 28, 2020]