192.557 Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic, cast iron, and ductile iron pipelines.§ 192.557 Uprating: Steel pipelines to a pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS: plastic, cast iron, and ductile iron pipelines.
(a) Unless the requirements of this section have been met, no person may subject:
(1) A segment of steel pipeline to an operating pressure that will produce a hoop stress less than 30 percent of SMYS and that is above the previously established maximum allowable operating pressure; or
(2) A plastic, cast iron, or ductile iron pipeline segment to an operating pressure that is above the previously established maximum allowable operating pressure.
(b) Before increasing operating pressure above the previously established maximum allowable operating pressure, the operator shall:
(1) Review the design, operating, and maintenance history of the segment of pipeline;
(2) Make a leakage survey (if it has been more than 1 year since the last survey) and repair any leaks that are found, except that a leak determined not to be potentially hazardous need not be repaired, if it is monitored during the pressure increase and it does not become potentially hazardous;
(3) Make any repairs, replacements, or alterations in the segment of pipeline that are necessary for safe operation at the increased pressure;
(4) Reinforce or anchor offsets, bends and dead ends in pipe joined by compression couplings or bell and spigot joints to prevent failure of the pipe joint, if the offset, bend, or dead end is exposed in an excavation;
(5) Isolate the segment of pipeline in which the pressure is to be increased from any adjacent segment that will continue to be operated at a lower pressure; and
(6) If the pressure in mains or service lines, or both, is to be higher than the pressure delivered to the customer, install a service regulator on each service line and test each regulator to determine that it is functioning. Pressure may be increased as necessary to test each regulator, after a regulator has been installed on each pipeline subject to the increased pressure.
(c) After complying with paragraph (b) of this section, the increase in maximum allowable operating pressure must be made in increments that are equal to 10 p.s.i. (69 kPa) gage or 25 percent of the total pressure increase, whichever produces the fewer number of increments. Whenever the requirements of paragraph (b)(6) of this section apply, there must be at least two approximately equal incremental increases.
(d) If records for cast iron or ductile iron pipeline facilities are not complete enough to determine stresses produced by internal pressure, trench loading, rolling loads, beam stresses, and other bending loads, in evaluating the level of safety of the pipeline when operating at the proposed increased pressure, the following procedures must be followed:
(1) In estimating the stresses, if the original laying conditions cannot be ascertained, the operator shall assume that cast iron pipe was supported on blocks with tamped backfill and that ductile iron pipe was laid without blocks with tamped backfill.
(2) Unless the actual maximum cover depth is known, the operator shall measure the actual cover in at least three places where the cover is most likely to be greatest and shall use the greatest cover measured.
(3) Unless the actual nominal wall thickness is known, the operator shall determine the wall thickness by cutting and measuring coupons from at least three separate pipe lengths. The coupons must be cut from pipe lengths in areas where the cover depth is most likely to be the greatest. The average of all measurements taken must be increased by the allowance indicated in the following table:
|Pipe size inches (millimeters)||Allowance inches (millimeters)|
|Cast iron pipe||Ductile iron pipe|
|Pit cast pipe||Centrifugally cast pipe|
|3 to 8 (76 to 203)||0.075 (1.91)||0.065 (1.65)||0.065 (1.65)|
|10 to 12 (254 to 305)||0.08 (2.03)||0.07 (1.78)||0.07 (1.78)|
|14 to 24 (356 to 610)||0.08 (2.03)||0.08 (2.03)||0.075 (1.91)|
|30 to 42 (762 to 1067)||0.09 (2.29)||0.09 (2.29)||0.075 (1.91)|
|48 (1219)||0.09 (2.29)||0.09 (2.29)||0.08 (2.03)|
|54 to 60 (1372 to 1524)||0.09 (2.29)|
(4) For cast iron pipe, unless the pipe manufacturing process is known, the operator shall assume that the pipe is pit cast pipe with a bursting tensile strength of 11,000 p.s.i. (76 MPa) gage and a modulus of rupture of 31,000 p.s.i. (214 MPa) gage.[35 FR 13257, Aug. 19, 1970, as amended by Amdt. 192-37, 46 FR 10160, Feb. 2, 1981; Amdt. 192-62, 54 FR 5628, Feb. 6, 1989; Amdt. 195-85, 63 FR 37504, July 13, 1998]