178.707 Standards for composite IBCs.§ 178.707 Standards for composite IBCs.
(a) The provisions in this section apply to composite IBCs intended to contain solids and liquids. To complete the marking codes listed below, the letter “Z” must be replaced by a capital letter in accordance with § 178.702(a)(2) to indicate the material used for the outer packaging. Composite IBC types are designated:
(1) 11HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged by gravity.
(2) 11HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged by gravity.
(3) 21HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged under pressure.
(4) 21HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for solids loaded or discharged under pressure.
(5) 31HZ1 Composite IBCs with a rigid plastic inner receptacle for liquids.
(6) 31HZ2 Composite IBCs with a flexible plastic inner receptacle for liquids.
(b) Definitions for composite IBC types:
(1) A composite IBC is an IBC which consists of a rigid outer packaging enclosing a plastic inner receptacle together with any service or other structural equipment. The outer packaging of a composite IBC is designed to bear the entire stacking load. The inner receptacle and outer packaging form an integral packaging and are filled, stored, transported, and emptied as a unit.
(2) The term plastic means polymeric materials (i.e., plastic or rubber).
(3) A “rigid” inner receptacle is an inner receptacle which retains its general shape when empty without closures in place and without benefit of the outer casing. Any inner receptacle that is not “rigid” is considered to be “flexible.”
(c) Construction requirements for composite IBCs with plastic inner receptacles are as follows:
(1) The outer packaging must consist of rigid material formed so as to protect the inner receptacle from physical damage during handling and transportation, but is not required to perform the secondary containment function. It includes the base pallet where appropriate. The inner receptacle is not intended to perform a containment function without the outer packaging.
(2) A composite IBC with a fully enclosing outer packaging must be designed to permit assessment of the integrity of the inner container following the leakproofness and hydraulic tests. The outer packaging of 31HZ2 composite IBCs must enclose the inner receptacles on all sides.
(3) The inner receptacle must be manufactured from plastic material of known specifications and be of a strength relative to its capacity and to the service it is required to perform. In addition to conformance with the requirements of § 173.24 of this subchapter, the material must be resistant to aging and to degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation. The inner receptacle of 31HZ2 composite IBCs must consist of at least three plies of film.
(i) If necessary, protection against ultraviolet radiation must be provided by the addition of pigments or inhibitors such as carbon black. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the inner receptacle. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments, or inhibitors, other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content, the pigment content, or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction.
(ii) Additives may be included in the composition of the plastic material of the inner receptacle to improve resistance to aging, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material.
(iii) No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used in the manufacture of inner receptacles.
(iv) Composite IBCs intended for the transportation of liquids must be capable of releasing a sufficient amount of vapor to prevent the body of the IBC from rupturing if it is subjected to an internal pressure in excess of that for which it was hydraulically tested. This may be achieved by spring-loaded or non-reclosing pressure relief devices or by other means of construction.
(4) The strength of the construction material comprising the outer packaging and the manner of construction must be appropriate to the capacity of the composite IBC and its intended use. The outer packaging must be free of any projection that might damage the inner receptacle.
(i) Outer packagings of natural wood must be constructed of well seasoned wood that is commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the outer packaging. The tops and bottoms may be made of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard or particle board. Materials other than natural wood may be used for construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging.
(ii) Outer packagings of plywood must be made of well-seasoned, rotary cut, sliced, or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the casing. All adjacent plies must be glued with water-resistant adhesive. Materials other than plywood may be used for construction of structural equipment of the outer packaging. Outer packagings must be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or be assembled by equally suitable devices.
(iii) Outer packagings of reconstituted wood must be constructed of water-resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard or particle board. Materials other than reconstituted wood may be used for the construction of structural equipment of reconstituted wood outer packaging.
(iv) Fiberboard outer packagings must be constructed of strong, solid, or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall).
(A) Water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 grams per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot) - see ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks, or undue bending. The fluting of corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.
(B) The ends of fiberboard outer packagings may have a wooden frame or be constructed entirely of wood. Wooden battens may be used for reinforcements.
(C) Manufacturers' joints in the bodies of outer packagings must be taped, lapped and glued, or lapped and stitched with metal staples.
(D) Lapped joints must have an appropriate overlap.
(E) Where closing is effected by gluing or taping, a water-resistant adhesive must be used.
(F) All closures must be sift-proof.
(v) Outer packagings of plastic materials must be constructed in accordance with the relevant provisions of paragraph (c)(3) of this section.
(5) Any integral pallet base forming part of an IBC, or any detachable pallet, must be suitable for the mechanical handling of an IBC filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.
(i) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions that may cause damage to the IBC in handling.
(ii) The outer packaging must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transportation. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from sharp protrusions that might damage the IBC.
(iii) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the inner receptacle.
(iv) The load-bearing surfaces of IBCs intended for stacking must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner. An IBC intended for stacking must be designed so that loads are not supported by the inner receptacle.
(6) Intermediate IBCs of type 31HZ2 must be limited to a capacity of not more than 1,250 L.
(d) Composite IBCs may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) or less than 450 L (119 gallons).[Amdt. 178-103, 59 FR 38068, July 26, 1994, as amended by Amdt. 178-119, 62 FR 24743, May 6, 1997; 66 FR 45387, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 61016, Sept. 27, 2002; 68 FR 75758, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 54046, Sept. 7, 2004; 75 FR 5396, Feb. 2, 2010]