178.47 Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.§ 178.47 Specification 4DS welded stainless steel cylinders for aircraft use.
(a) Type, size, and service pressure. A DOT 4DS cylinder is either a welded stainless steel sphere (two seamless hemispheres) or circumferentially welded cylinder both with a water capacity of not over 100 pounds and a service pressure of at least 500 but not over 900 psig.
(b) Steel. Types 304, 321 and 347 stainless steel are authorized with proper welding procedure. A heat of steel made under the specifications in table 1 in this paragraph (b), check chemical analysis of which is slightly out of the specified range, is acceptable, if satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 2 in this paragraph (b) are not exceeded, except as approved by Associate Administrator. The following chemical analyses are authorized:
Table 1 - Authorized Materials
|304 (percent)||321 (percent)||347 (percent)|
1 Titanium may not be more than 5C and not more than 0.60%.
2 Columbium may not be less than 10C and not more than 1.0%.
Table 2 - Check Analysis Tolerances
|Element||Limit or maximum specified (percent)||Tolerance (percent) over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit|
|Under minimum limit||Over maximum limit|
|Carbon||To 0.15 incl||0.01||0.01|
|Manganese||Over 1.15 to 2.50 incl||0.05||0.05|
|Phosphorus 1||All ranges||.01|
|Silicon||Over 0.30 to 1.00 incl||.05||.05|
|Nickel||Over 5.30 to 10.00 incl||.10||.10|
|Over 10.00 to 14.00 incl||.15||.15|
|Chromium||Over 15.00 to 20.00 incl||.20||.20|
1Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.
(c) Identification of material. Materials must be identified by any suitable method.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart. No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably, a reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. No abrupt change in wall thickness is permitted. Welding procedures and operators must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). All seams of the sphere or cylinder must be fusion welded. Seams must be of the butt type and means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint.
(e) Attachments. Attachments to the container are authorized by fusion welding provided that such attachments are made of weldable stainless steel in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section.
(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness must be such that the wall stress at the minimum specified test pressure may not be over 60,000 psig. A minimum wall thickness of 0.040 inch is required for any diameter container. Calculations must be made by the following formulas:
(1) Calculation for sphere must be made by the formula:S = PD / 4tE Where: S = Wall stress in psi; P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig; D = Outside diameter in inches; t = Minimum wall thickness in inches; E = 0.85 (provides 85 percent weld efficiency factor which must be applied in the girth weld area and heat zones which zone must extend a distance of 6 times wall thickness from center of weld); E = 1.0 (for all other areas).
(2) Calculation for a cylinder must be made by the formula:S = [P(1.3D 2 + 0.4d 2)] / (D 2 − d 2) Where: S = Wall stress in psi; P = Test pressure prescribed for water jacket test, i.e., at least two times service pressure, in psig; D = Outside diameter in inches; d = Inside diameter in inches.
(g) Heat treatment. The seamless hemispheres and cylinders may be stress relieved or annealed for forming. Welded container must be stress relieved at a temperature of 775 °F ±25° after process treatment and before hydrostatic test.
(h) Openings in container. Openings must comply with the following:
(1) Each opening in the container must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad of weldable stainless steel securely attached to the container by fusion welding.
(2) Attachments to a fitting, boss, or pad must be adequate to prevent leakage. Threads must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean cut, even, without checks, and tapped to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of length not less than as specified for American Standard taper pipe threads.
(iii) Straight threads having at least 4 engaged threads, to have tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the container; gaskets required, adequate to prevent leakage.
(i) Process treatment. Each container must be hydraulically pressurized in a water jacket to at least 100 percent, but not more than 110 percent, of the test pressure and maintained at this pressure for a minimum of 3 minutes. Total and permanent expansion must be recorded and included in the inspector's report.
(j) Pressure testing. Each cylinder must successfully withstand a pressure test as follows:
(1) The test must be by water-jacket or direct expansion method as prescribed in CGA C-1 (IBR; see § 171.7 of this subchapter). The testing equipment must be calibrated as prescribed in CGA C-1. All testing equipment and pressure indicating devices must be accurate within the parameters defined in CGA C-1.
(2) Each cylinder must be tested to a minimum of at least two (2) times its service pressure.
(3) The minimum test pressure must be maintained at least 30 seconds and sufficiently longer to ensure complete expansion. Any internal pressure applied after heat-treatment and prior to the official test may not exceed 90 percent of the test pressure. If, due to failure of the test apparatus or operator error, the test pressure cannot be maintained, the test may be repeated in accordance with CGA C-1, section 5.7.2.
(4) Permanent volumetric expansion may not exceed 10 percent of the total volumetric expansion at test pressure.
(5) The cylinder must then be inspected. Any wall thickness lower than that required by paragraph (f) of this section must be cause for rejection. Bulges and cracks must be cause for rejection. Welded joint defects exceeding requirements of paragraph (k) of this section are cause for rejection.
(k) Radiographic inspection. Radiographic inspection is required on all welded joints which are subjected to internal pressure, except that at the discretion of the disinterested inspector, openings less than 25 percent of the container diameter need not be subjected to radiographic inspection. Evidence of any defects likely to seriously weaken the container is cause for rejection. Radiographic inspection must be performed subsequent to the hydrostatic test.
(l) Burst test. One container taken at random out of 200 or less must be hydrostatically tested to destruction. Rupture pressure must be included as part of the inspector's report.
(m) Flattening test. A flattening test must be performed as follows:
(1) For spheres the test must be at the weld between parallel steel plates on a press with welded seam at right angles to the plates. Test one sphere taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less after the hydrostatic test. Any projecting appurtenances may be cut off (by mechanical means only) prior to crushing.
(2) For cylinders the test must be between knife edges, wedge shaped, 60° angle, rounded to 1/2-inch radius. Test one cylinder taken at random out of each lot of 200 or less, after the hydrostatic test.
(n) Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests. Acceptable results for flattening and burst tests are as follows:
(1) Flattening required to 50 percent of the original outside diameter without cracking.
(2) Burst pressure must be at least 3 times the service pressure.
(o) Rejected containers. Repair of welded seams by welding prior to process treatment is authorized. Subsequent thereto, containers must be heat treated and pass all prescribed tests.
(p) Duties of inspector. In addition to the requirements of § 178.35, the inspector must verify that all tests are conducted at temperatures between 60 °F and 90 °F.
(q) Marking. Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on a permanent attachment or on a metal nameplate permanently secured to the container by means other than soft solder.[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, 45388, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003; 85 FR 85421, Dec. 28, 2020]