178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.§ 178.60 Specification 8AL steel cylinders with porous fillings for acetylene.
(a) Type and service pressure. A DOT 8AL cylinder is a seamless steel cylinder with a service pressure of 250 psig. However, the attachment of heads by welding or by brazing by dipping process and a welded circumferential body seam is authorized. Longitudinal seams are not authorized.
(b) Authorized steel. The authorized steel is as specified in table I of appendix A to this part.
(c) Identification of steel. Material must be identified by any suitable method except that plates and billets for hot-drawn cylinders must be marked with heat number.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(e) Footrings. Exposed bottom welds on cylinders over 18 inches long must be protected by footrings.
(f) Welding or brazing. Welding or brazing for any purpose whatsoever is prohibited except as follows:
(1) The attachment to the tops or bottoms of cylinders of neckrings, footrings, handlers, bosses, pads, and valve protecting rings is authorized provided that such attachments and the portion of the container to which they are attached are made of weldable steel, the carbon content of which may not exceed 0.25 percent.
(2) Heat treatment is not required after welding or brazing weldable low carbon parts to attachments, specified in paragraph (f)(1) of this section, of similar material which have been previously welded or brazed to the top or bottom of cylinders and properly heat treated, provided such subsequent welding or brazing does not produce a temperature in excess of 400 °F in any part of the top or bottom material.
(g) Wall thickness; wall stress. The wall thickness/wall stress of the cylinder must conform to the following:
(1) The calculated wall stress at 750 psi may not exceed 35,000 psi, or one-half of the minimum ultimate strength of the steel as determined in paragraph (l) of this section, whichever value is the smaller. The measured wall thickness may not include galvanizing or other protective coating.
(i) Calculation of wall stress must be made by the formula:S = [P(1.3D 2 + 0.4d 2)] / (D 2 − d 2) Where: S = wall stress in pounds psi; P = 750 psig (minimum test pressure); D = outside diameter in inches; d = inside diameter in inches.
(ii) Either D or d must be calculated from the relation D = d + 2t, where t = minimum wall thickness.
(2) Cylinders with a wall thickness less than 0.100 inch, the ratio of straight side wall length to outside diameter may not exceed 3.5.
(3) For cylinders having outside diameter over 5 inches, the minimum wall thickness must be 0.087 inch.
(h) Heat treatment. Each cylinder must be uniformly and properly heat treated, prior to tests, by any suitable method in excess of 1100 °F. Heat treatment must be accomplished after all forming and welding operations, except that when brazed joints are used, heat treatment must follow any forming and welding operations but may be done before, during, or after the brazing operations. Liquid quenching is not authorized.
(i) Openings. Standard taper pipe threads required in all openings. The length of the opening may not be less than as specified for American Standard pipe threads; tapped to gauge; clean cut, even, and without checks.
(j) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:
(1) Lot testing. (i) At least one (1) cylinder selected at random out of each lot of 200 or less must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) The selected cylinder must be tested to a minimum of 750 psig.
(iii) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.
(iv) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(v) If the selected cylinder passes the volumetric expansion test, each remaining cylinder in the lot must be pressure tested in accordance with paragraph (h)(2) of this section. If the selected cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot must be tested by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 at 750 psig. Each cylinder with a permanent expansion that does not exceed 10% is acceptable.
(2) Pressure testing. (i) If the selected cylinder passes the water-jacket or direct expansion test, the remaining cylinders in each lot must be pressure tested by the proof pressure water-jacket or direct expansion test method as prescribed in CGA C-1. The minimum test pressure must be maintained for the specific timeframe and the testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. Further, all testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(ii) Each cylinder must be tested between 500 and 600 psig and show no defect. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1 section 5.7.2 or 7.1.2, as appropriate. Determination of expansion properties is not required.
(k) Leakage test. Cylinders with bottoms closed in by spinning must be leakage tested by setting the interior air or gas pressure at not less than the service pressure. Any cylinder that leaks must be rejected.
(l) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted as follows;
(1) The test is required on 2 specimens cut longitudinally from 1 cylinder or part thereof taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after heat treatment.
(2) Specimens must conform to a gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, a gauge length 2 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness is authorized when a cylinder wall is not over 3/16 inch thick.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”) corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic extension of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on an elastic modulus of 30,000,000. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 offset.
(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi, the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(m) Elongation. Physical test specimens must show at least a 40 percent elongation for a 2 inch gauge length or at least a 20 percent elongation in other cases. Except that these elongation percentages may be reduced numerically by 2 for 2 inch specimens and 1 in other cases for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 50,000 psi to a maximum of four such increments.
(n) Weld tests. Specimens taken across the circumferentially welded seam must be cut from one cylinder taken at random from each lot of 200 or less cylinders after heat treatment and must pass satisfactorily the following tests:
(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The specimen must be taken from across the major seam and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fail to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(2) Guided bend test. A root bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (n)(1) of this section. Specimens must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as required by CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines-a to b, must be at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 50,000 psi, as provided in paragraph (m) of this section.
(o) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Repair by welding is authorized.
(p) Porous filling. (1) Cylinders must be filled with a porous material in accordance with the following:
(i) The porous material may not disintegrate or sag when wet with solvent or when subjected to normal service;
(ii) The filling material must be uniform in quality and free of voids, except that a well drilled into the filling material beneath the valve is authorized if the well is filled with a material of such type that the functions of the filling material are not impaired;
(iii) Overall shrinkage of the filling material is authorized if the total clearance between the cylinder shell and filling material, after solvent has been added, does not exceed 1/2 of 1 percent of the respective diameter or length but not to exceed 1/8 inch, measured diametrically and longitudinally;
(iv) The clearance may not impair the functions of the filling material;
(v) The installed filling material must meet the requirements of CGA C-12 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter); and
(vi) Porosity of filling material may not exceed 80 percent except that filling material with a porosity of up to 92 percent may be used when tested with satisfactory results in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-12.
(2) When the porosity of each cylinder is not known, a cylinder taken at random from a lot of 200 or less must be tested for porosity. If the test cylinder fails, each cylinder in the lot may be tested individually and those cylinders that pass the test are acceptable.
(3) For filling that is molded and dried before insertion in cylinders, porosity test may be made on sample block taken at random from material to be used.
(4) The porosity of the filling material must be determined; the amount of solvent at 70 °F for a cylinder:
(i) Having shell volumetric capacity above 20 pounds water capacity (nominal) may not exceed the following:
|Percent porosity of filler||Maximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
|90 to 92||43.4|
|87 to 90||42.0|
|83 to 87||40.0|
|80 to 83||38.6|
|75 to 80||36.2|
|70 to 75||33.8|
|65 to 70||31.4|
(ii) Having volumetric capacity of 20 pounds or less water capacity (nominal), may not exceed the following:
|Percent porosity of filler||Maximum acetone
solvent percent shell
capacity by volume
|90 to 92||41.8|
|83 to 90||38.5|
|80 to 83||37.1|
|75 to 80||34.8|
|70 to 75||32.5|
|65 to 70||30.2|
(q) Tare weight. The tare weight is the combined weight of the cylinder proper, porous filling, valve, and solvent, but without removable cap.
(r) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector shall -
(1) Certify chemical analyses of steel used, signed by manufacturer thereof; also verify by check analyses, of samples taken from each heat or from 1 out of each lot of 200 or less plates, shells, or tubes used.
(2) Verify compliance of cylinder shells with all shell requirements, inspect inside before closing in both ends, verify heat treatment as proper; obtain all samples for all tests and for check analyses, witness all tests; verify threads by gauge, report volumetric capacity and minimum thickness of wall noted.
(3) Report percentage of each specified alloying element in the steel. Prepare report on manufacture of steel shells in form prescribed in § 178.35. Furnish one copy to manufacturer and three copies to the company that is to complete the cylinders.
(4) Determine porosity of filling and tare weights; verify compliance of marking with prescribed requirements; obtain necessary copies of steel shell reports prescribed in paragraph (b) of this section; and furnish complete test reports required by this specification to the person who has completed the manufacturer of the cylinders and, upon request, to the purchaser. The test reports must be retained by the inspector for fifteen years from the original test date of the cylinder.
(s) Marking. (1) Tare weight of cylinder, in pounds and ounces, must be marked on the cylinder.
(2) Cylinders, not completed, when delivered must each be marked for identification of each lot of 200 or less.
(3) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently in locations in accordance with the following:
(i) On shoulders and top heads not less than 0.087 inch thick; or
(ii) On neck, valve boss, valve protection sleeve, or similar part permanently attached to the top end of cylinder; or
(iii) On a plate of ferrous material attached to the top of the cylinder or permanent part thereof; the plate must be at least 1/16 inch thick, and must be attached by welding, or by brazing at a temperature of at least 1,100 °F throughout all edges of the plate. Sufficient space must be left on the plate to provide for stamping at least four (4) retest dates.[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51654, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75749, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85428, Dec. 28, 2020]