178.345-1 General requirements.§ 178.345-1 General requirements.
(a) Specification DOT 406, DOT 407 and DOT 412 cargo tank motor vehicles must conform to the requirements of this section in addition to the requirements of the applicable specification contained in §§ 178.346, 178.347 or 178.348.
(b) All specification requirements are minimum requirements.
(c) Definitions. See § 178.320(a) for the definition of certain terms used in §§ 178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348. In addition, the following definitions apply to §§ 178.345, 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348:
Appurtenance means any cargo tank accessory attachment that has no lading retention or containment function and provides no structural support to the cargo tank.
Baffle means a non-liquid-tight transverse partition device that deflects, checks or regulates fluid motion in a tank.
Bulkhead means a liquid-tight transverse closure at the ends of or between cargo tanks.
Charging line means a hose, tube, pipe, or similar device used to pressurize a tank with material other than the lading.
Companion flange means one of two mating flanges where the flange faces are in contact or separated only by a thin leak sealing gasket and are secured to one another by bolts or clamps.
Connecting structure means the structure joining two cargo tanks.
Constructed and certified in conformance with the ASME Code means the cargo tank is constructed and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, and is inspected and certified by an Authorized Inspector.
Constructed in accordance with the ASME Code means the cargo tank is constructed in accordance with the ASME Code with the authorized exceptions (see §§ 178.346, 178.347, and 178.348) and is inspected and certified by a Registered Inspector.
External self-closing stop-valve means a self-closing stop-valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located outside the cargo tank and the welded flange.
Extreme dynamic loading means the maximum single-acting loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may experience during its expected life, excluding accident loadings.
Flange means the structural ring for guiding or attachment of a pipe or fitting with another flange (companion flange), pipe, fitting or other attachment.
Inspection pressure means the pressure used to determine leak tightness of the cargo tank when testing with pneumatic pressure.
Internal self-closing stop-valve means a self-closing stop-valve designed so that the self-stored energy source is located inside the cargo tank or cargo tank sump, or within the welded flange, and the valve seat is located within the cargo tank or within one inch of the external face of the welded flange or sump of the cargo tank.
Lading means the hazardous material contained in a cargo tank.
Loading/unloading connection means the fitting in the loading/unloading line farthest from the loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading hose or device is attached.
Loading/unloading outlet means the cargo tank outlet used for normal loading/unloading operations.
Loading/unloading stop-valve means the stop valve farthest from the cargo tank loading/unloading outlet to which the loading/unloading connection is attached.
MAWP. See § 178.320(a).
Multi-specification cargo tank motor vehicle means a cargo tank motor vehicle equipped with two or more cargo tanks fabricated to more than one cargo tank specification.
Normal operating loading means the loading a cargo tank motor vehicle may be expected to experience routinely in operation.
Nozzle means the subassembly consisting of a pipe or tubular section with or without a welded or forged flange on one end.
Outlet means any opening in the shell or head of a cargo tank, (including the means for attaching a closure), except that the following are not outlets: A threaded opening securely closed during transportation with a threaded plug or a threaded cap, a flanged opening securely closed during transportation with a bolted or welded blank flange, a manhole, or gauging devices, thermometer wells, and safety relief devices.
Outlet stop-valve means the stop-valve at the cargo tank loading/unloading outlet.
Pipe coupling means a fitting with internal threads on both ends.
Rear bumper means the structure designed to prevent a vehicle or object from under-riding the rear of a motor vehicle. See § 393.86 of this title.
Rear-end tank protection device means the structure designed to protect a cargo tank and any lading retention piping or devices in case of a rear end collision.
Sacrificial device means an element, such as a shear section, designed to fail under a load in order to prevent damage to any lading retention part or device. The device must break under strain at no more than 70 percent of the strength of the weakest piping element between the cargo tank and the sacrificial device. Operation of the sacrificial device must leave the remaining piping and its attachment to the cargo tank intact and capable of retaining lading.
Self-closing stop-valve means a stop-valve held in the closed position by means of self-stored energy, which opens only by application of an external force and which closes when the external force is removed.
Shear section means a sacrificial device fabricated in such a manner as to abruptly reduce the wall thickness of the adjacent piping or valve material by at least 30 percent.
Shell means the circumferential portion of a cargo tank defined by the basic design radius or radii excluding the closing heads.
Stop-valve means a valve that stops the flow of lading.
Sump means a protrusion from the bottom of a cargo tank shell designed to facilitate complete loading and unloading of lading.
Tank means a container, consisting of a shell and heads, that forms a pressure tight vessel having openings designed to accept pressure tight fittings or closures, but excludes any appurtenances, reinforcements, fittings, or closures.
Test pressure means the pressure to which a tank is subjected to determine pressure integrity.
Toughness of material means the capability of a material to absorb the energy represented by the area under the stress strain curve (indicating the energy absorbed per unit volume of the material) up to the point of rupture.
Vacuum cargo tank means a cargo tank that is loaded by reducing the pressure in the cargo tank to below atmospheric pressure.
Variable specification cargo tank means a cargo tank that is constructed in accordance with one specification, but which may be altered to meet another specification by changing relief device, closures, lading discharge devices, and other lading retention devices.
Void means the space between tank heads or bulkheads and a connecting structure.
Welded flange means a flange attached to the tank by a weld joining the tank shell to the cylindrical outer surface of the flange, or by a fillet weld joining the tank shell to a flange shaped to fit the shell contour.
(d) A manufacturer of a cargo tank must hold a current ASME certificate of authorization and must be registered with the Department in accordance with part 107, subpart F of this chapter.
(e) All construction must be certified by an Authorized Inspector or by a Registered Inspector as applicable to the cargo tank.
(f) Each cargo tank must be designed and constructed in conformance with the requirements of the applicable cargo tank specification. Each DOT 412 cargo tank with a “MAWP” greater than 15 psig, and each DOT 407 cargo tank with a maximum allowable working pressure greater than 35 psig must be “constructed and certified in conformance with Section VIII of the ASME Code” (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter) except as limited or modified by the applicable cargo tank specification. Other cargo tanks must be “constructed in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code,” except as limited or modified by the applicable cargo tank specification.
(g) Requirements relating to parts and accessories on motor vehicles, which are contained in part 393 of the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Regulations of this title, are incorporated into these specifications.
(h) Any additional requirements prescribed in part 173 of this subchapter that pertain to the transportation of a specific lading are incorporated into these specifications.
(i) Cargo tank motor vehicle composed of multiple cargo tanks. (1) A cargo tank motor vehicle composed of more than one cargo tank may be constructed with the cargo tanks made to the same specification or to different specifications. Each cargo tank must conform in all respects with the specification for which it is certified.
(2) The strength of the connecting structure joining multiple cargo tanks in a cargo tank motor vehicle must meet the structural design requirements in § 178.345-3. Any void within the connecting structure must be equipped with a drain located on the bottom centerline that is accessible and kept open at all times. For carbon steel, self-supporting cargo tanks, the drain configuration may consist of a single drain of at least 1.0 inch diameter, or two or more drains of at least 0.5 inch diameter, 6.0 inches apart, one of which is located as close to the bottom centerline as practicable. Vapors trapped in a void within the connecting structure must be allowed to escape to the atmosphere either through the drain or a separate vent.
(j) Variable specification cargo tank. A cargo tank that may be physically altered to conform to another cargo tank specification must have the required physical alterations to convert from one specification to another clearly indicated on the variable specification plate.[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25020, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37058, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55173, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51340, Oct. 1, 1996; 66 FR 45387, 45389, Aug. 28, 2001; 68 FR 19283, Apr. 18, 2003; 68 FR 52371, Sept. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75755, Dec. 31, 2003; 70 FR 56099, Sept. 23, 2005; 76 FR 43532, July 20, 2011]