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Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart H

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 178 → Subpart H

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart H

e-CFR data is current as of December 11, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 178 → Subpart H


Title 49: Transportation
PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


§§178.251--178.253-5   [Reserved]

§178.255   Specification 60; steel portable tanks.

§178.255-1   General requirements.

(a) Tanks must be of fusion welded construction, cylindrical in shape with seamless heads concave to the pressure. Tank shells may be of seamless construction.

(b) Tanks must be designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(c) Tanks including all permanent attachments must be postweld heat treated as a unit.

(d) Requirements concerning types of valves, retesting, and qualification of portable tanks contained in §§173.32 and 173.315 of this chapter must be observed.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

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§178.255-2   Material.

(a) Material used in the tank must be steel of good weldable quality and conform with the requirements in Sections V, VIII, and IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(b) The minimum thickness of metal, exclusive of lining material, for shell and heads of tanks shall be as follows:

Tank capacityMinimum thickness (inch)
Not more than 1,200 gallons 14
Over 1,200 to 1,800 gallons 516
Over 1,800 gallons 38

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-7, 34 FR 18250, Nov. 14, 1969; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

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§178.255-3   Expansion domes.

(a) Expansion domes, if applied, must have a minimum capacity of one percent of the combined capacity of the tank and dome.

(b) [Reserved]

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§178.255-4   Closures for manholes and domes.

(a) The manhole cover shall be designed to provide a secure closure of the manhole. All covers, not hinged to the tanks, shall be attached to the outside of the dome by at least 18 inch chain or its equivalent. Closures shall be made tight against leakage of vapor and liquid by use of gaskets of suitable material.

(b) [Reserved]

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§178.255-5   Bottom discharge outlets.

(a) Bottom discharge outlets prohibited, except on tanks used for shipments of sludge acid and alkaline corrosive liquids.

(b) If installed, bottom outlets or bottom washout chambers shall be of metal not subject to rapid deterioration by the lading, and each shall be provided with a valve or plug at its upper end and liquid-tight closure at it lower end. Each valve or plug shall be designed to insure against unseating due to stresses or shocks incident to transportation. Bottom outlets shall be adequately protected against handling damage and outlet equipment must not extend to within less than one inch of the bottom bearing surface of the skids or tank mounting.

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

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§178.255-6   Loading and unloading accessories.

(a) When installed, gauging, loading and air inlet devices, including their valves, shall be provided with adequate means for their secure closure; and means shall also be provided for the closing of pipe connections of valves.

(b) Interior heater coils, if installed, must be of extra heavy pipe and so constructed that breaking off of exterior connections will not cause leakage of tanks.

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§178.255-7   Protection of valves and accessories.

(a) All valves, fittings, accessories, safety devices, gauging devices, and the like shall be adequately protected against mechanical damage by a housing closed with a cover plate.

(b) Protective housing shall comply with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated with respect to design and construction, and shall be designed with a minimum factor of safety of four to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tank and attachments when filled with water.

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§178.255-8   Safety devices.

(a) See §173.315(i) of this subchapter.

(b) [Reserved]

[Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985]

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§178.255-9   Compartments.

(a) When the interior of the tank is divided into compartments, each compartment shall be designed, constructed and tested as a separate tank. Thickness of shell and compartment heads shall be determined on the basis of total tank capacity.

(b) [Reserved]

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§178.255-10   Lining.

(a) If a lining is required, the material used for lining the tank shall be homogeneous, nonporous, imperforate when applied, not less elastic than the metal of the tank proper. It shall be of substantially uniform thickness, not less than 132 inch thick if metallic, and not less than 116 inch thick if nonmetallic, and shall be directly bonded or attached by other equally satisfactory means. Rubber lining shall be not less than 316 inch thick. Joints and seams in the lining shall be made by fusing the material together or by other equally satisfactory means. The interior of the tank shall be free from scale, oxidation, moisture and all foreign matter during the lining operation.

(b) [Reserved]

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§178.255-11   Tank mountings.

(a) Tanks shall be designed and fabricated with mountings to provide a secure base in transit. “Skids” or similar devices shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(b) All tank mountings such as skids, fastenings, brackets, cradles, lifting lugs, etc., intended to carry loadings shall be permanently secured to tanks in accordance with the requirements under which the tanks are fabricated, and shall be designed with a factor of safety of four, and built to withstand loadings in any direction equal to two times the weight of the tanks and attachments when filled to the maximum permissible loaded weight.

(c) Lifting lugs or side hold-down lugs shall be provided on the tank mountings in a manner suitable for attaching lifting gear and hold-down devices. Lifting lugs and hold-down lugs welded directly to the tank shall be of the pad-eye type. Doubling plates welded to the tank and located at the points of support shall be deemed to comply with this requirement.

(d) All tank mountings shall be so designed as to prevent the concentration of excessive loads on the tank shell.

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§178.255-12   Pressure test.

(a) Each completed portable tank prior to application of lining shall be tested before being put into transportation service by completely filling the tank with water or other liquid having a similar viscosity, the temperature of which shall not exceed 100 °F during the test, and applying a pressure of 60 psig. The tank shall be capable of holding the prescribed pressure for at least 10 minutes without leakage, evidence of impending failure, or failure. All closures shall be in place while the test is made and the pressure shall be gauged at the top of the tank. Safety devices and/or vents shall be plugged during this test.

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, as amended by Amdt. 178-104, 59 FR 49135, Sept. 26, 1994]

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§178.255-13   Repair of tanks.

(a) Tanks failing to meet the test may be repaired and retested, provided that repairs are made in complete compliance with the requirements of this specification.

(b) [Reserved]

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§178.255-14   Marking.

(a) In addition to markings required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), every tank shall bear permanent marks at least 1/8-inch high stamped into the metal near the center of one of the tank heads or stamped into a plate permanently attached to the tank by means of brazing or welding or other suitable means as follows:

Manufacturer's name _______ Serial No.
DOT specification

Nominal capacity _______ (gallons)

Tare weight _______ (pounds)

Date of manufacture

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-67, 46 FR 49906, Oct. 8, 1981; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

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§178.255-15   Report.

(a) A copy of the manufacturer's data report required by Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) under which the tank is fabricated must be furnished to the owner for each new tank.

            Place
            Date

         Portable tank

Manufactured for _______ Company

Location

Manufactured by _______ Company

Location

Consigned to _________ Company

Location

Size ___ feet outside diameter by ___ long.

Marks on tank as prescribed by §178.255-14 of this specification are as follows:

Manufacturer's name
Serial number
Owner's serial number
DOT specification
ASME Code Symbol (par U-201)
Date of manufacture

Nominal capacity _______ gallons.

It is hereby certified that this tank is in complete compliance with the requirements of DOT specification No. 60.

         (Signed)

Manufacturer or owner

(b) [Reserved]

[29 FR 18972, Dec. 29, 1964. Redesignated at 32 FR 5606, Apr. 5, 1967, and amended by Amdt. 178-83, 50 FR 11066, Mar. 19, 1985; 68 FR 75750, Dec. 31, 2003]

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§178.273   Approval of Specification UN portable tanks.

(a) Application for approval. (1) An owner or manufacturer of a portable tank shall apply for approval to a designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E, part 107 of this subchapter.

(2) Each application for approval must contain the following information:

(i) Two complete copies of all engineering drawings, calculations, and test data necessary to ensure that the design meets the relevant specification.

(ii) The manufacturer's serial number that will be assigned to each portable tank.

(iii) A statement as to whether the design type has been examined by any approval agency previously and judged unacceptable. Affirmative statements must be documented with the name of the approval agency, reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of modifications made to the design type.

(b) Action by approval agency. The approval agency must perform the following activities:

(1) Review the application for approval to determine whether it is complete and conforms with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section. If an application is incomplete, it will be returned to the applicant with an explanation as to why the application is incomplete.

(2) Review all drawings and calculations to ensure that the design is in compliance with all requirements of the relevant specification. If the application is approved, one set of the approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be returned to the applicant. The second (inspector's copy) set of approved drawings, calculations, and test data shall be retained by the approval agency. Maintain drawings and approval records for as long as the portable tank remains in service. The drawings and records must be provided to the Department of Transportation (DOT) upon request.

(3) Witness all tests required for the approval of the portable tank specified in this section and part 180, subpart G of this subchapter.

(4) Ensure, through appropriate inspection that each portable tank is fabricated in all respects in conformance with the approved drawings, calculations, and test data.

(5) Determine and ensure that the portable tank is suitable for its intended use and that it conforms to the requirements of this subchapter.

(6) For UN portable tanks intended for non-refrigerated and refrigerated liquefied gases and Division 6.1 liquids which meet the inhalation toxicity criteria (Zone A or B) as defined in §173.132 of this subchapter, or that are designated as toxic by inhalation materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, the approval agency must ensure that:

(i) The portable tank has been designed, constructed, certified, and stamped in accordance with the requirements in Division 1 of Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Other design codes may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator (see §178.274(b)(1));

(ii) All applicable provisions of the design and construction have been met to the satisfaction of the designated approval agency in accordance with the rules established in the ASME Code and that the portable tank meets the requirements of the ASME Code and all the applicable requirements specified in this subchapter;

(iii) The inspector has carried out all the inspections specified by the rules established in the ASME Code; and

(iv) The portable tank is marked with a U stamp code symbol under the authority of the authorized independent inspector.

(7) Upon successful completion of all requirements of this subpart, the approval agency must:

(i) Apply its name, identifying mark or identifying number, and the date upon which the approval was issued, to the metal identification marking plate attached to the portable tank. Any approvals for UN portable tanks authorizing design or construction alternatives (Alternate Arrangements) approved by the Associate Administrator (see §178.274(a)(2)) must be indicated on the plate as specified in §178.274(i).

(ii) Issue an approval certificate for each portable tank or, in the case of a series of identical portable tanks manufactured to a single design type, for each series of portable tanks. The approval certificate must include all the information required to be displayed on the metal identification plate required by §178.274(i). The approval certificate must certify that the approval agency designated to approve the portable tank has approved the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter and that the portable tank is suitable for its intended purpose and meets the requirements of this subchapter. When a series of portable tanks is manufactured without change in the design type, the certificate may be valid for the entire series of portable tanks representing a single design type. For UN portable tanks, the certificate must refer to the prototype test report, the hazardous material or group of hazardous materials allowed to be transported, the materials of construction of the shell and lining (when applicable) and an approval number. The approval number must consist of the distinguishing sign or mark of the country (“USA” for the United States of America) where the approval was granted and a registration number.

(iii) Retain a copy of each approval certificate.

(8) For UN portable tanks, the approval certificate must also include the following:

(i) The results of the applicable framework and rail impact test specified in part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter; and

(ii) The results of the initial inspection and test in §178.274(j).

(9) The approval agency shall be independent from the manufacturer. The approval agency and the authorized inspector may be the same entity.

(c) Manufacturers' responsibilities. The manufacturer is responsible for compliance with the applicable specifications for the design and construction of portable tanks. In addition to responsibility for compliance, manufacturers are responsible for ensuring that the contracted approval agency and authorized inspector, if applicable, are qualified, reputable and competent. The manufacturer of a portable tank shall—

(1) Comply with all the applicable requirements of the ASME Code and of this subpart including, but not limited to, ensuring that the quality control, design calculations and required tests are performed and that all aspects of the portable tank meet the applicable requirements.

(2) Obtain and use a designated approval agency, if applicable, and obtain and use a DOT-designated approval agency to approve the design, construction and certification of the portable tank.

(3) Provide a statement in the manufacturers' data report certifying that each portable tank that is manufactured complies with the relevant specification and all the applicable requirements of this subchapter.

(4) Maintain records of the qualification of portable tanks for at least 5 years and provide copies to the approval agency, the owner or lessee of the tank. Upon request, provide these records to a representative of DOT.

(d) Denial of application for approval. If an approval agency finds that a portable tank cannot be approved for any reason, it shall notify the applicant in writing and shall provide the applicant with the reasons for which the approval is denied. A copy of the notification letter shall be provided to the Associate Administrator. An applicant aggrieved by a decision of an approval agency may appeal the decision in writing, within 90 days of receipt, to the Associate Administrator.

(e) Modifications to approved portable tanks. (1) Prior to modification of any UN portable tank which may affect conformance and the safe use of the portable tank, which may involve a change to the design type or which may affect its ability to retain hazardous material in transportation, the person desiring to make such modification shall inform the approval agency that issued the initial approval of the portable tank (or if unavailable, another approval agency) of the nature of the modification and request approval of the modification. The person desiring to modify the tank must supply the approval agency with three sets of all revised drawings, calculations, and test data relative to the intended modification.

(2) A statement as to whether the intended modification has been examined and determined to be unacceptable by any approval agency. The written statement must include the name of the approving agency, the reason for nonacceptance, and the nature of changes made to the modification since its original rejection.

(3) The approval agency shall review the request for modification, and if it is determined that the proposed modification is in full compliance with the relevant DOT specification, including a UN portable tank, the request shall be approved and the approval agency shall perform the following activities:

(i) Return one set of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and test data to the applicant. The second and third sets of the approved revised drawings, calculations, and data shall be retained by the approval agency as required in §107.404(a)(3) of this subchapter.

(ii) Ensure through appropriate inspection that all modifications conform to the revised drawings, calculations, and test data.

(iii) Determine the extent to which retesting of the modified tank is necessary based on the nature of the proposed modification, and ensure that all required retests are satisfactorily performed.

(iv) If modification to an approved tank alters any information on the approval certificate, issue a new approval certificate for the modified tank and ensure that any necessary changes are made to the metal identification plate. A copy of each newly issued approval certificate shall be retained by the approval agency and by the owner of each portable tank.

(4) If the approval agency determines that the proposed modification is not in compliance with the relevant DOT specification, the approval agency shall deny the request in accordance with paragraph (d) of this section.

(f) Termination of Approval Certificate. (1) The Associate Administrator may terminate an approval issued under this section if he determines that—

(i) Information upon which the approval was based is fraudulent or substantially erroneous; or

(ii) Termination of the approval is necessary to adequately protect against risks to life and property; or

(iii) The approval was not issued by the approval agency in good faith; or

(iv) The portable tank does not meet the specification.

(2) Before an approval is terminated, the Associate Administrator gives the interested party(ies):

(i) Written notice of the facts or conduct believed to warrant the termination;

(ii) Opportunity to submit oral and written evidence; and

(iii) Opportunity to demonstrate or achieve compliance with the applicable requirements.

(3) If the Associate Administrator determines that a certificate of approval must be terminated to preclude a significant and imminent adverse affect on public safety, he may terminate the certificate immediately. In such circumstances, the opportunities of paragraphs (f)(2) (ii) and (iii) of this section need not be provided prior to termination of the approval, but shall be provided as soon as practicable thereafter.

[66 FR 33439, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75748, 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 72 FR 55695, Oct. 1, 2007]

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§178.274   Specifications for UN portable tanks.

(a) General. (1) Each UN portable tank must meet the requirements of this section. In addition to the requirements of this section, requirements specific to UN portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, non-refrigerated liquefied gases and refrigerated liquefied gases are provided in §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, respectively. Requirements for approval, maintenance, inspection, testing and use are provided in §178.273 and part 180, subpart G, of this subchapter. Any portable tank which meets the definition of a “container” within the terms of the International Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) must meet the requirements of the CSC as amended and 49 CFR parts 450 through 453 and must have a CSC safety approval plate.

(2) In recognition of scientific and technological advances, the technical requirements applicable to UN portable tanks may be varied if approved by the Associate Administrator and the portable tank is shown to provide a level of safety equal to or exceeding the requirements of this subchapter. Portable tanks approved to alternative technical requirements must be marked “Alternative Arrangement” as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(3) Definitions. The following definitions apply for the purposes of design and construction of UN portable tanks under this subpart:

Alternate Arrangement portable tank means a UN portable tank that has been approved to alternative technical requirements or testing methods other than those specified for UN portable tanks in part 178 or part 180 of this subchapter.

Approval agency means the designated approval agency authorized to approve the portable tank in accordance with the procedures in subpart E of part 107 of this subchapter.

Design pressure is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Design type means a portable tank or series of portable tanks made of materials of the same material specifications and thicknesses, manufactured by a single manufacturer, using the same fabrication techniques (for example, welding procedures) and made with equivalent structural equipment, closures, and service equipment.

Fine grain steel means steel that has a ferritic grain size of 6 or finer when determined in accordance with ASTM E 112-96 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Fusible element means a non-reclosing pressure relief device that is thermally activated and that provides protection against excessive pressure buildup in the portable tank developed by exposure to heat, such as from a fire (see §178.275(g)).

Jacket means the outer insulation cover or cladding which may be part of the insulation system.

Leakage test means a test using gas to subject the shell and its service equipment to an internal pressure.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) is defined according to the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank. See §§178.275, 178.276 and 178.277, as applicable.

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM) means the sum of the tare mass of the portable tank and the heaviest hazardous material authorized for transportation.

Mild steel means a steel with a guaranteed minimum tensile strength of 360 N/mm2 to 440 N/mm2 and a guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture as specified in paragraph (c)(10) of this section.

Offshore portable tank means a portable tank specially designed for repeated use in the transportation of hazardous materials to, from and between offshore facilities. An offshore portable tank is designed and constructed in accordance with the Guidelines for the Approval of Containers Handled in Open Seas specified in the IMDG Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Reference steel means a steel with a tensile strength of 370 N/mm2 and an elongation at fracture of 27%.

Service equipment means measuring instruments and filling, discharge, venting, safety, heating, cooling and insulating devices.

Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the hazardous materials intended for transportation, including openings and closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.

Structural equipment means the reinforcing, fastening, protective and stabilizing members external to the shell.

Test pressure means the maximum gauge pressure at the top of the shell during the hydraulic pressure test equal to not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for liquids and 1.3 for liquefied compressed gases and refrigerated liquefied gases. In some instances a pneumatic test is authorized as an alternative to the hydraulic test. The minimum test pressures for portable tanks intended for specific liquid and solid hazardous materials are specified in the applicable portable tank T codes (such as T1-T23) assigned to these hazardous materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) The design temperature range for the shell must be −40 °C to 50 °C (−40 °F to 122 °F) for hazardous materials transported under normal conditions of transportation, except for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases where the minimum design temperature must not be higher than the lowest (coldest) temperature (for example, service temperature) of the contents during filling, discharge or transportation. For hazardous materials handled under elevated temperature conditions, the design temperature must not be less than the maximum temperature of the hazardous material during filling, discharge or transportation. More severe design temperatures must be considered for portable tanks subjected to severe climatic conditions (for example, portable tanks transported in arctic regions). Shells must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements in Section VIII of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), except as limited or modified in this subchapter. For portable tanks used for liquid or solid hazardous materials, a design code other than the ASME Code may be used if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tanks must have an ASME certification and U stamp when used for Hazard Zone A or B toxic by inhalation liquids, or when used for non-refrigerated or refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. Shells must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum and maximum design temperatures are proven to be sufficient. For welded shells, only a material whose weldability has been fully demonstrated may be used. Welds must be of high quality and conform to a level of integrity at least equivalent to the welding requirements specified in Section VIII of the ASME Code for the welding of pressure vessels. When the manufacturing process or the materials make it necessary, the shells must be suitably heat-treated to guarantee adequate toughness in the weld and in the heat-affected zones. In choosing the material, the design temperature range must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, stress corrosion cracking, resistance to impact, and suitability for the hazardous materials intended for transportation in the portable tank. When fine grain steel is used, the guaranteed value of the yield strength must be not more than 460 N/mm2 and the guaranteed value of the upper limit of the tensile strength must be not more than 725 N/mm2 according to the material specification. Aluminum may not be used as a construction material for the shells of portable tanks intended for the transport of non-refrigerated liquefied gases. For portable tanks intended for the transport of liquid or solid hazardous materials, aluminum may only be used as a construction material for portable tank shells if approved by the Associate Administrator. Portable tank materials must be suitable for the external environment where they will be transported, taking into account the determined design temperature range. Portable tanks shall be designed to withstand, without loss of contents, at least the internal pressure due to the contents and the static, dynamic and thermal loads during normal conditions of handling and transportation. The design must take into account the effects of fatigue, caused by repeated application of these loads through the expected life of the portable tank.

(2) Portable tank shells, fittings, and pipework shall be constructed from materials that are:

(i) Compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported; or

(ii) Properly passivated or neutralized by chemical reaction, if applicable; or

(iii) For portable tanks used for liquid and solid materials, lined with corrosion-resistant material directly bonded to the shell or attached by equivalent means.

(3) Gaskets and seals shall be made of materials that are compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported.

(4) When shells are lined, the lining must be compatible with the hazardous materials intended to be transported, homogeneous, non-porous, free from perforations, sufficiently elastic and compatible with the thermal expansion characteristics of the shell. The lining of every shell, shell fittings and piping must be continuous and must extend around the face of any flange. Where external fittings are welded to the tank, the lining must be continuous through the fitting and around the face of external flanges. Joints and seams in the lining must be made by fusing the material together or by other equally effective means.

(5) Contact between dissimilar metals which could result in damage by galvanic action must be prevented by appropriate measures.

(6) The construction materials of the portable tank, including any devices, gaskets, linings and accessories, must not adversely affect or react with the hazardous materials intended to be transported in the portable tank.

(7) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with supports that provide a secure base during transportation and with suitable lifting and tie-down attachments.

(c) Design criteria. (1) Portable tanks and their fastenings must, under the maximum permissible loads and maximum permissible working pressures, be capable of absorbing the following separately applied static forces (for calculation purposes, acceleration due to gravity (g) = 9.81m/s2):

(i) In the direction of travel: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(ii) Horizontally at right angles to the direction of travel: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity);

(iii) Vertically upwards: 1g (the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity); and

(iv) Vertically downwards: 2g (twice the MPGM multiplied by the acceleration due to gravity).

(2) Under each of the forces specified in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, the safety factor must be as follows:

(i) For metals having a clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed yield strength; or

(ii) For metals with no clearly defined yield point, a design margin of 1.5 in relation to the guaranteed 0.2% proof strength and, for austenitic steels, the 1% proof strength.

(3) The values of yield strength or proof strength must be the values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values of yield strength or proof strength according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% for portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials, other than toxic by inhalation liquids meeting the criteria of Hazard Zone A or Hazard Zone B (see §173.133 of this subchapter), when these greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(4) Portable tanks must be capable of being electrically grounded to prevent dangerous electrostatic discharge when they are used for Class 2 flammable gases or Class 3 flammable liquids, including elevated temperature materials transported at or above their flash point.

(5) For shells of portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases, the shell must consist of a circular cross section. Shells must be of a design capable of being stress-analyzed mathematically or experimentally by resistance strain gauges as specified in UG-101 of Section VIII of the ASME Code, or other methods approved by the Associate Administrator.

(6) Shells must be designed and constructed to withstand a hydraulic test pressure of not less than 1.5 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquids and 1.3 times the design pressure for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases. Specific requirements are provided for each hazardous material in the applicable T Code or portable tank special provision specified in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. The minimum shell thickness requirements must also be taken into account.

(7) For metals exhibiting a clearly defined yield point or characterized by a guaranteed proof strength (0.2% proof strength, generally, or 1% proof strength for austenitic steels), the primary membrane stress σ (sigma) in the shell must not exceed 0.75 Re or 0.50 Rm, whichever is lower, at the test pressure, where:

Re = yield strength in N/mm2, or 0.2% proof strength or, for austenitic steels, 1% proof strength;

Rm = minimum tensile strength in N/mm2.

(8) The values of Re and Rm to be used must be the specified minimum values according to recognized material standards. When austenitic steels are used, the specified minimum values for Re and Rm according to the material standards may be increased by up to 15% when greater values are attested in the material inspection certificate.

(9) Steels which have a Re/Rm ratio of more than 0.85 are not allowed for the construction of welded shells. The values of Re and Rm to be used in determining this ratio must be the values specified in the material inspection certificate.

(10) Steels used in the construction of shells must have an elongation at fracture, in percentage, of not less than 10,000/Rm with an absolute minimum of 16% for fine grain steels and 20% for other steels.

(11) For the purpose of determining actual values for materials for sheet metal, the axis of the tensile test specimen must be at right angles (transversely) to the direction of rolling. The permanent elongation at fracture must be measured on test specimens of rectangular cross sections in accordance with ISO 6892 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), using a 50 mm gauge length.

(d) Minimum shell thickness. (1) The minimum shell thickness must be the greatest thickness of the following:

(i) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with the requirements of paragraphs (d)(2) through (d)(7) of this section;

(ii) the minimum thickness determined in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or other approved pressure vessel code; or

(iii) the minimum thickness specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter.

(2) Shells (cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers) not more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 5 mm thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. Shells more than 1.80 m in diameter may not be less than 6 mm (0.2 inches) thick in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used. For portable tanks used only for the transportation of powdered or granular solid hazardous materials of Packing Group II or III, the minimum thickness requirement may be reduced to 5 mm in the reference steel or of equivalent thickness in the metal to be used regardless of the shell diameter. For vacuum-insulated tanks, the aggregate thickness of the jacket and the shell must correspond to the minimum thickness prescribed in this paragraph, with the thickness of the shell itself not less than the minimum thickness prescribed in paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(3) When additional protection against shell damage is provided in the case of portable tanks used for liquid and solid hazardous materials requiring test pressures less than 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa), subject to certain limitations specified in the UN Recommendations (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter), the Associate Administrator may approve a reduced minimum shell thickness.

(4) The cylindrical portions, heads and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 3 mm (0.1 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction, except for portable tanks used for liquefied compressed gases where the cylindrical portions, ends (heads) and manhole covers of all shells must not be less than 4 mm (0.2 inch) thick regardless of the material of construction.

(5) When steel is used, that has characteristics other than that of reference steel, the equivalent thickness of the shell and heads must be determined according to the following formula:

eCFR graphic en21jn01.005.gif

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Where:

e1 = required equivalent thickness (in mm) of the metal to be used;

e0 = minimum thickness (in mm) of the reference steel specified in the applicable T code or portable tank special provision indicated for each material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter;

d1 = 1.8m, unless the formula is used to determine the equivalent minimum thickness for a portable tank shell that is required to have a minimum thickness of 8mm or 10mm according to the applicable T code indicated in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. When reference steel thicknesses of 8mm or 10mm are specified, d1 is equal to the actual diameter of the shell but not less than 1.8m;

Rm1 = guaranteed minimum tensile strength (in N/mm2) of the metal to be used;

A1 = guaranteed minimum elongation at fracture (in %) of the metal to be used according to recognized material standards.

(6) The wall and all parts of the shell may not have a thickness less than that prescribed in paragraphs (d)(2), (d)(3) and (d)(4) of this section. This thickness must be exclusive of any corrosion allowance.

(7) There must be no sudden change of plate thickness at the attachment of the heads to the cylindrical portion of the shell.

(e) Service equipment. (1) Service equipment must be arranged so that it is protected against the risk of mechanical damage by external forces during handling and transportation. When the connections between the frame and the shell allow relative movement between the sub-assemblies, the equipment must be fastened to allow such movement without risk of damage to any working part. The external discharge fittings (pipe sockets, shut-off devices) and the internal stop-valve and its seating must be protected against mechanical damage by external forces (for example, by using shear sections). Each internal self-closing stop-valve must be protected by a shear section or sacrificial device located outboard of the valve. The shear section or sacrificial device must break at no more than 70% of the load that would cause failure of the internal self-closing stop valve. The filling and discharge devices (including flanges or threaded plugs) and any protective caps must be capable of being secured against unintended opening.

(2) Each filling or discharge opening of a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.

(3) Each stop-valve or other means of closure must be designed and constructed to a rated pressure not less than the MAWP of the shell taking into account the temperatures expected during transport. All stop-valves with screwed spindles must close by a clockwise motion of the handwheel. For other stop-valves, the position (open and closed) and direction of closure must be clearly indicated. All stop-valves must be designed to prevent unintentional opening.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(5) Joints in copper tubing must be brazed or have an equally strong metal union. The melting point of brazing materials must be no lower than 525 °C (977 °F). The joints must not decrease the strength of the tubing, such as may happen when cutting threads. Brazed joints are not authorized for portable tanks intended for refrigerated liquefied gases.

(6) The burst pressure of all piping and pipe fittings must be greater than the highest of four times the MAWP of the shell or four times the pressure to which it may be subjected in service by the action of a pump or other device (except pressure relief devices).

(7) Ductile metals must be used in the construction of valves and accessories.

(f) Pressure relief devices—(1) Marking of pressure relief devices. Every pressure relief device must be clearly and permanently marked with the following:

(i) the pressure (in bar or kPa) or temperature for fusible elements (in °C) at which it is set to discharge;

(ii) the allowable tolerance at the discharge pressure for reclosing devices;

(iii) the reference temperature corresponding to the rated pressure for frangible discs;

(iv) the allowable temperature tolerance for fusible elements;

(v) The rated flow capacity of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible disc or fusible elements in standard cubic meters of air per second (m3/s). For spring loaded pressure relief devices, the rated flow capacity must be determined according to ISO 4126-1 (including Technical Corrigendum 1) and ISO 4126-7 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(vi) The cross sectional flow areas of the spring loaded pressure relief devices, frangible discs, and fusible elements in mm2; and

(vii) When practicable, the device must show the manufacturer's name and product number.

(2) Connections to pressure relief devices. Connections to pressure relief devices must be of sufficient size to enable the required discharge to pass unrestricted to the safety device. No stop-valve may be installed between the shell and the pressure relief devices except where duplicate devices are provided for maintenance or other reasons and the stop-valves serving the devices actually in use are locked open or the stop-valves are interlocked so that at least one of the devices is always in use. There must be no obstruction in an opening leading to a vent or pressure relief device which might restrict or cut-off the flow from the shell to that device. Vents or pipes from the pressure relief device outlets, when used, must deliver the relieved vapor or liquid to the atmosphere in conditions of minimum back-pressure on the relieving devices.

(3) Location of pressure relief devices. (i) Each pressure relief device inlet must be situated on top of the shell in a position as near the longitudinal and transverse center of the shell as reasonably practicable. All pressure relief device inlets must, under maximum filling conditions, be situated in the vapor space of the shell and the devices must be so arranged as to ensure that any escaping vapor is not restricted in any manner. For flammable hazardous materials, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the shell in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the shell. For refrigerated liquefied gases, the escaping vapor must be directed away from the tank and in such a manner that it cannot impinge upon the tank. Protective devices which deflect the flow of vapor are permissible provided the required relief-device capacity is not reduced.

(ii) Provisions must be implemented to prevent unauthorized persons from access to the pressure relief devices and to protect the devices from damage caused by the portable tank overturning.

(g) Gauging devices. Unless a portable tank is intended to be filled by weight, it must be equipped with one or more gauging devices. Glass level-gauges and gauges made of other fragile material, which are in direct communication with the contents of the tank are prohibited. A connection for a vacuum gauge must be provided in the jacket of a vacuum-insulated portable tank.

(h) Portable tank supports, frameworks, lifting and tie-down attachments. (1) Portable tanks must be designed and constructed with a support structure to provide a secure base during transport. The forces and safety factors specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (c)(2) of this section, respectively, must be taken into account in this aspect of the design. Skids, frameworks, cradles or other similar structures are acceptable.

(2) The combined stresses caused by portable tank mountings (for example, cradles, framework, etc.) and portable tank lifting and tie-down attachments must not cause stress that would damage the shell in a manner that would compromise its lading retention capability. Permanent lifting and tie-down attachments must be fitted to all portable tanks. Preferably they should be fitted to the portable tank supports but may be secured to reinforcing plates located on the shell at the points of support. Each portable tank must be designed so that the center of gravity of the filled tank is approximately centered within the points of attachment for lifting devices.

(3) In the design of supports and frameworks, the effects of environmental corrosion must be taken into account.

(4) Forklift pockets must be capable of being closed off. The means of closing forklift pockets must be a permanent part of the framework or permanently attached to the framework. Single compartment portable tanks with a length less than 3.65 m (12 ft.) need not have forklift pockets that are capable of being closed off provided that:

(i) The shell, including all the fittings, are well protected from being hit by the forklift blades; and

(ii) The distance between forklift pockets (measured from the center of each pocket) is at least half of the maximum length of the portable tank.

(5) During transport, portable tanks must be adequately protected against damage to the shell, and service equipment resulting from lateral and longitudinal impact and overturning, or the shell and service equipment must be constructed to withstand the forces resulting from impact or overturning. External fittings must be protected so as to preclude the release of the shell contents upon impact or overturning of the portable tank on its fittings. Examples of protection include:

(i) Protection against lateral impact which may consist of longitudinal bars protecting the shell on both sides at the level of the median line;

(ii) Protection of the portable tank against overturning which may consist of reinforcement rings or bars fixed across the frame;

(iii) Protection against rear impact which may consist of a bumper or frame;

(iv) Protection of the shell against damage from impact or overturning by use of an ISO frame in accordance with ISO 1496-3 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter); and

(v) Protection of the portable tank from impact or damage that may result from overturning by an insulation jacket.

(i) Marking. (1) Every portable tank must be fitted with a corrosion resistant metal plate permanently attached to the portable tank in a conspicuous place and readily accessible for inspection. When the plate cannot be permanently attached to the shell, the shell must be marked with at least the information required by Section VIII of the ASME Code. At a minimum, the following information must be marked on the plate by stamping or by any other equivalent method:

Country of manufacture

U N

Approval Country

Approval Number

Alternative Arrangements (see §178.274(a)(2)) “AA”

Manufacturer's name or mark

Manufacturer's serial number

Approval Agency (Authorized body for the design approval)

Owner's registration number

Year of manufacture

Pressure vessel code to which the shell is designed

Test pressure____bar gauge.

MAWP____bar gauge.

External design pressure (not required for portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases)____bar gauge.

Design temperature range____ °C to____ °C. (For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, the minimum design temperature must be marked.)

Water capacity at 20 °C/____liters.

Water capacity of each compartment at 20 °C____liters.

Initial pressure test date and witness identification.

MAWP for heating/cooling system____bar gauge.

Shell material(s) and material standard reference(s).

Equivalent thickness in reference steel____mm.

Lining material (when applicable).

Date and type of most recent periodic test(s).

Month____Year____ Test pressure____bar gauge.

Stamp of approval agency that performed or witnessed the most recent test.

For portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases:

Either “thermally insulated” or “vacuum insulated”____.

Effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx)____Watts (W).

Reference holding time____days or hours and initial pressure____bar/kPa gauge and degree of filling____in kg for each refrigerated liquefied gas permitted for transportation.

(2) The following information must be marked either on the portable tank itself or on a metal plate firmly secured to the portable tank:

Name of the operator.

Name of hazardous materials being transported and maximum mean bulk temperature (except for refrigerated liquefied gases, the name and temperature are only required when the maximum mean bulk temperature is higher than 50 °C).

Maximum permissible gross mass (MPGM)____kg.

Unladen (tare) mass____kg.

Note to paragraph (i)(2): For the identification of the hazardous materials being transported refer to part 172 of this subchapter.

(3) If a portable tank is designed and approved for open seas operations, such as offshore oil exploration, in accordance with the IMDG Code, the words “OFFSHORE PORTABLE TANK” must be marked on the identification plate.

(j) Initial inspection and test. The initial inspection and test of a portable tank must include the following:

(1) A check of the design characteristics.

(2) An internal and external examination of the portable tank and its fittings, taking into account the hazardous materials to be transported. For UN portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases, a pressure test using an inert gas may be conducted instead of a hydrostatic test. An internal inspection is not required for a portable tank used for the dedicated transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases that are not filled with an inspection opening.

(3) A pressure test as specified in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) A leakage test.

(5) A test of the satisfactory operation of all service equipment including pressure relief devices must also be performed. When the shell and its fittings have been pressure-tested separately, they must be subjected to a leakage test after reassembly. All welds, subject to full stress level in the shell, must be inspected during the initial test by radiographic, ultrasonic, or another suitable non-destructive test method. This does not apply to the jacket.

(6) Effective January 1, 2008, each new UN portable tank design type meeting the definition of “container” in the Convention for Safe Containers (CSC) (see 49 CFR 450.3(a)(2)) must be subjected to the dynamic longitudinal impact test prescribed in Part IV, Section 40 of the UN Manual of Tests and Criteria (see IBR, §171.7 of this subchapter). A UN portable tank design type impact-tested prior to January 1, 2008, in accordance with the requirements of this section in effect on October 1, 2005, need not be retested. UN portable tanks used for the dedicated transportation of “Helium, refrigerated liquid,” UN1963, and “Hydrogen, refrigerated liquid,” UN1966, that are marked “NOT FOR RAIL TRANSPORT” in letters of a minimum height of 10 cm (4 inches) on at least two sides of the portable tank are excepted from the dynamic longitudinal impact test.

(7) The following tests must be completed on a portable tank or a series of portable tanks designed and constructed to a single design type that is also a CSC container without leakage or deformation that would render the portable tank unsafe for transportation and use:

(i) Longitudinal inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned with its longitudinal axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower end of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper end of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

(ii) Lateral inertia. The portable tank loaded to its maximum gross weight must be positioned for five minutes with its transverse axis vertical. It shall be held in this position for five minutes by support at the lower side of the base structure providing vertical and lateral restraint and by support at the upper side of the base structure providing lateral restraint only.

[66 FR 33440, June 21, 2001, as amended at 67 FR 15744, Apr. 3, 2002; 68 FR 45041, July 31, 2003; 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003; 68 FR 75751, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 70 FR 34399, June 14, 2005; 71 FR 78634, Dec. 29, 2006; 72 FR 55696, Oct. 1, 2007; 73 FR 4719, Jan. 28, 2008; 78 FR 1096, Jan. 7, 2013]

Editorial Note: At 68 FR 57633, Oct. 6, 2003, §178.274 was amended in paragraph (b)(1); however, the amendment could not be incorporated due to inaccurate amendatory instruction.

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§178.275   Specification for UN Portable Tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274, this section sets forth definitions and requirements that apply to UN portable tanks intended for the transportation of liquid and solid hazardous materials.

(b) Definitions and requirements—(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the recognized pressure vessel code. The design pressure must not be less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of—

(A) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the hazardous material at 65 °C, minus 1 bar (149 °F, minus 100 kPa);

(B) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space, resulting from their compression during filling without pressure relief by a maximum ullage temperature of 65 °C (149 °F) and a liquid expansion due to an increase in mean bulk temperature of 35 °C (95 °F); and

(C) A head pressure determined on the basis of the forces specified in §178.274(c) of this subchapter, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must not be less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed which must be not less than the design pressure.

(c) Service equipment. (1) In addition to the requirements specified in §178.274, for service equipment, all openings in the shell, intended for filling or discharging the portable tank must be fitted with a manually operated stop-valve located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable. Other openings, except for openings leading to venting or pressure relief devices, must be equipped with either a stop-valve or another suitable means of closure located as close to the shell as reasonably practicable.

(2) All portable tanks must be fitted with a manhole or other inspection openings of a suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior. Compartmented portable tanks must have a manhole or other inspection openings for each compartment.

(3) For insulated portable tanks, top fittings must be surrounded by a spill collection reservoir with suitable drains.

(4) Piping must be designed, constructed and installed to avoid the risk of damage due to thermal expansion and contraction, mechanical shock and vibration. All piping must be of a suitable metallic material. Welded pipe joints must be used wherever possible.

(d) Bottom openings. (1) Certain hazardous materials may not be transported in portable tanks with bottom openings. When the applicable T code or portable tank special provision, as referenced for materials in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, specifies that bottom openings are prohibited, there must be no openings below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit. When an existing opening is closed, it must be accomplished by internally and externally welding one plate to the shell.

(2) Bottom discharge outlets for portable tanks carrying certain solid, crystallizable or highly viscous hazardous materials must be equipped with at least two serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. Use of only two shut-off devices is only authorized when this paragraph is referenced in the applicable T Code indicated for each hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter. The design of the equipment must be to the satisfaction of the approval agency and must include:

(i) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable; and

(ii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap.

(3) Except as provided in paragraph (d)(2) of this section, every bottom discharge outlet must be equipped with three serially fitted and mutually independent shut-off devices. The design of the equipment must include:

(i) A self-closing internal stop-valve, which is a stop-valve within the shell or within a welded flange or its companion flange, such that:

(A) The control devices for the operation of the valve are designed to prevent any unintended opening through impact or other inadvertent act;

(B) The valve is operable from above or below;

(C) If possible, the setting of the valve (open or closed) must be capable of being verified from the ground;

(D) Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), it must be possible to close the valve from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve itself within 30 seconds of actuation; and

(E) The valve must continue to be effective in the event of damage to the external device for controlling the operation of the valve;

(ii) An external stop-valve fitted as close to the shell as reasonably practicable;

(iii) A liquid tight closure at the end of the discharge pipe, which may be a bolted blank flange or a screw cap; and

(iv) For UN portable tanks, with bottom outlets, used for the transportation of liquid hazardous materials that are Class 3, PG I or II, or PG III with a flash point of less than 100 °F (38 °C); Division 5.1, PG I or II; or Division 6.1, PG I or II, the remote means of closure must be capable of thermal activation. The thermal means of activation must activate at a temperature of not more than 250 °F (121 °C).

(e) Pressure relief devices. All portable tanks must be fitted with at least one pressure relief device. All relief devices must be designed, constructed and marked in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter.

(f) Vacuum-relief devices. (1) A shell which is to be equipped with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.21 bar (21.0 kPa). The vacuum-relief device must be set to relieve at a vacuum setting not greater than −0.21 bar (−21.0 kPa) unless the shell is designed for a higher external over pressure, in which case the vacuum-relief pressure of the device to be fitted must not be greater than the tank design vacuum pressure. A shell that is not fitted with a vacuum-relief device must be designed to withstand, without permanent deformation, an external pressure of not less than 0.4 bar (40.0 kPa).

(2) Vacuum-relief devices used on portable tanks intended for the transportation of hazardous materials meeting the criteria of Class 3, including elevated temperature hazardous materials transported at or above their flash point, must prevent the immediate passage of flame into the shell or the portable tank must have a shell capable of withstanding, without leakage, an internal explosion resulting from the passage of flame into the shell.

(g) Pressure relief devices. (1) Each portable tank with a capacity not less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) and every independent compartment of a portable tank with a similar capacity, must be provided with one or more pressure relief devices of the reclosing type. Such portable tanks may, in addition, have a frangible disc or fusible element in parallel with the reclosing devices, except when the applicable T code assigned to a hazardous material requires that the frangible disc precede the pressure relief device, according to paragraph (g)(3) of this section, or when no bottom openings are allowed. The pressure relief devices must have sufficient capacity to prevent rupture of the shell due to over pressurization or vacuum resulting from filling, discharging, heating of the contents or fire.

(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of liquid and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(3) When required for certain hazardous materials by the applicable T code or portable tank special provision specified for a hazardous material in the §172.101 Table of this subchapter, portable tanks must have a pressure relief device consistent with the requirements of this subchapter. Except for a portable tank in dedicated service that is fitted with an approved relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device system must include a frangible disc preceding (such as, between the lading and the reclosing pressure relief device) a reclosing pressure relief device. A pressure gauge or suitable tell-tale indicator for the detection of disc rupture, pin-holing or leakage must be provided in the space between the frangible disc and the pressure relief device to allow the portable tank operator to check to determine if the disc is leak free. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the reclosable pressure relief device.

(4) Every portable tank with a capacity less than 1,900 liters (501.9 gallons) must be fitted with a pressure relief device which, except as provided in paragraph (g)(3) of this section, may be a frangible disc when this disc is set to rupture at a nominal pressure equal to the test pressure at any temperature within the design temperature range.

(5) When the shell is fitted for pressure discharge, a suitable pressure relief device must provide the inlet line to the portable tank and set to operate at a pressure not higher than the MAWP of the shell, and a stop-valve must be fitted as close to the shell as practicable to minimize the potential for damage.

(6) Setting of pressure relief devices. (i) Pressure relief devices must operate only in conditions of excessive rise in temperature. The shell must not be subject to undue fluctuations of pressure during normal conditions of transportation.

(ii) The required pressure relief device must be set to start to discharge at a nominal pressure of five-sixths of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of not more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa) and 110% of two-thirds of the test pressure for shells having a test pressure of more than 4.5 bar (450 kPa). A self-closing relief device must close at a pressure not more than 10% below the pressure at which the discharge starts. The device must remain closed at all lower pressures. This requirement does not prevent the use of vacuum-relief or combination pressure relief and vacuum-relief devices.

(h) Fusible elements. Fusible elements must operate at a temperature between 110 °C (230 °F) and 149 °C (300.2 °F), provided that the pressure in the shell at the fusing temperature will not exceed the test pressure. They must be placed at the top of the shell with their inlets in the vapor space and in no case may they be shielded from external heat. Fusible elements must not be utilized on portable tanks with a test pressure which exceeds 2.65 bar (265.0 kPa); however, fusible elements are authorized on portable tanks for the transportation of certain organometallic materials in accordance with §172.102, special provision TP36 of this subchapter. Fusible elements used on portable tanks intended for the transport of elevated temperature hazardous materials must be designed to operate at a temperature higher than the maximum temperature that will be experienced during transport and must be designed to the satisfaction of the approval agency.

(i) Capacity of pressure relief devices. (1) The reclosing pressure relief device required by paragraph (g)(1) of this section must have a minimum cross sectional flow area equivalent to an orifice of 31.75 mm (1.3 inches) diameter. Vacuum-relief devices, when used, must have a cross sectional flow area not less than 284 mm2 (11.2 inches2).

(2) The combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief system (taking into account the reduction of the flow when the portable tank is fitted with frangible-discs preceding spring-loaded pressure-relief devices or when the spring-loaded pressure-relief devices are provided with a device to prevent the passage of the flame), in condition of complete fire engulfment of the portable tank must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to 20% above the start to discharge pressure limiting device (pressure relief device). The total required capacity of the relief devices may be determined using the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section or the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section.

(i)(A) To determine the total required capacity of the relief devices, which must be regarded as being the sum of the individual capacities of all the contributing devices, the following formula must be used:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.000.gif

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Where:

Q = minimum required rate of discharge in cubic meters of air per second (m3/s) at conditions: 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K);

F = for uninsulated shells: 1; for insulated shells: U(649−t)/13.6 but in no case is less than 0.25

Where:

U = thermal conductance of the insulation, in kW m−2K−1, at 38 °C (100 °F); and t = actual temperature of the hazardous material during filling (in °C) or when this temperature is unknown, let t = 15 °C (59 °F). The value of F given in this paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) for insulated shells may only be used if the insulation is in conformance with paragraph (i)(2)(iv) of this section;

A = total external surface area of shell in square meters;

Z = the gas compressibility factor in the accumulating condition (when this factor is unknown, let Z equal 1.0);

T = absolute temperature in Kelvin (°C + 273) above the pressure relief devices in the accumulating condition;

L = the latent heat of vaporization of the liquid, in kJ/kg, in the accumulating condition;

M = molecular weight of the hazardous material.

(B) The constant C, as shown in the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, is derived from one of the following formulas as a function of the ratio k of specific heats:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.001.gif

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Where:

cp is the specific heat at constant pressure; and

cv is the specific heat at constant volume.

(C) When k >1:

eCFR graphic er01oc08.002.gif

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(D) When k = 1 or k is unknown, a value of 0.607 may be used for the constant C. C may also be taken from the following table:

C Constant Value Table

kC
1.000.607
1.020.611
1.040.615
1.060.620
1.080.624
1.100.628
1.120.633
1.140.637
1.160.641
1.180.645
1.200.649
1.220.652
1.240.656
1.260.660
1.280.664
1.300.667
1.320.671
1.340.674
1.360.678
1.380.681
1.400.685
1.420.688
1.440.691
1.460.695
1.480.698
1.500.701
1.520.704
1.540.707
1.560.710
1.580.713
1.600.716
1.620.719
1.640.722
1.660.725
1.680.728
1.700.731
2.000.770
2.200.793

(ii) As an alternative to the formula in paragraph (i)(2)(i)(A) of this section, relief devices for shells used for transporting liquids may be sized in accordance with the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section. The table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section assumes an insulation value of F = 1 and must be adjusted accordingly when the shell is insulated. Other values used in determining the table in paragraph (i)(2)(iii) of this section are: L = 334.94 kJ/kg; M = 86.7; T = 394 °K; Z = 1; and C = 0.607.

(iii) Minimum emergency vent capacity, Q, in cubic meters of air per second at 1 bar and 0 °C (273 °K) shown in the following table:

Minimum Emergency Vent Capacity

[Q Values]

A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
A
Exposed area (square meters)
Q
(Cubic meters of air per second)
20.23037.52.539
30.320402.677
40.40542.52.814
50.487452.949
60.56547.53.082
70.641503.215
80.71552.53.346
90.788553.476
100.85957.53.605
120.998603.733
141.13262.53.860
161.263653.987
181.39167.54.112
201.517704.236
22.51.670754.483
251.821804.726
27.51.969854.967
302.115905.206
32.52.258955.442
352.4001005.676

(iv) Insulation systems, used for the purpose of reducing venting capacity, must be specifically approved by the approval agency. In all cases, insulation systems approved for this purpose must—

(A) Remain effective at all temperatures up to 649 °C (1200 °F); and

(B) Be jacketed with a material having a melting point of 700 °C (1292 °F) or greater.

(j) Approval, inspection and testing. Approval procedures for UN portable tanks are specified in §178.273. Inspection and testing requirements are specified in §180.605 of this subchapter.

[66 FR 33445, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 32414, May 30, 2003; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004; 73 FR 57006, Oct. 1, 2008; 76 FR 3388, Jan. 19, 2011]

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§178.276   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements apply to UN portable tanks used for non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases. In addition to the definitions in §178.274, the following definitions apply:

(1) Design pressure means the pressure to be used in calculations required by the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). The design pressure must be not less than the highest of the following pressures:

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The sum of:

(A) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed as defined in this paragraph under “MAWP”; and

(B) A head pressure determined on the basis of the dynamic forces specified in paragraph (h) of this section, but not less than 0.35 bar (35 kPa).

(2) Design reference temperature means the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the contents is determined for the purpose of calculating the MAWP. The value for each portable tank type is as follows:

(i) Shell with a diameter of 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.) or less: 65 °C (149 °F); or

(ii) Shell with a diameter of more than 1.5 meters (4.9 ft.):

(A) Without insulation or sun shield: 60 °C (140 °F);

(B) With sun shield: 55 °C (131 °F); and

(C) With insulation: 50 °C (122 °F).

(3) Filling density means the average mass of liquefied compressed gas per liter of shell capacity (kg/l).

(4) Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means a pressure that must be not less than the highest of the following pressures measured at the top of the shell while in operating position, but in no case less than 7 bar (700 kPa):

(i) The maximum effective gauge pressure allowed in the shell during filling or discharge; or

(ii) The maximum effective gauge pressure to which the shell is designed, which must be:

(A) Not less than the pressure specified for each liquefied compressed gas listed in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313; and

(B) Not less than the sum of:

(1) The absolute vapor pressure (in bar) of the liquefied compressed gas at the design reference temperature minus 1 bar; and

(2) The partial pressure (in bar) of air or other gases in the ullage space which is determined by the design reference temperature and the liquid phase expansion due to the increase of the mean bulk temperature of tr−tf (tf = filling temperature, usually 15 °C, tr = 50 °C maximum mean bulk temperature).

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) Shells must be of seamless or welded steel construction, or combination of both, and have a water capacity greater than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Shells must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with the ASME Code, Section VIII.

(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat-treated and radiographed as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, except that each portable tank constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must be postweld heat-treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the portable tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds in and/or to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. A portable tank used for anhydrous ammonia must be postweld heat-treated. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1050 °F tank metal temperature. Additionally, portable tanks constructed in accordance with part UHT of the ASME Code must conform to the following requirements:

(i) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code. In addition to the essential variables named therein, the following must be considered to be essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and manufacturer's identification of rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25 percent from the qualified procedure. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer or his designated agent and, upon request, made available to a representative of the Department of Transportation or the owner of the tank.

(ii) Impact tests must be made on a lot basis. A lot is defined as 100 tons or less of the same heat and having a thickness variation no greater than plus or minus 25 percent. The minimum impact required for full-sized specimens shall be 20 foot-pounds (or 10 foot-pounds for half-sized specimens) at 0 °F (−17.8 °F) Charpy V-Notch in both the longitudinal and transverse direction. If the lot test does not pass this requirement, individual plates may be accepted if they individually meet this impact requirement.

(3) When the shells intended for the transportation of non-refrigerated liquefied compressed gases are equipped with thermal insulation, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulating layer in the event of a leak, when the protective covering is closed it must be gas tight. The thermal insulation must not inhibit access to the fittings and discharge devices. In addition, the thermal insulation systems must satisfy the following requirements:

(i) consist of a shield covering not less than the upper third, but not more than the upper half of the surface of the shell, and separated from the shell by an air space of approximately 40 mm (1.7 inches) across; or

(ii) consist of a complete cladding of insulating materials. The insulation must be of adequate thickness and constructed to prevent the ingress of moisture and damage to the insulation. The insulation and cladding must have a thermal conductance of not more than 0.67 (W·m−2·K−1) under normal conditions of transportation.

(c) Service equipment. (1) Each opening with a diameter of more than 1.5 mm (0.1 inch) in the shell of a portable tank, except openings for pressure-relief devices, inspection openings and closed bleed holes, must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being an internal stop-valve, excess flow valve, integral excess flow valve, or excess flow feature (see §178.337-1(g)), the second being an external stop-valve and the third being a blank flange, thread cap, plug or equivalent tight liquid closure device.

(2) When a portable tank is fitted with an excess flow valve, the excess flow valve must be so fitted that its seating is inside the shell or inside a welded flange or, when fitted externally, its mountings must be designed so that in the event of impact it maintains its effectiveness. The excess flow valves must be selected and fitted so as to close automatically when the rated flow, specified by the manufacturer, is reached. Connections and accessories leading to or from such a valve must have a capacity for a flow more than the excess flow valve's rated flow.

(3) For filling and discharge openings that are located below the liquid level, the first shut-off device must be an internal stop-valve and the second must be a stop-valve placed in an accessible position on each discharge and filling pipe.

(4) For filling and discharge openings located below the liquid level of portable tanks intended for the transportation of flammable and/or toxic liquefied compressed gases, the internal stop-valve must be a self-closing safety device that fully closes automatically during filling or discharge in the event of fire engulfment. The device shall fully close within 30 seconds of actuation and the thermal means of closure must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F). Except for portable tanks having a capacity less than 1,000 liters (264.2 gallons), this device must be operable by remote control.

(5) In addition to filling, discharge and gas pressure equalizing orifices, shells may have openings in which gauges, thermometers and manometers can be fitted. Connections for such instruments must be made by suitable welded nozzles or pockets and may not be connected by screwed connections through the shell.

(6) All portable tanks must be fitted with manholes or other inspection openings of suitable size to allow for internal inspection and adequate access for maintenance and repair of the interior.

(7) Inlets and discharge outlets on chlorine portable tanks. The inlet and discharge outlets on portable tanks used to transport chlorine must meet the requirements of §178.337-1(c)(2) and must be fitted with an internal excess flow valve. In addition to the internal excess flow valve, the inlet and discharge outlets must be equipped with an external stop valve (angle valve). Excess flow valves must conform to the standards of The Chlorine Institute, Inc. (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter) as follows:

(i) A valve conforming to Drawing 101-7, dated July 1993, must be installed under each liquid angle valve.

(ii) A valve conforming to Drawing 106-6, dated July 1993, must be installed under each gas angle valve. For portable tanks used to transport non-refrigerated liquefied gases.

(8) External fittings must be grouped together as close as reasonably practicable. The following openings may be installed at locations other than on the top or end of the tank:

(i) The openings for liquid level gauging devices, pressure gauges, or for safety devices, may be installed separately at the other location or in the side of the shell;

(ii) One plugged opening of 2-inch National Pipe Thread or less provided for maintenance purposes may be located elsewhere;

(iii) An opening of 3-inch National Pipe Size or less may be provided at another location, when necessary, to facilitate installation of condensing coils.

(9) Filling and discharge connections are not required to be grouped and may be installed below the normal liquid level of the tank if:

(i) The portable tank is permanently mounted in a full framework for containerized transport;

(ii) For each portable tank design, a prototype portable tank, meets the requirements of parts 450 through 453 of this title for compliance with the requirements of Annex II of the International Convention for Safe Containers; and

(iii) Each filling and discharge outlet meets the requirements of paragraph (c)(4) of this section.

(d) Bottom openings. Bottom openings are prohibited on portable tanks when the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313 of this subchapter indicates that bottom openings are not allowed. In this case, there may be no openings located below the liquid level of the shell when it is filled to its maximum permissible filling limit.

(e) Pressure relief devices. (1) Portable tanks must be provided with one or more reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not less than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of a type that will resist dynamic forces including liquid surge. A frangible disc may only be used in series with a reclosing pressure relief device.

(2) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(3) A portable tank intended for the transportation of certain liquefied compressed gases identified in the UN Portable Tank Table for Liquefied Compressed Gases in §173.313 of this subchapter must have a pressure relief device which conforms to the requirements of this subchapter. Unless a portable tank, in dedicated service, is fitted with a relief device constructed of materials compatible with the hazardous material, the relief device must be comprised of a frangible disc preceded by a reclosing device. The space between the frangible disc and the device must be provided with a pressure gauge or a suitable tell-tale indicator. This arrangement must facilitate the detection of disc rupture, pinholing or leakage which could cause a malfunction of the pressure relief device. The frangible disc must rupture at a nominal pressure 10% above the start-to-discharge pressure of the relief device.

(4) In the case of portable tanks used for more than one gas, the pressure relief devices must open at a pressure indicated in paragraph (e)(1) of this section for the gas having the highest maximum allowable pressure of the gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank.

(f) Capacity of relief devices. The combined delivery capacity of the relief devices must be sufficient so that, in the event of total fire engulfment, the pressure inside the shell cannot exceed 120% of the MAWP. Reclosing relief devices must be used to achieve the full relief capacity prescribed. In the case of portable tanks used for more than gas, the combined delivery capacity of the pressure relief devices must be taken for the liquefied compressed gas which requires the highest delivery capacity of the liquefied compressed gases allowed to be transported in the portable tank. The total required capacity of the relief devices must be determined according to the requirements in §178.275(i). These requirements apply only to liquefied compressed gases which have critical temperatures well above the temperature at the accumulating condition. For gases that have critical temperatures near or below the temperature at the accumulating condition, the calculation of the pressure relief device delivery capacity must consider the additional thermodynamic properties of the gas, for example see CGA S-1.2 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

[66 FR 33448, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 75748, 75752, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 69 FR 76185, Dec. 20, 2004]

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§178.277   Requirements for the design, construction, inspection and testing of portable tanks intended for the transportation of refrigerated liquefied gases.

(a) In addition to the requirements of §178.274 applicable to UN portable tanks, the following requirements and definitions apply to UN portable tanks used for refrigerated liquefied gases:

Design pressure For the purpose of this section the term “design pressure” is consistent with the definition for design pressure in the ASME Code, Section VIII (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

Holding time is the time, as determined by testing, that will elapse from loading until the pressure of the contents, under equilibrium conditions, reaches the lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device(s) (for example, pressure control valve or pressure relief device). Holding time must be determined as specified in §178.338-9.

Maximum allowable working pressure (MAWP) means the maximum effective gauge pressure permissible at the top of the shell of a loaded portable tank in its operating position including the highest effective pressure during filling and discharge;

Minimum design temperature means the temperature which is used for the design and construction of the shell not higher than the lowest (coldest) service temperature of the contents during normal conditions of filling, discharge and transportation.

Shell means the part of the portable tank which retains the refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport, including openings and their closures, but does not include service equipment or external structural equipment.

Tank means a construction which normally consists of either:

(1) A jacket and one or more inner shells where the space between the shell(s) and the jacket is exhausted of air (vacuum insulation) and may incorporate a thermal insulation system; or

(2) A jacket and an inner shell with an intermediate layer of solid thermally insulating material (for example, solid foam).

(b) General design and construction requirements. (1) Portable tanks must be of seamless or welded steel construction and have a water capacity of more than 450 liters (118.9 gallons). Portable tanks must be designed, constructed, certified and stamped in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code.

(2) Portable tanks must be postweld heat treated and radiographed as prescribed in Sections V and VIII of the ASME Code except that each tank constructed in accordance with part UHT in Section VIII of the ASME Code must be postweld heat treated. Where postweld heat treatment is required, the tank must be treated as a unit after completion of all the welds to the shell and heads. The method must be as prescribed in the ASME Code. Welded attachments to pads may be made after postweld heat treatment is made. The postweld heat treatment must be as prescribed in Section VIII of the ASME Code, but in no event at less than 1,050 °F tank metal temperature.

(3) Welding procedure and welder performance tests must be made annually in accordance with Section IX of the ASME Code (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). In addition to the essential variables named in the ASME Code, the following must be considered as essential variables: number of passes, thickness of plate, heat input per pass, and the specified rod and flux. The number of passes, thickness of plate and heat input per pass may not vary more than 25% from the procedure qualification. Records of the qualification must be retained for at least 5 years by the portable tank manufacturer and made available to the approval agency and the owner of the portable tank as specified in §178.273.

(4) Shells and jackets must be made of metallic materials suitable for forming. Jackets must be made of steel. Non-metallic materials may be used for the attachments and supports between the shell and jacket, provided their material properties at the minimum design temperature are proven to be sufficient. In choosing the material, the minimum design temperature must be taken into account with respect to risk of brittle fracture, to hydrogen embrittlement, to stress corrosion cracking and to resistance to impact.

(5) Any part of a portable tank, including fittings, gaskets and pipe-work, which can be expected normally to come into contact with the refrigerated liquefied gas transported must be compatible with that refrigerated liquefied gas.

(6) The thermal insulation system must include a complete covering of the shell with effective insulating materials. External insulation must be protected by a jacket so as to prevent the ingress of moisture and other damage under normal transport conditions.

(7) When a jacket is so closed as to be gas-tight, a device must be provided to prevent any dangerous pressure from developing in the insulation space.

(8) Materials which may react with oxygen or oxygen enriched atmospheres in a dangerous manner may not be used in portable tanks intended for the transport of refrigerated liquefied gases having a boiling point below minus 182 °C at atmospheric pressure in locations with the thermal insulation where there is a risk of contact with oxygen or with oxygen enriched fluid.

(9) Insulating materials must not deteriorate to an extent that the effectiveness of the insulation system, as determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(11) of this section, would be reduced in service.

(10) A reference holding time must be determined for each refrigerated liquefied gas intended for transport in a portable tank. The reference holding time must be determined by testing in accordance with the requirements of §178.338-9, considering the following factors:

(i) The effectiveness of the insulation system, determined in accordance with paragraph (b)(11) of this section;

(ii) The lowest set pressure of the pressure limiting device;

(iii) The initial filling conditions;

(iv) An assumed ambient temperature of 30 °C (86 °F);

(v) The physical properties of the individual refrigerated liquefied gas intended to be transported.

(11) The effectiveness of the insulation system (heat influx in watts) may be determined by type testing the portable tank in accordance with a procedure specified in §178.338-9(c) or by using the holding time test in §178.338-9(b). This test must consist of either:

(i) A constant pressure test (for example, at atmospheric pressure) when the loss of refrigerated liquefied gas is measured over a period of time; or

(ii) A closed system test when the rise in pressure in the shell is measured over a period of time.

(12) When performing the constant pressure test, variations in atmospheric pressure must be taken into account. When performing either test, corrections must be made for any variation of the ambient temperature from the assumed ambient temperature reference value of 30 °C (86 °F).

(13) The jacket of a vacuum-insulated double-wall tank must have either an external design pressure not less than 100 kPa (1 bar) gauge pressure calculated in accordance with Section VIII of the ASME Code or a calculated critical collapsing pressure of not less than 200 kPa (2 bar) gauge pressure. Internal and external reinforcements may be included in calculating the ability of the jacket to resist the external pressure.

Note to paragraph (b): For the determination of the actual holding time, as indicated by paragraphs (b)(10), (11), (12), and (13), before each journey, refer to §178.338-9(b).

(c) Design criteria. For shells with vacuum insulation, the test pressure must not be less than 1.3 times the sum of the MAWP and 100 kPa (1 bar). In no case may the test pressure be less than 300 kPa (3 bar) gauge pressure.

(d) Service equipment. (1) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least three mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket, the second being a stop-valve and the third being a blank flange or equivalent device. The shut-off device closest to the jacket must be a self-closing device, which is capable of being closed from an accessible position on the portable tank that is remote from the valve within 30 seconds of actuation. This device must actuate at a temperature of not more than 121 °C (250 °F).

(2) Each filling and discharge opening in portable tanks used for the transport of non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases must be fitted with at least two mutually independent shut-off devices in series: the first being a stop-valve situated as close as reasonably practicable to the jacket and the second a blank flange or equivalent device.

(3) For sections of piping which can be closed at both ends and where liquid product can be trapped, a method of automatic pressure relief must be provided to prevent excess pressure build-up within the piping.

(4) Each filling and discharge opening on a portable tank must be clearly marked to indicate its function.

(5) When pressure-building units are used, the liquid and vapor connections to that unit must be provided with a valve as close to the jacket as reasonably practicable to prevent the loss of contents in case of damage to the pressure-building unit. A check valve may be used for this purpose if it is located on the vapor side of the pressure build-up coil.

(6) The materials of construction of valves and accessories must have satisfactory properties at the lowest operating temperature of the portable tank.

(7) Vacuum insulated portable tanks are not required to have an inspection opening.

(e) Pressure relief devices. (1) Every shell must be provided with not less than two independent reclosing pressure relief devices. The pressure relief devices must open automatically at a pressure not less than the MAWP and be fully open at a pressure equal to 110% of the MAWP. These devices must, after discharge, close at a pressure not lower than 10% below the pressure at which discharge starts and must remain closed at all lower pressures. The pressure relief devices must be of the type that will resist dynamic forces including surge.

(2) Except for portable tanks used for oxygen, portable tanks for non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen may in addition have frangible discs in parallel with the reclosing devices as specified in paragraphs (e)(4)(ii) and (e)(4)(iii) of this section.

(3) Pressure relief devices must be designed to prevent the entry of foreign matter, the leakage of gas and the development of any dangerous excess pressure.

(4) Capacity and setting of pressure relief devices. (i) In the case of the loss of vacuum in a vacuum-insulated tank or of loss of 20% of the insulation of a portable tank insulated with solid materials, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient so that the pressure (including accumulation) inside the shell does not exceed 120% of the MAWP.

(ii) For non-flammable refrigerated liquefied gases (except oxygen) and hydrogen, this capacity may be achieved by the use of frangible discs in parallel with the required safety-relief devices. Frangible discs must rupture at nominal pressure equal to the test pressure of the shell.

(iii) Under the circumstances described in paragraphs (e)(4)(i) and (e)(4)(ii) of this section, together with complete fire engulfment, the combined capacity of all pressure relief devices installed must be sufficient to limit the pressure in the shell to the test pressure.

(iv) The required capacity of the relief devices must be calculated in accordance with CGA Pamphlet S-1.2 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

[66 FR 33450, June 21, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 75748, 75752, Dec. 31, 2003]

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