199.225 Alcohol tests required.§ 199.225 Alcohol tests required.
Each operator must conduct the following types of alcohol tests for the presence of alcohol:
(a) Post-accident. (1) As soon as practicable following an accident, each operator must test each surviving covered employee for alcohol if that employee's performance of a covered function either contributed to the accident or cannot be completely discounted as a contributing factor to the accident. The decision not to administer a test under this section must be based on specific information that the covered employee's performance had no role in the cause(s) or severity of the accident.
(2)(i) If a test required by this section is not administered within 2 hours following the accident, the operator shall prepare and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the test was not promptly administered. If a test required by paragraph (a) is not administered within 8 hours following the accident, the operator shall cease attempts to administer an alcohol test and shall state in the record the reasons for not administering the test.
(3) A covered employee who is subject to post-accident testing who fails to remain readily available for such testing, including notifying the operator or operator representative of his/her location if he/she leaves the scene of the accident prior to submission to such test, may be deemed by the operator to have refused to submit to testing. Nothing in this section shall be construed to require the delay of necessary medical attention for injured people following an accident or to prohibit a covered employee from leaving the scene of an accident for the period necessary to obtain assistance in responding to the accident or to obtain necessary emergency medical care.
(b) Reasonable suspicion testing. (1) Each operator shall require a covered employee to submit to an alcohol test when the operator has reasonable suspicion to believe that the employee has violated the prohibitions in this subpart.
(2) The operator's determination that reasonable suspicion exists to require the covered employee to undergo an alcohol test shall be based on specific, contemporaneous, articulable observations concerning the appearance, behavior, speech, or body odors of the employee. The required observations shall be made by a supervisor who is trained in detecting the symptoms of alcohol misuse. The supervisor who makes the determination that reasonable suspicion exists shall not conduct the breath alcohol test on that employee.
(3) Alcohol testing is authorized by this section only if the observations required by paragraph (b)(2) of this section are made during, just preceding, or just after the period of the work day that the employee is required to be in compliance with this subpart. A covered employee may be directed by the operator to undergo reasonable suspicion testing for alcohol only while the employee is performing covered functions; just before the employee is to perform covered functions; or just after the employee has ceased performing covered functions.
(4)(i) If a test required by this section is not administered within 2 hours following the determination under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the operator shall prepare and maintain on file a record stating the reasons the test was not promptly administered. If a test required by this section is not administered within 8 hours following the determination under paragraph (b)(2) of this section, the operator shall cease attempts to administer an alcohol test and shall state in the record the reasons for not administering the test. Records shall be submitted to PHMSA upon request of the Administrator.
(iii) Notwithstanding the absence of a reasonable suspicion alcohol test under this section, an operator shall not permit a covered employee to report for duty or remain on duty requiring the performance of covered functions while the employee is under the influence of or impaired by alcohol, as shown by the behavioral, speech, or performance indicators of alcohol misuse, nor shall an operator permit the covered employee to perform or continue to perform covered functions, until:
(A) An alcohol test is administered and the employee's alcohol concentration measures less than 0.02; or
(B) The start of the employee's next regularly scheduled duty period, but not less than 8 hours following the determination under paragraph (b)(2) of this section that there is reasonable suspicion to believe that the employee has violated the prohibitions in this subpart.
(iv) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(4)(ii), no operator shall take any action under this subpart against a covered employee based solely on the employee's behavior and appearance in the absence of an alcohol test. This does not prohibit an operator with the authority independent of this subpart from taking any action otherwise consistent with law.
(c) Return-to-duty testing. Each operator shall ensure that before a covered employee returns to duty requiring the performance of a covered function after engaging in conduct prohibited by §§ 199.215 through 199.223, the employee shall undergo a return-to-duty alcohol test with a result indicating an alcohol concentration of less than 0.02.
(d) Follow-up testing. (1) Following a determination under § 199.243(b) that a covered employee is in need of assistance in resolving problems associated with alcohol misuse, each operator shall ensure that the employee is subject to unannounced follow-up alcohol testing as directed by a substance abuse professional in accordance with the provisions of § 199.243(c)(2)(ii).
(2) Follow-up testing shall be conducted when the covered employee is performing covered functions; just before the employee is to perform covered functions; or just after the employee has ceased performing such functions.
(e) Retesting of covered employees with an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04. Each operator shall retest a covered employee to ensure compliance with the provisions of § 199.237, if an operator chooses to permit the employee to perform a covered function within 8 hours following the administration of an alcohol test indicating an alcohol concentration of 0.02 or greater but less than 0.04.[Amdt. 199-9, 59 FR 7430, Feb. 15, 1994, as amended at 59 FR 62239, 62246, Dec. 2, 1994; Redesignated by Amdt. 199-19, 66 FR 47119, Sept. 11, 2001; 70 FR 11140, March 8, 2005; Amdt. 199-27, 82 FR 8001, Jan. 23, 2017]