178.345-8 Accident damage protection.§ 178.345-8 Accident damage protection.
(a) General. Each cargo tank motor vehicle must be designed and constructed in accordance with the requirements of this section and the applicable individual specification to minimize the potential for the loss of lading due to an accident.
(1) Any dome, sump, or washout cover plate projecting from the cargo tank wall that retains lading in any tank orientation, must be as strong and tough as the cargo tank wall and have a thickness at least equal to that specified by the appropriate cargo tank specification. Any such projection located in the lower 1/3 of the tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that extends more than half its diameter at the point of attachment to the tank or more than 4 inches from the cargo tank wall, or located in the upper 2/3 of the tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that extends more than 1/4 its diameter or more than 2 inches from the point of attachment to the tank must have accident damage protection devices that are:
(i) As specified in this section;
(ii) 125 percent as strong as the otherwise required accident damage protection device; or
(iii) Attached to the cargo tank in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this section.
(2) Outlets, valves, closures, piping, or any devices that if damaged in an accident could result in a loss of lading from the cargo tank must be protected by accident damage protection devices as specified in this section.
(3) Accident damage protection devices attached to the wall of a cargo tank must be able to withstand or deflect away from the cargo tank the loads specified in this section. They must be designed, constructed and installed so as to maximize the distribution of loads to the cargo tank wall and to minimize the possibility of adversely affecting the lading retention integrity of the cargo tank. Accident induced stresses resulting from the appropriate accident damage protection device requirements in combination with the stresses from the cargo tank operating at the MAWP may not result in a cargo tank wall stress greater than the ultimate strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of 1.3. Deformation of the protection device is acceptable provided the devices being protected are not damaged when loads specified in this section are applied.
(4) Any piping that extends beyond an accident damage protection device must be equipped with a stop-valve and a sacrificial device such as a shear section. The sacrificial device must be located in the piping system outboard of the stop-valve and within the accident damage protection device to prevent any accidental loss of lading. The device must break at no more than 70 percent of the load that would be required to cause the failure of the protected lading retention device, part or cargo tank wall. The failure of the sacrificial device must leave the protected lading retention device and its attachment to the cargo tank wall intact and capable of retaining product.
(5) Minimum road clearance. The minimum road clearance of any cargo tank motor vehicle component or protection device located between any two adjacent axles on a vehicle or vehicle combination must be at least one-half inch for each foot separating the component or device from the nearest axle of the adjacent pair, but in no case less than twelve (12) inches, except that the minimum road clearance for landing gear or other attachments within ten (10) feet of an axle must be no less than ten (10) inches. These measurements must be calculated at the gross vehicle weight rating of the cargo tank motor vehicle.
(b) Each outlet, projection or piping located in the lower 1/3 of the cargo tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular cargo tanks) that could be damaged in an accident that may result in the loss of lading must be protected by a bottom damage protection device, except as provided by paragraph (a)(1) of this section and § 173.33(e) of this subchapter. Outlets, projections and piping may be grouped or clustered together and protected by a single protection device.
(1) Any bottom damage protection device must be able to withstand a force of 155,000 pounds (based on the ultimate strength of the material), from the front, side, and rear uniformly distributed, applied in each direction of the device, over an area not to exceed 6 square feet, and a width not to exceed 6 feet. Suspension components and structural mounting members may be used to provide all, or part, of this protection. The device must extend no less than 6 inches beyond any component that may contain lading in transit.
(2) A lading discharge opening equipped with an internal self-closing stop-valve need not conform to paragraph (b)(1) of this section provided it is protected so as to reasonably assure against the accidental loss of lading. This protection must be provided by a sacrificial device located outboard of each internal self-closing stop-valve and within 4 inches of the major radius of the cargo tank shell or within 4 inches of a sump, but in no case more than 8 inches from the major radius of the tank shell. The device must break at no more than 70 percent of the load that would be required to cause the failure of the protected lading retention device, part or cargo tank wall. The failure of the sacrificial device must leave the protected lading retention device or part and its attachment to the cargo tank wall intact and capable of retaining product.
(c) Each closure for openings, including but not limited to the manhole, filling or inspection openings, and each valve, fitting, pressure relief device, vapor recovery stop valve or lading retaining fitting located in the upper 2/3 of a cargo tank circumference (or cross section perimeter for non-circular tanks) must be protected by being located within or between adjacent rollover damage protection devices, or by being 125 percent of the strength that would be provided by the otherwise required damage protection device.
(1) A rollover damage protection device on a cargo tank motor vehicle must be designed and installed to withstand loads equal to twice the weight of the loaded cargo tank motor vehicle applied as follows: normal to the cargo tank shell (perpendicular to the cargo tank surface); and tangential (perpendicular to the normal load) from any direction. The stresses shall not exceed the ultimate strength of the material of construction. These design loads may be considered to be uniformly distributed and independently applied. If more than one rollover protection device is used, each device must be capable of carrying its proportionate share of the required loads and in each case at least one-fourth the total tangential load. The design must be proven capable of carrying the required loads by calculations, tests or a combination of tests and calculations.
(2) A rollover damage protection device that would otherwise allow the accumulation of liquid on the top of the cargo tank, must be provided with a drain that directs the liquid to a safe point of discharge away from any structural component of the cargo tank motor vehicle.
(d) Rear-end tank protection. Each cargo tank motor vehicle must be provided with a rear-end tank protection device to protect the cargo tank and piping in the event of a rear-end collision and reduce the likelihood of damage that could result in the loss of lading. Nothing in this paragraph relieves the manufacturer of responsibility for complying with the requirements of § 393.86 of this title and, if applicable, paragraph (b) of this section. The rear-end tank protection device must conform to the following requirements:
(1) The rear-end cargo tank protection device must be designed so that it can deflect at least 6 inches horizontally forward with no contact between any part of the cargo tank motor vehicle which contains lading during transit and with any part of the rear-end protection device, or with a vertical plane passing through the outboard surface of the protection device.
(2) The dimensions of the rear-end cargo tank protection device shall conform to the following:
(i) The bottom surface of the rear-end protection device must be at least 4 inches below the lower surface of any part at the rear of the cargo tank motor vehicle which contains lading during transit and not more than 60 inches from the ground when the vehicle is empty.
(ii) The maximum width of a notch, indentation, or separation between sections of a rear-end cargo tank protection device may not exceed 24 inches. A notched, indented, or separated rear-end protection device may be used only when the piping at the rear of the cargo tank is equipped with a sacrificial device outboard of a shut-off valve.
(iii) The widest part of the motor vehicle at the rear may not extend more than 18 inches beyond the outermost ends of the device or (if separated) devices on either side of the vehicle.
(3) The structure of the rear-end protection device and its attachment to the vehicle must be designed to satisfy the conditions specified in paragraph (d)(1) of this section when subjected to an impact of the cargo tank motor vehicle at rated payload, at a deceleration of 2 “g”. Such impact must be considered as being uniformly applied in the horizontal plane at an angle of 10 degrees or less to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.
(e) Longitudinal deceleration protection. In order to account for stresses due to longitudinal impact in an accident, the cargo tank shell and heads must be able to withstand the load resulting from the design pressure in combination with the dynamic pressure resulting from a longitudinal deceleration of 2 “g”. For this loading condition, the allowable stress value used may not exceed the ultimate strength of the material of construction using a safety factor of 1.3. Performance testing, analytical methods, or a combination thereof, may be used to prove this capability provided the methods are accurate and verifiable. For cargo tanks with internal baffles, the decelerative force may be reduced by 0.25 “g” for each baffle assembly, but in no case may the total reduction in decelerative force exceed 1.0 “g”.[Amdt. 178-89, 54 FR 25023, June 12, 1989, as amended at 55 FR 37061, Sept. 7, 1990; Amdt. 178-105, 59 FR 55175, Nov. 3, 1994; Amdt. 178-118, 61 FR 51341, Oct. 1, 1996; 68 FR 19284, Apr. 18, 2003; 85 FR 83402, Dec. 21, 2020]