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Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart P

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 178 → Subpart P

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 178 → Subpart P

e-CFR data is current as of December 5, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 178 → Subpart P


Title 49: Transportation
PART 178—SPECIFICATIONS FOR PACKAGINGS


§178.900   Purpose and scope.

(a) This subpart prescribes requirements for Large Packaging intended for the transportation of hazardous materials. Standards for these packagings are based on the UN Recommendations.

(b) Terms used in this subpart are defined in §171.8 of this subchapter.

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§178.905   Large Packaging identification codes.

Large packaging code designations consist of: two numerals specified in paragraph (a) of this section; followed by the capital letter(s) specified in paragraph (b) of this section.

(a) Large packaging code number designations are as follows: 50 for rigid Large Packagings; or 51 for flexible Large Packagings.

(b) Large Packagings code letter designations are as follows:

(1) “A” means steel (all types and surface treatments).

(2) “B” means aluminum.

(3) “C” means natural wood.

(4) “D” means plywood.

(5) “F” means reconstituted wood.

(6) “G” means fiberboard.

(7) “H” means plastic.

(8) “M” means paper, multiwall.

(9) “N” means metal (other than steel or aluminum).

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§178.910   Marking of Large Packagings.

(a) The manufacturer must:

(1) Mark every Large Packaging in a durable and clearly visible manner. The marking may be applied in a single line or in multiple lines provided the correct sequence is followed with the information required by this section, in letters, numerals, and symbols of at least 12 mm in height. This minimum marking size requirement applies only to large packages manufactured after January 1, 2014. The following information is required in the sequence presented:

(i) Except as provided in §178.503(e)(1)(ii), the United Nations packaging symbol as illustrated in §178.503(e)(1)(i). For metal Large Packagings on which the marking is stamped or embossed, the capital letters “UN” may be applied instead of the symbol;

(ii) The code number designating the Large Packaging design type according to §178.905. The letters “T” or “W” may follow the Large Packaging design type identification code on a Large Packaging. Large Salvage Packagings conforming to the requirements of subpart P of this part must be marked with the letter “T”. Large Packagings must be marked with the letter “W” when the Large Packaging differs from the requirements in subpart P of this part, or is tested using methods other than those specified in this subpart, and is approved by the Associate Administrator in accordance with the provisions in §178.955;

(iii) A capital letter identifying the performance standard under which the design type has been successfully tested, as follows:

(A) X—for Large Packagings meeting Packing Groups I, II and III tests;

(B) Y—for Large Packagings meeting Packing Groups II and III tests; and

(C) Z—for Large Packagings meeting Packing Group III test.

(iv) The month (designated numerically) and year (last two digits) of manufacture;

(v) The country authorizing the allocation of the mark. The letters “USA” indicate that the Large Packaging is manufactured and marked in the United States in compliance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(vi) The name and address or symbol of the manufacturer or the approval agency certifying compliance with subpart P and subpart Q of this part. Symbols, if used, must be registered with the Associate Administrator.

(vii) The stacking test load in kilograms (kg). For Large Packagings not designed for stacking the figure “0” must be shown.

(viii) The maximum permissible gross mass or for flexible Large Packagings, the maximum net mass, in kg.

(2) The following are examples of symbols and required markings:

(i) For a steel Large Packaging suitable for stacking; stacking load: 2,500 kg; maximum gross mass: 1,000 kg.

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(ii) For a plastic Large Packaging not suitable for stacking; maximum gross mass: 800 kg.

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(iii) For a Flexible Large Packaging not suitable for stacking; maximum gross mass: 500 kg.

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(iv) For a steel Large Salvage Packaging suitable for stacking; stacking load: 2,500 kg; maximum gross mass: 1,000 kg.

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(b) All Large Packagings manufactured, repaired or remanufactured after January 1, 2015 must be marked with the symbol applicable to a Large Packaging designed for stacking or not designed for stacking, as appropriate. The symbol must be a square with each side being not less than 100 mm (3.9 inches) by 100 mm (3.9 inches) as measured from the corner printer marks shown on the following figures. Where dimensions are not specified, all features must be in approximate proportion to those shown.

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(1) Transitional exception—A marking in conformance with the requirements of this paragraph in effect on December 31, 2014, may continue to be applied to all Large Packagings manufactured, repaired or remanufactured between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016.

(2) For domestic transportation, a Large Packaging marked prior to January 1, 2017 and in conformance with the requirements of this paragraph in effect on December 31, 2014, may continue in service until the end of its useful life.

[75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010; 78 FR 1097, Jan. 7, 2013; 80 FR 1168, Jan. 8, 2015]

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§178.915   General Large Packaging standards.

(a) Each Large Packaging must be resistant to, or protected from, deterioration due to exposure to the external environment. Large Packagings intended for solid hazardous materials must be sift-proof and water-resistant.

(b) All service equipment must be positioned or protected to minimize potential loss of contents resulting from damage during Large Packaging handling and transportation.

(c) Each Large Packaging, including attachments and service and structural equipment, must be designed to withstand, without loss of hazardous materials, the internal pressure of the contents and the stresses of normal handling and transport. A Large Packaging intended for stacking must be designed for stacking. Any lifting or securing features of a Large Packaging must be sufficient strength to withstand the normal conditions of handling and transportation without gross distortion or failure and must be positioned so as to cause no undue stress in any part of the Large Packaging.

(d) A Large Packaging consisting of packagings within a framework must be so constructed that the packaging is not damaged by the framework and is retained within the framework at all times.

(e) Large Packaging design types must be constructed in such a way as to be bottom-lifted or top-lifted as specified in §§178.970 and 178.975.

[75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010]

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§178.920   Standards for metal Large Packagings.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to metal Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Metal Large Packaging types are designated:

(1) 50A steel

(2) 50B aluminum

(3) 50N metal (other than steel or aluminum)

(b) Each Large Packaging must be made of suitable ductile metal materials. Welds must be made so as to maintain design type integrity of the receptacle under conditions normally incident to transportation. Low-temperature performance must be taken into account when appropriate.

(c) The use of dissimilar metals must not result in deterioration that could affect the integrity of the Large Packaging.

(d) Metal Large Packagings may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) and not less than 450 L (119 gallons).

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§178.925   Standards for rigid plastic Large Packagings.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to rigid plastic Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Rigid plastic Large Packaging types are designated:

(1) 50H rigid plastics.

(2) [Reserved]

(b) A rigid plastic Large Packaging must be manufactured from plastic material of known specifications and be of a strength relative to its capacity and to the service it is required to perform. In addition to conformance to §173.24 of this subchapter, plastic materials must be resistant to aging and to degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation.

(1) If protection against ultraviolet radiation is necessary, it must be provided by the addition of a pigment or inhibiter such as carbon black to plastic materials. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the plastic Large Packaging body. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments or inhibitors, other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if changes in the carbon black content, the pigment content or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction.

(2) Additives may be included in the composition of the plastic material to improve the resistance to aging or to serve other purposes, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material of construction.

(3) No used material other than production residues or regrind from the same manufacturing process may be used in the manufacture of rigid plastic Large Packagings.

(c) Rigid plastic Large Packagings:

(1) May not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons); and

(2) May not have a volumetric capacity less than 450 L (119 gallons).

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§178.930   Standards for fiberboard Large Packagings.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to fiberboard Large Packagings intended to contain solids. Rigid fiberboard Large Packaging types are designated:

(1) 50G fiberboard

(2) [Reserved]

(b) Construction requirements for fiberboard Large Packagings. (1) Fiberboard Large Packagings must be constructed of strong, solid or double-faced corrugated fiberboard (single or multiwall) that is appropriate to the capacity of the Large Packagings and to their intended use. Water resistance of the outer surface must be such that the increase in mass, as determined in a test carried out over a period of 30 minutes by the Cobb method of determining water absorption, is not greater than 155 grams per square meter (0.0316 pounds per square foot)—see ISO 535 (E) (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter). Fiberboard must have proper bending qualities. Fiberboard must be cut, creased without cutting through any thickness of fiberboard, and slotted so as to permit assembly without cracking, surface breaks or undue bending. The fluting or corrugated fiberboard must be firmly glued to the facings.

(i) The walls, including top and bottom, must have a minimum puncture resistance of 15 Joules (11 foot-pounds of energy) measured according to ISO 3036 (IBR, see §171.7 of this subchapter).

(ii) Manufacturers' joints in the outer packaging of Large Packagings must be made with an appropriate overlap and be taped, glued, stitched with metal staples or fastened by other means at least equally effective. Where joints are made by gluing or taping, a water resistant adhesive must be used. Metal staples must pass completely through all pieces to be fastened and be formed or protected so that any inner liner cannot be abraded or punctured by them.

(2) Integral and detachable pallets. (i) Any integral pallet base forming part of a Large Packaging or any detachable pallet must be suitable for mechanical handling with the Large Packaging filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

(ii) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusions causing damage to the fiberboard Large Packagings in handling.

(iii) The body must be secured to any detached pallet to ensure stability in handling and transport. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from protrusions that might damage the Large Packaging.

(3) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance may be used but must be external to the liner.

(4) The load-bearing surfaces of Large Packagings intended for stacking must be designed to distribute the load in a stable manner.

(c) Fiberboard Large Packagings may not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons) and not less than 450 L (119 gallons).

[75 FR 5397, Feb. 2, 2010, as amended at 75 FR 60339, Sept. 30, 2010]

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§178.935   Standards for wooden Large Packagings.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to wooden Large Packagings intended to contain solids. Wooden Large Packaging types are designated:

(1) 50C natural wood.

(2) 50D plywood.

(3) 50F reconstituted wood.

(b) Construction requirements for wooden Large Packagings are as follows:

(1) The strength of the materials used and the method of construction must be appropriate to the capacity and intended use of the Large Packagings.

(i) Natural wood used in the construction of Large Packagings must be well-seasoned, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of any part of the Large Packagings. Each Large Packaging part must consist of uncut wood or a piece equivalent in strength and integrity. Large Packagings parts are equivalent to one piece when a suitable method of glued assembly is used (i.e., a Lindermann joint, tongue and groove joint, ship, lap or babbet joint; or butt joint with at least two corrugated metal fasteners at each joint, or when other methods at least equally effective are used).

(ii) Plywood used in construction must be at least 3-ply. Plywood must be made of well-seasoned rotary cut, sliced or sawn veneer, commercially dry and free from defects that would materially lessen the strength of the Large Packagings. All adjacent piles must be glued with water resistant adhesive. Materials other than plywood may be used for the construction of the Large Packaging.

(iii) Reconstituted wood used in the construction of Large Packagings must be water resistant reconstituted wood such as hardboard, particle board or other suitable type.

(iv) Wooden Large Packagings must be firmly nailed or secured to corner posts or ends or be assembled by similar devices.

(2) Integral and detachable pallets. (i) Any integral pallet base forming part of a Large Packaging, or any detachable pallet must be suitable for mechanical handling of a Large Packaging filled to its maximum permissible gross mass.

(ii) The pallet or integral base must be designed to avoid protrusion that may cause damage to the Large Packaging in handling.

(iii) The body must be secured to any detachable pallet to ensure stability in handling and transportation. Where a detachable pallet is used, its top surface must be free from protrusions that might damage the Large Packaging.

(3) Strengthening devices, such as timber supports to increase stacking performance, may be used but must be external to the liner.

(4) The load bearing surfaces of the Large Packaging must be designed to distribute loads in a stable manner.

(c) Wooden Large Packagings:

(1) May not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons); and

(2) May not have a volumetric capacity less than 450 L (119 gallons).

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§178.940   Standards for flexible Large Packagings.

(a) The provisions in this section apply to flexible Large Packagings intended to contain liquids and solids. Flexible Large Packagings types are designated:

(1) 51H flexible plastics.

(2) 51M flexible paper.

(b) Construction requirements for flexible Large Packagings are as follows:

(1) The strength of the material and the construction of the flexible Large Packagings must be appropriate to its capacity and its intended use.

(2) All materials used in the construction of flexible Large Packagings of types 51M must, after complete immersion in water for not less than 24 hours, retain at least 85 percent of the tensile strength as measured originally on the material conditioned to equilibrium at 67 percent relative humidity or less.

(3) Seams must be stitched or formed by heat sealing, gluing or any equivalent method. All stitched seam-ends must be secured.

(4) In addition to conformance with the requirements of §173.24 of this subchapter, flexible Large Packaging must be resistant to aging and degradation caused by ultraviolet radiation.

(5) For plastic flexible Large Packagings, if necessary, protection against ultraviolet radiation must be provided by the addition of pigments or inhibitors such as carbon black. These additives must be compatible with the contents and remain effective throughout the life of the Large Packaging. Where use is made of carbon black, pigments or inhibitors other than those used in the manufacture of the tested design type, retesting may be omitted if the carbon black content, the pigment content or the inhibitor content do not adversely affect the physical properties of the material of construction.

(6) Additives may be included in the composition of the material of the Large Packaging to improve the resistance to aging, provided they do not adversely affect the physical or chemical properties of the material.

(7) When flexible material Large Packagings are filled, the ratio of height to width must be no more than 2:1.

(c) Flexible Large Packagings:

(1) May not have a volumetric capacity greater than 3,000 L (793 gallons);

(2) May not have a volumetric capacity less than 56 L (15 gallons); and

(3) Must be designed and tested to a capacity of not less than 50 kg (110 pounds).

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