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Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart L

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 178 → Subpart L

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart L

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 178 → Subpart L


Title 49: Transportation
PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


§178.500   Purpose, scope and definitions.

(a) This subpart prescribes certain requirements for non-bulk packagings for hazardous materials. Standards for these packagings are based on the UN Recommendations.

(b) Terms used in this subpart are defined in §171.8 of this subchapter.

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§178.502   Identification codes for packagings.

(a) Identification codes for designating kinds of packagings consist of the following:

(1) A numeral indicating the kind of packaging, as follows:

(i) “1” means a drum.

(ii) “2” means a wooden barrel.

(iii) “3” means a jerrican.

(iv) “4” means a box.

(v) “5” means a bag.

(vi) “6” means a composite packaging.

(vii) “7” means a pressure receptacle.

(2) A capital letter indicating the material of construction, as follows:

(i) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments).

(ii) “B” means aluminum.

(iii) “C” means natural wood.

(iv) “D” means plywood.

(v) “F” means reconstituted wood.

(vi) “G” means fiberboard.

(vii) “H” means plastic.

(viii) “L” means textile.

(ix) “M” means paper, multi-wall.

(x) “N” means metal (other than steel or aluminum).

(xi) “P” means glass, porcelain or stoneware.

(3) A numeral indicating the category of packaging within the kind to which the packaging belongs. For example, for steel drums (“1A”), “1” indicates a non-removable head drum ( i.e., “1A1”) and “2” indicates a removable head drum (i.e., “1A2”).

(b) For composite packagings, two capital letters are used in sequence in the second position of the code, the first indicating the material of the inner receptacle and the second, that of the outer packaging. For example, a plastic receptacle in a steel drum is designated “6HA1”.

(c) For combination packagings, only the code number for the outer packaging is used.

(d) Identification codes are set forth in the standards for packagings in §§178.504 through 178.523 of this subpart.

Note to §178.502: Plastics materials include other polymeric materials such as rubber.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67519, Dec. 29, 1994; 74 FR 2269, Jan. 14, 2009]

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§178.503   Marking of packagings.

(a) A manufacturer must mark every packaging that is represented as manufactured to meet a UN standard with the marks specified in this section. The markings must be durable, legible and placed in a location and of such a size relative to the packaging as to be readily visible, as specified in §178.3(a). Except as otherwise provided in this section, every reusable packaging liable to undergo a reconditioning process which might obliterate the packaging marks must bear the marks specified in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) and (a)(9) of this section in a permanent form (e.g. embossed) able to withstand the reconditioning process. A marking may be applied in a single line or in multiple lines provided the correct sequence is used. As illustrated by the examples in paragraph (e) of this section, the following information must be presented in the correct sequence. Slash marks should be used to separate this information. A packaging conforming to a UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(1)(ii) of this section, the United Nations symbol as illustrated in paragraph (e)(1)(i) of this section (for embossed metal receptacles, the letters “UN” may be applied in place of the symbol);

(2) A packaging identification code designating the type of packaging, the material of construction and, when appropriate, the category of packaging under §§178.504 through 178.523 of this subpart within the type to which the packaging belongs. The letter “V” must follow the packaging identification code on packagings tested in accordance with §178.601(g)(2); for example, “4GV”. The letter “W” must follow the packaging identification code on packagings when required by an approval under the provisions of §178.601(h) of this part;

(3) A letter identifying the performance standard under which the packaging design type has been successfully tested, as follows:

(i) X—for packagings meeting Packing Group I, II and III tests;

(ii) Y—for packagings meeting Packing Group II and III tests; or

(iii) Z—for packagings only meeting Packing Group III tests;

(4) A designation of the specific gravity or mass for which the packaging design type has been tested, as follows:

(i) For packagings without inner packagings intended to contain liquids, the designation shall be the specific gravity rounded down to the first decimal but may be omitted when the specific gravity does not exceed 1.2; and

(ii) For packagings intended to contain solids or inner packagings, the designation shall be the maximum gross mass in kilograms;

(5)(i) For single and composite packagings intended to contain liquids, the test pressure in kilopascals rounded down to the nearest 10 kPa of the hydrostatic pressure test that the packaging design type has successfully passed;

(ii) For packagings intended to contain solids or inner packagings, the letter “S”;

(6) The last two digits of the year of manufacture. Packagings of types 1H and 3H shall also be marked with the month of manufacture in any appropriate manner; this may be marked on the packaging in a different place from the remainder of the markings;

(7) The state authorizing allocation of the mark. The letters ‘USA’ indicate that the packaging is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter;

(8) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subpart L and subpart M of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator;

(9) For metal or plastic drums or jerricans intended for reuse or reconditioning as single packagings or the outer packagings of a composite packaging, the thickness of the packaging material, expressed in mm (rounded to the nearest 0.1 mm), as follows:

(i) Metal drums or jerricans must be marked with the nominal thickness of the metal used in the body. The marked nominal thickness must not exceed the minimum thickness of the steel used by more than the thickness tolerance stated in ISO 3574 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). (See appendix C of this part.) The unit of measure is not required to be marked. When the nominal thickness of either head of a metal drum is thinner than that of the body, the nominal thickness of the top head, body, and bottom head must be marked (e.g., “1.0-1.2-1.0” or “0.9-1.0-1.0”).

(ii) Plastic drums or jerricans must be marked with the minimum thickness of the packaging material. Minimum thicknesses of plastic must be as determined in accordance with §173.28(b)(4). The unit of measure is not required to be marked;

(10) In addition to the markings prescribed in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(9) of this section, every new metal drum having a capacity greater than 100 L must bear the marks described in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6), and (a)(9)(i) of this section, in a permanent form, on the bottom. The markings on the top head or side of these packagings need not be permanent, and need not include the thickness mark described in paragraph (a)(9) of this section. This marking indicates a drum's characteristics at the time it was manufactured, and the information in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section that is marked on the top head or side must be the same as the information in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section permanently marked by the original manufacturer on the bottom of the drum; and

(11) Rated capacity of the packaging expressed in liters may be marked.

(b) For a packaging with a removable head, the markings may not be applied only to the removable head.

(c) Marking of reconditioned packagings. (1) If a packaging is reconditioned, it shall be marked by the reconditioner near the marks required in paragraphs (a)(1) through (6) of this section with the following additional information:

(i) The name of the country in which the reconditioning was performed (in the United States, use the letters “USA”);

(ii) The name and address or symbol of the reconditioner. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator;

(iii) The last two digits of the year of reconditioning;

(iv) The letter “R”; and

(v) For every packaging successfully passing a leakproofness test, the additional letter “L”.

(2) When, after reconditioning, the markings required by paragraph (a)(1) through (a)(5) of this section no longer appear on the top head or the side of the metal drum, the reconditioner must apply them in a durable form followed by the markings in paragraph (c)(1) of this section. These markings may identify a different performance capability than that for which the original design type had been tested and marked, but may not identify a greater performance capability. The markings applied in accordance with this paragraph may be different from those which are permanently marked on the bottom of a drum in accordance with paragraph (a)(10) of this section.

(d) Marking of remanufactured packagings. For remanufactured metal drums, if there is no change to the packaging type and no replacement or removal of integral structural components, the required markings need not be permanent (e.g., embossed). Every other remanufactured drum must bear the marks required in paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(6) of this section in a permanent form (e.g., embossed) on the top head or side. If the metal thickness marking required in paragraph (a)(9)(i) of this section does not appear on the bottom of the drum, or if it is no longer valid, the remanufacturer also must mark this information in permanent form.

(e) The following are examples of symbols and required markings.

(1)(i) The United Nations symbol is:

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(ii) The circle that surrounds the letters “u” and “n” may have small breaks provided the following provisions are met:

(A) The total gap space does not exceed 15 percent of the circumference of the circle;

(B) There are no more than four gaps in the circle;

C) The spacing between gaps is separated by no less than 20 percent of the circumference of the circle (72 degrees); and

D) The letters “u” and “n” appear exactly as depicted in §178.503(e)(1)(i) with no gaps.

(2) Examples of markings for a new packaging are as follows:

(i) For a fiberboard box designed to contain an inner packaging:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (9) of this subpart).

(ii) For a steel drum designed to contain liquids:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (10) of this subpart).

(iii) For a steel drum to transport solids or inner packagings:

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(as in §178.503 (a)(1) through (8) of this subpart).

(3) Examples of markings for reconditioned packagings are as follows:

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(as in §178.503(c)(1)).

(f) A manufacturer must mark every UN specification package represented as manufactured to meet the requirements of §178.609 for packaging of infectious substances with the marks specified in this section. The markings must be durable, legible, and must be readily visible, as specified in §178.3(a). An infectious substance packaging that successfully passes the tests conforming to the UN standard must be marked as follows:

(1) The United Nations symbol as illustrated in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) The code designating the type of packaging and material of construction according to the identification codes for packagings specified in §178.502.

(3) The text “CLASS 6.2”.

(4) The last two digits of the year of manufacture of the packaging.

(5) The country authorizing the allocation of the mark. The letters “USA” indicate the packaging is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(6) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subparts L and M of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator for Hazardous Materials Safety.

(7) For packagings meeting the requirements of §178.609(i)(3), the letter “U” must be inserted immediately following the marking designating the type of packaging and material required in paragraph (f)(2) of this section.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28493, June 2, 1994; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67520, 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; Amdt. 178-107, 60 FR 26806, May 18, 1995; 62 FR 51561, Oct. 1, 1997; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 67 FR 53143, Aug. 14, 2002; 68 FR 75757, Dec. 31, 2003; 75 FR 5395, Feb. 2, 2010; 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 77 FR 60943, Oct. 5, 2012; 78 FR 60755, Oct. 2, 2013]

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§178.504   Standards for steel drums.

(a) The following are identification codes for steel drums:

(1) 1A1 for a non-removable head steel drum; and

(2) 1A2 for a removable head steel drum.

(b) Construction requirements for steel drums are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of steel sheet of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) Body seams must be welded on drums designed to contain more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquids. Body seams must be mechanically seamed or welded on drums intended to contain only solids or 40 L (11 gallons) or less of liquids.

(3) Chimes must be mechanically seamed or welded. Separate reinforcing rings may be applied.

(4) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, they must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(5) Openings for filling, emptying and venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1A1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1A2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be mechanically seamed or welded in place. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(6) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and drums will remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(7) If materials used for body, heads, closures, and fittings are not in themselves compatible with the contents to be transported, suitable internal protective coatings or treatments must be applied. These coatings or treatments must retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport.

(8) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(9) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-110, 60 FR 49111, Sept. 21, 1995]

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§178.505   Standards for aluminum drums.

(a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums:

(1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum; and

(2) 1B2 for a removable head aluminum drum.

(b) Construction requirements for aluminum drums are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of aluminum at least 99 percent pure or an aluminum base alloy. Material must be of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and the intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) All seams must be welded. Chime seams, if any, must be reinforced by the application of separate reinforcing rings.

(3) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, the hoops must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(4) Openings for filling, emptying, or venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1B1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1B2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be welded in place so that the weld provides a leakproof seam. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and drums remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(6) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66284, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994]

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§178.506   Standards for metal drums other than steel or aluminum.

(a) The following are the identification codes for metal drums other than steel or aluminum:

(1) 1N1 for a non-removable head metal drum; and

(2) 1N2 for a removable head metal drum.

(b) Construction requirements for metal drums other than steel or aluminum are as follows:

(1) Body and heads must be constructed of metal (other than steel or aluminum) of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity and the intended use of the drum. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(2) All seams must be welded. Chime seams, if any, must be reinforced by the application of separate reinforcing rings.

(3) The body of a drum of a capacity greater than 60 L (16 gallons) may have at least two expanded rolling hoops or two separate rolling hoops. If there are separate rolling hoops, the hoops must be fitted tightly on the body and so secured that they cannot shift. Rolling hoops may not be spot-welded.

(4) Openings for filling, emptying, or venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1N1) drums may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1N2). Closures for openings in the bodies and heads of drums must be so designed and applied that they will remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Closure flanges may be welded in place so that the weld provides a leakproof seam. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) Closure devices for removable head drums must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and drums remain leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with all removable heads.

(6) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994]

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§178.507   Standards for plywood drums.

(a) The identification code for a plywood drum is 1D.

(b) Construction requirements for plywood drums are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from any defect likely to lessen the effectiveness of the drum for the purpose intended. A material other than plywood, of at least equivalent strength and durability, may be used for the manufacture of the heads.

(2) At least two-ply plywood must be used for the body and at least three-ply plywood for the heads; the plies must be firmly glued together, with their grains crosswise.

(3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity of the drum and its intended use.

(4) In order to prevent sifting of the contents, lids must be lined with kraft paper or some other equivalent material which must be securely fastened to the lid and extend to the outside along its full circumference.

(5) Maximum capacity of drum: 250 L (66 gallons).

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 57 FR 45465, Oct. 1, 1992]

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§178.508   Standards for fiber drums.

(a) The identification code for a fiber drum is 1G.

(b) Construction requirements for fiber drums are as follows:

(1) The body of the drum must be constructed of multiple plies of heavy paper or fiberboard (without corrugations) firmly glued or laminated together and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar materials.

(2) Heads must be of natural wood, fiberboard, metal, plywood, plastics, or other suitable material and may include one or more protective layers of bitumen, waxed kraft paper, metal foil, plastic material, or similar material.

(3) The body and heads of the drum and their joints must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the drum.

(4) The assembled packaging must be sufficiently water-resistant so as not to delaminate under normal conditions of transport.

(5) Maximum capacity of drum: 450 L (119 gallons).

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

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§178.509   Standards for plastic drums and jerricans.

(a) The following are identification codes for plastic drums and jerricans:

(1) 1H1 for a non-removable head plastic drum;

(2) 1H2 for a removable head plastic drum;

(3) 3H1 for a non-removable head jerrican; and

(4) 3H2 for a removable head jerrican.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic drums and jerricans are as follows:

(1) The packaging must be manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and intended use. No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used unless approved by the Associate Administrator. The packaging must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation. Any permeation of the substance contained may not constitute a danger under normal conditions of transport.

(2) If protection against ultra-violet radiation is required, it must be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the packaging. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments or inhibitors other than those used in the manufacture of the design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3 percent by mass; the content of inhibitors of ultra-violet radiation is not limited.

(3) Additives serving purposes other than protection against ultra-violet radiation may be included in the composition of the plastic material provided they do not adversely affect the chemical and physical properties of the packaging material.

(4) The wall thickness at every point of the packaging must be appropriate to its capacity and its intended use, taking into account the stresses to which each point is liable to be exposed. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to drums intended for reuse.

(5) Openings for filling, emptying and venting in the bodies or heads of non-removable head (1H1) drums and jerricans (3H1) may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Drums and jerricans with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type (1H2 and 3H2). Closures for openings in the bodies or heads of drums and jerricans must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(6) Closure devices for removable head drums and jerricans must be so designed and applied that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets must be used with all removable heads unless the drum or jerrican design is such that when the removable head is properly secured, the drum or jerrican is inherently leakproof.

(7) Maximum capacity of drums and jerricans: 1H1, 1H2: 450 L (119 gallons); 3H1, 3H2: 60 L (16 gallons).

(8) Maximum net mass: 1H1, 1H2: 400 kg (882 pounds); 3H1, 3H2: 120 kg (265 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994; 64 FR 10782, Mar. 5, 1999; 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001]

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§178.510   Standards for wooden barrels.

(a) The following are identification codes for wooden barrels:

(1) 2C1 for a bung type wooden barrel; and

(2) 2C2 for a slack type (removable head) wooden barrel.

(b) Construction requirements for wooden barrels are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be of good quality, straight-grained, well-seasoned and free from knots, bark, rotten wood, sapwood or other defects likely to lessen the effectiveness of the barrel for the purpose intended.

(2) The body and heads must be of a design appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the barrel.

(3) Staves and heads must be sawn or cleft with the grain so that no annual ring extends over more than half the thickness of a stave or head.

(4) Barrel hoops must be of steel or iron of good quality. The hoops of 2C2 barrels may be of a suitable hardwood.

(5) For wooden barrels 2C1, the diameter of the bung-hole may not exceed half the width of the stave in which it is placed.

(6) For wooden barrels 2C2, heads must fit tightly into crozes.

(7) Maximum capacity of barrel: 250 L (66 gallons).

(8) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

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§178.511   Standards for aluminum and steel jerricans.

(a) The following are identification codes for aluminum and steel jerricans:

(1) 3A1 for a non-removable head steel jerrican;

(2) 3A2 for a removable head steel jerrican;

(3) 3B1 for a non-removable head aluminum jerrican; and

(4) 3B2 for a removable head aluminum jerrican.

(b) Construction requirements for aluminum and steel jerricans are as follows:

(1) For steel jerricans the body and heads must be constructed of steel sheet of suitable type and adequate thickness in relation to the capacity of the jerrican and its intended use. Minimum thickness and marking requirements in §§173.28(b)(4) and 178.503(a)(9) of this subchapter apply to jerricans intended for reuse.

(2) For aluminum jerricans the body and heads must be constructed of aluminum at least 99% pure or of an aluminum base alloy. Material must be of a type and of adequate thickness in relation to the capacity of the jerrican and to its intended use.

(3) Chimes of all jerricans must be mechanically seamed or welded. Body seams of jerricans intended to carry more than 40 L (11 gallons) of liquid must be welded. Body seams of jerricans intended to carry 40 L (11 gallons) or less must be mechanically seamed or welded.

(4) Openings in jerricans (3A1) may not exceed 7.0 cm (3 inches) in diameter. Jerricans with larger openings are considered to be of the removable head type. Closures must be so designed that they remain secure and leakproof under normal conditions of transport. Gaskets or other sealing elements must be used with closures, unless the closure is inherently leakproof.

(5) If materials used for body, heads, closures and fittings are not in themselves compatible with the contents to be transported, suitable internal protective coatings or treatments must be applied. These coatings or treatments must retain their protective properties under normal conditions of transport.

(6) Maximum capacity of jerrican: 60 L (16 gallons).

(7) Maximum net mass: 120 kg (265 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-102, 59 FR 28494, June 2, 1994; Amdt. 178-119, 62 FR 24742, May 6, 1997]

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§178.512   Standards for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes.

(a) The following are identification codes for steel, aluminum, or other metal boxes:

(1) 4A for a steel box;

(2) 4B for an aluminum box; and

(3) 4N for an other metal box.

(b) Construction requirements for steel, aluminum or other metal boxes are as follows:

(1) The strength of the metal and the construction of the box must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box.

(2) Boxes must be lined with fiberboard or felt packing pieces or must have an inner liner or coating of suitable material in accordance with subpart C of part 173 of this subchapter. If a double seamed metal liner is used, steps must be taken to prevent the ingress of materials, particularly explosives, into the recesses of the seams.

(3) Closures may be of any suitable type, and must remain secure under normal conditions of transport.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

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§178.513   Standards for boxes of natural wood.

(a) The following are the identification codes for boxes of natural wood:

(1) 4C1 for an ordinary box; and

(2) 4C2 for a box with sift-proof walls.

(b) Construction requirements for boxes of natural wood are as follows:

(1) The wood used must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. The tops and bottoms may be made of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hard board, particle board or other suitable type.

(2) Fastenings must be resistant to vibration experienced under normal conditions of transportation. End grain nailing must be avoided whenever practicable. Joints which are likely to be highly stressed must be made using clenched or annular ring nails or equivalent fastenings.

(3) Each part of the 4C2 box must be one piece or equivalent. Parts are considered equivalent to one piece when one of the following methods of glued assembly is used: Linderman joint, tongue and groove joint, ship lap or rabbet joint, or butt joint with at least two corrugated metal fasteners at each joint.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

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§178.514   Standards for plywood boxes.

(a) The identification code for a plywood box is 4D.

(b) Construction requirements for plywood boxes are as follows:

(1) Plywood used must be at least 3 ply. It shall be made from well-seasoned rotary cut, sliced or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the box. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. All adjacent plies must be glued with water-resistant adhesive. Other suitable materials may be used together with plywood in the construction of boxes. Boxes must be nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or assembled with other equally suitable devices.

(2) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

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§178.515   Standards for reconstituted wood boxes.

(a) The identification code for a reconstituted wood box is 4F.

(b) Construction requirements for reconstituted wood boxes are as follows:

(1) The walls of boxes must be made of water-resistant, reconstituted wood such as hardboard, particle board, or other suitable type. The strength of the material used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity of the boxes and their intended use.

(2) Other parts of the box may be made of other suitable materials.

(3) Boxes must be securely assembled by means of suitable devices.

(4) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

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§178.516   Standards for fiberboard boxes.

(a) The identification code for a fiberboard box is 4G.

(b) Construction requirements for fiberboard boxes are as follows:

(1) Strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multi-wall) must be used, appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the box. The water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 g per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot)—see ISO 535 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.

(2) The ends of boxes may have a wooden frame or be entirely of wood or other suitable material. Reinforcements of wooden battens or other suitable material may be used.

(3) Manufacturing joints. (i) Manufacturing joints in the bodies of boxes must be—

(A) Taped;

(B) Lapped and glued; or

(C) Lapped and stitched with metal staples.

(ii) Lapped joints must have an appropriate overlap.

(4) Where closing is effected by gluing or taping, a water resistant adhesive must be used.

(5) Boxes must be designed so as to provide a snug fit to the contents.

(6) Maximum net mass: 400 kg (882 pounds).

(7) Authorization to manufacture, mark, and sell UN4G combination packagings with outer fiberboard boxes and with inner fiberboard components that have individual containerboard or paper wall basis weights that vary by not more than plus or minus 10% from the nominal basis weight reported in the initial design qualification test report.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 79 FR 15046, Mar. 18, 2014; 83 FR 55810, Nov. 7, 2018]

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§178.517   Standards for plastic boxes.

(a) The following are identification codes for plastic boxes:

(1) 4H1 for an expanded plastic box; and

(2) 4H2 for a solid plastic box.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic boxes are as follows:

(1) The box must be manufactured from suitable plastic material and be of adequate strength in relation to its capacity and intended use. The box must be adequately resistant to aging and to degradation caused either by the substance contained or by ultra-violet radiation.

(2) An expanded plastic box must consist of two parts made of a molded expanded plastic material: a bottom section containing cavities for the inner receptacles, and a top section covering and interlocking with the bottom section. The top and bottom sections must be so designed that the inner receptacles fit snugly. The closure cap for any inner receptacle may not be in contact with the inside of the top section of the box.

(3) For transportation, an expanded plastic box must be closed with a self-adhesive tape having sufficient tensile strength to prevent the box from opening. The adhesive tape must be weather-resistant and its adhesive compatible with the expanded plastic material of the box. Other closing devices at least equally effective may be used.

(4) For solid plastic boxes, protection against ultra-violet radiation, if required, must be provided by the addition of carbon black or other suitable pigments or inhibitors. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the box. Where use is made of carbon black pigment or inhibitors other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be waived if the carbon black content does not exceed 2 percent by mass or if the pigment content does not exceed 3 percent by mass; the content of inhibitors of ultra-violet radiation is not limited.

(5) Additives serving purposes other than protection against ultra-violet radiation may be included in the composition of the plastic material if they do not adversely affect the material of the box. Addition of these additives does not change the design type.

(6) Solid plastic boxes must have closure devices made of a suitable material of adequate strength and so designed as to prevent the box from unintentionally opening.

(7) Maximum net mass 4H1: 60 kg (132 pounds); 4H2: 400 kg (882 pounds).

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§178.518   Standards for woven plastic bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for woven plastic bags:

(1) 5H1 for an unlined or non-coated woven plastic bag;

(2) 5H2 for a sift-proof woven plastic bag; and

(3) 5H3 for a water-resistant woven plastic bag.

(b) Construction requirements for woven plastic fabric bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made from stretched tapes or monofilaments of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag.

(2) If the fabric is woven flat, the bags must be made by sewing or some other method ensuring closure of the bottom and one side. If the fabric is tubular, the bag must be closed by sewing, weaving, or some other equally strong method of closure.

(3) Bags, sift-proof, 5H2 must be made sift-proof by appropriate means such as use of paper or a plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag or one or more separate inner liners made of paper or plastic material.

(4) Bags, water-resistant, 5H3: To prevent the entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof by appropriate means, such as separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, double-tarred kraft paper or plastic-coated kraft paper), or plastic film bonded to the inner or outer surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastic liners.

(5) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-99, 58 FR 51534, Oct. 1, 1993]

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§178.519   Standards for plastic film bags.

(a) The identification code for a plastic film bag is 5H4.

(b) Construction requirements for plastic film bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made of a suitable plastic material. The strength of the material used and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and the intended use of the bag. Joints and closures must be capable of withstanding pressures and impacts liable to occur under normal conditions of transportation.

(2) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

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§178.520   Standards for textile bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for textile bags:

(1) 5L1 for an unlined or non-coated textile bag;

(2) 5L2 for a sift-proof textile bag; and

(3) 5L3 for a water-resistant textile bag.

(b) Construction requirements for textile bags are as follows:

(1) The textiles used must be of good quality. The strength of the fabric and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag.

(2) Bags, sift-proof, 5L2: The bag must be made sift-proof, by appropriate means, such as by the use of paper bonded to the inner surface of the bag by a water-resistant adhesive such as bitumen, plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of paper or plastic material.

(3) Bags, water-resistant, 5L3: To prevent entry of moisture, the bag must be made waterproof by appropriate means, such as by the use of separate inner liners of water-resistant paper (e.g., waxed kraft paper, tarred paper, or plastic-coated kraft paper), or plastic film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner liners made of plastic material or metalized film or foil.

(4) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991]

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§178.521   Standards for paper bags.

(a) The following are identification codes for paper bags:

(1) 5M1 for a multi-wall paper bag; and

(2) 5M2 for a multi-wall water-resistant paper bag.

(b) Construction requirements for paper bags are as follows:

(1) Bags must be made of a suitable kraft paper, or of an equivalent paper with at least three plies. The strength of the paper and the construction of the bag must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the bag. Seams and closures must be sift-proof.

(2) Paper bags 5M2: To prevent the entry of moisture, a bag of four plies or more must be made waterproof by the use of either a water-resistant ply as one of the two outermost plies or a water-resistant barrier made of a suitable protective material between the two outermost plies. A 5M2 bag of three plies must be made waterproof by the use of a water-resistant ply as the outermost ply. When there is danger of the lading reacting with moisture, or when it is packed damp, a waterproof ply or barrier, such as double-tarred kraft paper, plastics-coated kraft paper, plastics film bonded to the inner surface of the bag, or one or more inner plastics liners, must also be placed next to the substance. Seams and closures must be waterproof.

(3) Maximum net mass: 50 kg (110 pounds).

(4) UN5M1 and UN5M2 multi wall paper bags that have paper wall basis weights that vary by not more than plus or minus 5% from the nominal basis weight reported in the initial design qualification test report.

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended at 56 FR 66285, Dec. 20, 1991; Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994; 79 FR 15046, Mar. 18, 2014]

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§178.522   Standards for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles.

(a) The following are the identification codes for composite packagings with inner plastic receptacles:

(1) 6HA1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel drum;

(2) 6HA2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective steel crate or box;

(3) 6HB1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective aluminum drum.

(4) 6HB2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective aluminum crate or box.

(5) 6HC for a plastic receptacle within a protective wooden box.

(6) 6HD1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plywood drum;

(7) 6HD2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plywood box;

(8) 6HG1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective fiber drum;

(9) 6HG2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective fiberboard box;

(10) 6HH1 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plastic drum; and

(11) 6HH2 for a plastic receptacle within a protective plastic box.

(b) Construction requirements for composite packagings with inner receptacles of plastic are as follows:

(1) Inner receptacles must be constructed under the applicable construction requirements prescribed in §178.509(b) (1) through (7) of this subpart.

(2) The inner plastic receptacle must fit snugly inside the outer packaging, which must be free of any projections which may abrade the plastic material.

(3) Outer packagings must be constructed as follows:

(i) 6HA1 or 6HB1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for steel drums in §178.504(b) of this subpart, or aluminum drums in §178.505(b) of this subpart.

(ii) 6HA2 or 6HB2: Protective packagings with steel or aluminum crate must conform to the requirements for steel or aluminum boxes found in §178.512(b) of this subpart.

(iii) 6HC protective packaging must conform to the requirements for wooden boxes in §178.513(b) of this subpart.

(iv) 6HD1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plywood drums, in §178.507(b) of this subpart.

(v) 6HD2: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements of plywood boxes, in §178.514(b) of this subpart.

(vi) 6HG1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for fiber drums, in §178.508(b) of this subpart.

(vii) 6HG2: protective packaging must conform to the requirements for fiberboard boxes, in §178.516(b) of this subpart.

(viii) 6HH1: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plastic drums, in §178.509(b).

(ix) 6HH2: Protective packaging must conform to the requirements for plastic boxes, in §178.517(b).

(4) Maximum capacity of inner receptacles is as follows: 6HA1, 6HB1, 6HD1, 6HG1, 6HH1—250 L (66 gallons); 6HA2, 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2, 6HG2, 6HH2—60 L (16 gallons).

(5) Maximum net mass is as follows: 6HA1, 6HB1, 6HD1, 6HG1, 6HH1—400kg (882 pounds); 6HB2, 6HC, 6HD2, 6HG2, 6HH2—75 kg (165 pounds).

[Amdt. 178-97, 55 FR 52717, Dec. 21, 1990, as amended by Amdt. 178-106, 59 FR 67521, Dec. 29, 1994]

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§178.523   Standards for composite packagings with inner glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles.

(a) The following are identification codes for composite packagings with inner receptacles of glass, porcelain, or stoneware:

(1) 6PA1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel drum;

(2) 6PA2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective steel crate or box;

(3) 6PB1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective aluminum drum;

(4) 6PB2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective aluminum crate or box;

(5) 6PC for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective wooden box;

(6) 6PD1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective plywood drum;

(7) 6PD2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective wickerwork hamper;

(8) 6PG1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective fiber drum;

(9) 6PG2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective fiberboard box;

(10) 6PH1 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective expanded plastic packaging; and

(11) 6PH2 for glass, porcelain, or stoneware receptacles within a protective solid plastic packaging.

(b) Construction requirements for composite packagings with inner receptacles of glass, porcelain, or stoneware are as follows:

(1) Inner receptacles must conform to the following requirements:

(i) Receptacles must be of suitable form (cylindrical or pear-shaped), be made of good quality materials free from any defect that could impair their strength, and be firmly secured in the outer packaging.

(ii) Any part of a closure likely to come into contact with the contents of the receptacle must be resistant to those contents. Closures must be fitted so as to be leakproof and secured to prevent any loosening during transportation. Vented closures must conform to §173.24(f) of this subchapter.

(2) Protective packagings must conform to the following requirements:

(i) For receptacles with protective steel drum 6PAl, the drum must comply with §178.504(b) of this subpart. However, the removable lid required for this type of packaging may be in the form of a cap.

(ii) For receptacles with protective packaging of steel crate or steel box 6PA2, the protective packaging must conform to the following:

(A) Section 178.512(b) of this subpart.

(B) In the case of cylindrical receptacles, the protective packaging must, when upright, rise above the receptacle and its closure; and

(C) If the protective crate surrounds a pear-shaped receptacle and is of matching shape, the protective packaging must be fitted with a protective cover (cap).

(iii) For receptacles with protective aluminum drum 6PB1, the requirements of §178.505(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(iv) For receptacles with protective aluminum box or crate 6PB2, the requirements of §178.512(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(v) For receptacles with protective wooden box 6PC, the requirements of §178.513(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(vi) For receptacles with protective plywood drum 6PD1, the requirements of §178.507(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(vii) For receptacles with protective wickerwork hamper 6PD2, the wickerwork hamper must be properly made with material of good quality. The hamper must be fitted with a protective cover (cap) so as to prevent damage to the receptacle.

(viii) For receptacles with protective fiber drum 6PG1, the drum must conform to the requirements of §178.508(b) of this subpart.

(ix) For receptacles with protective fiberboard box 6PG2, the requirements of §178.516(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging.

(x) For receptacles with protective solid plastic or expanded plastic packaging 6PH1 or 6PH2, the requirements of §178.517(b) of this subpart apply to the protective packaging. Solid protective plastic packaging must be manufactured from high-density polyethylene from some other comparable plastic material. The removable lid required for this type of packaging may be a cap.

(3) Quantity limitations are as follows:

(i) Maximum net capacity for packaging for liquids: 60 L (16 gallons).

(ii) Maximum net mass for packagings for solids: 75 kg (165 pounds).

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