219.5 Definitions.§ 219.5 Definitions.
As used in this part only -
Accident or incident reportable under part 225 does not include a case that is classified as “covered data” under § 225.5 of this chapter (i.e., employee injury/illness cases reportable exclusively because a physician or other licensed health care professional either made a one-time topical application of a prescription-strength medication to the employee's injury or made a written recommendation that the employee: Take one or more days away from work when the employee instead reports to work (or would have reported had he or she been scheduled) and takes no days away from work in connection with the injury or illness; work restricted duty for one or more days when the employee instead works unrestricted (or would have worked unrestricted had he or she been scheduled) and takes no other days of restricted work activity in connection with the injury or illness; or take over-the-counter medication at a dosage equal to or greater than the minimum prescription strength, whether or not the employee actually takes the medication).
Administrator means the Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration or the Administrator's delegate.
Associate Administrator means the Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety, Federal Railroad Administration, or the Associate Administrator's delegate.
Category of regulated employee means a broad class of either covered service or maintenance-of-way employees (as defined in this section). For the purpose of determining random testing rates under § 219.625, if an individual performs both covered service and maintenance-of-way activities, he or she belongs in the category of regulated employee that corresponds with the type of regulated service comprising more than 50 percent of his or her regulated service.
Class I, Class II, and Class III have the meaning assigned by regulations of the Surface Transportation Board (49 CFR part 1201; General Instructions 1-1).
Contractor means a contractor or subcontractor performing functions for a railroad.
Controlled substance has the meaning assigned by 21 U.S.C. 802, and includes all substances listed on Schedules I through V as they may be revised from time to time (21 CFR parts 1301-1316).
Covered employee means an employee (as defined in this section to include an employee, volunteer, or probationary employee performing activities for a railroad or a contractor to a railroad) who is performing covered service under the hours of service laws at 49 U.S.C. 21101, 21104, or 21105 or who is subject to performing such covered service, regardless of whether the person has performed or is currently performing covered service. (An employee is not a “covered employee” under this definition exclusively because he or she is an employee for purposes of 49 U.S.C. 21106.) For the purposes of pre-employment testing only, the term “covered employee” includes a person applying to perform covered service in the United States.
Covered service means service in the United States as a train employee, a dispatching service employee, or a signal employee, as those terms are defined at 49 U.S.C. 21101, but does not include any period the employee is relieved of all responsibilities and is free to come and go without restriction.
Cross-border operation means a rail operation that crosses into the United States from Canada or Mexico.
Domestic railroad means a railroad that is incorporated in the United States.
DOT Agency means an agency (or “operating administration”) of the United States Department of Transportation administering regulations requiring alcohol or controlled substance testing (14 CFR parts 61, 63, 65, 121 and 135; 49 CFR parts 199, 219, 382 and 655) in accordance with part 40 of this title.
DOT, The Department, or DOT agency means all DOT agencies, including, but not limited to, the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration (FMCSA), the Federal Transit Administration (FTA), the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), the Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), the United States Coast Guard (USCG) (for purposes of part 40 coverage only), and the Office of the Secretary (OST). These terms include any designee of a DOT agency.
DOT-regulated employee means any person who is designated in a DOT agency regulation as subject to drug testing and/or alcohol testing. The term includes individuals currently performing DOT safety-sensitive functions designated in DOT agency regulations and applicants for employment subject to pre-employment testing. For purposes of drug testing conducted under the provisions of 49 CFR part 40, the term employee has the same meaning as the term “donor” as found on the Custody and Control Form and related guidance materials produced by the Department of Health and Human Services.
DOT safety-sensitive duties or DOT-safety sensitive functions means functions or duties designated by a DOT agency, the performance of which makes an individual subject to the drug testing and/or alcohol testing requirements of that DOT agency. For purposes of this part, regulated service has been designated by FRA as a DOT safety-sensitive duty or function.
Drug means any substance (other than alcohol) that has known mind- or function-altering effects on a human subject, specifically including any psychoactive substance and including, but not limited to, controlled substances.
Drug and Alcohol Counselor or DAC means a person who meets the credentialing and qualification requirements described in § 242.7 of this chapter.
Employee means any individual (including a volunteer or a probationary employee) performing activities for a railroad or a contractor to a railroad.
Evacuation means the mandatory or voluntary relocation of at least one person who is not a railroad employee for the purpose of avoiding exposure to a hazardous material release. It does not include the closure of public transportation roadways for the purpose of containing a hazardous material release, unless the closure is accompanied by an evacuation order.
Flagman or Flagger means any person designated by the railroad to direct or restrict the movement of trains past a point on a track to provide on-track safety for maintenance-of-way employees, while engaged solely in performing that function.
Foreign railroad means a railroad that is incorporated outside the United States.
Fouling a track means the placement of an individual or an item of equipment in such proximity to a track that the individual or equipment could be struck by a moving train or on-track equipment, or in any case is within four feet of the field side of the near running rail.
FRA means the Federal Railroad Administration, United States Department of Transportation.
FRA representative means the Associate Administrator for Railroad Safety of FRA and staff, the Associate Administrator's delegate (including a qualified State inspector acting under part 212 of this chapter), the Chief Counsel of FRA, the Chief Counsel's delegate, or FRA's Drug and Alcohol Program oversight contractor.
Hazardous material means a commodity designated as a hazardous material by part 172 of this title.
Highway-rail grade crossing means:
(1) A location where a public highway, road, or street, or a private roadway, including associated sidewalks, crosses one or more railroad tracks at grade; or
(2) A location where a pathway explicitly authorized by a public authority or a railroad carrier that is dedicated for the use of non-vehicular traffic, including pedestrians, bicyclists, and others that crosses one or more railroad tracks at grade. The term “sidewalk” means that portion of a street between the curb line, or the lateral line of a roadway, and the adjacent property line or, on easements of private property, that portion of a street that is paved or improved and intended for use by pedestrians.
Highway-rail grade crossing accident/incident means any impact between railroad on-track equipment and a highway user at a highway-rail grade crossing. The term “highway user” includes pedestrians, as well as automobiles, buses, trucks, motorcycles, bicycles, farm vehicles, and all other modes of surface transportation motorized and un-motorized.
Impact accident, (1) Impact accident means a train accident, as defined in this section, consisting either of -
(i) A head-on or rear-end collision between on-track equipment;
(ii) A side collision, derailment collision, raking collision, switching collision, or “other impact accident,” as defined by this section;
(iii) Impact with a deliberately-placed obstruction, such as a bumping post (but not a derail); or
(iv) Impact between on-track equipment and any railroad equipment fouling the track, such as an impact between a train and the boom of an off-rail vehicle.
(2) The definition of “impact accident” does not include an impact with naturally-occurring obstructions such as fallen trees, rock or snow slides, livestock, etc.
Independent with respect to a medical facility, means not under the ownership or control of the railroad and not operated or staffed by a salaried officer or employee of the railroad. The fact that the railroad pays for services rendered by a medical facility or laboratory, selects that entity for performing tests under this part, or has a standing contractual relationship with that entity to perform tests under this part or perform other medical examinations or tests of railroad employees does not, by itself, remove the facility from this definition.
Joint operations means rail operations conducted by more than one railroad on the same track (except for minimal joint operations necessary for the purpose of interchange), regardless of whether such operations are the result of contractual arrangements between the railroads, order of a governmental agency or a court of law, or any other legally binding directive. For purposes of this part only, minimal joint operations are considered necessary for the purpose of interchange when:
(1) The maximum authorized speed for operations on the shared track does not exceed 20 mph;
(2) Operations are conducted under operating rules that require every locomotive and train to proceed at a speed that permits stopping within one half the range of vision of the locomotive engineer;
(3) The maximum distance for operations on the shared track does not exceed 3 miles; and
(4) Any operations extending into another railroad's yard are for the sole purpose of setting out or picking up cars on a designated interchange track.
Maintenance-of-way employee or MOW employee means a roadway worker as defined in § 214.7 of this chapter.
Medical facility means a hospital, clinic, physician's office, or laboratory where post-accident toxicological testing specimens can be collected according to recognized professional standards, and where an individual's post-accident medical needs can be attended to.
Medical practitioner means a physician or dentist licensed or otherwise authorized to practice by the state.
Non-controlled substance means any substance (including prescription medications, over-the-counter products, dietary supplements, and herbal preparations) which is not currently regulated under 21 U.S.C. 801-971 or 21 CFR part 1308.
Non-peer means a supervisor (other than a co-worker), labor organization representative, or family member of a regulated employee.
NTSB means the National Transportation Safety Board.
On-track or fouling equipment means any railroad equipment that is positioned on the rails or that is fouling the track, and includes, but is not limited to, the following: A train, locomotive, cut of cars, single car, motorcar, yard switching train, work train, inspection train, track motorcar, highway-rail vehicle, push car, crane, or other roadway maintenance machine, such as a ballast tamping machine, if the machine is positioned on or over the rails or is fouling the track.
Other impact accident means an accident or incident, not classified as a head-on, rear-end, side, derailment, raking, or switching collision, that involves contact between on-track or fouling equipment. This includes impacts in which single cars or cuts of cars are damaged during operations involving switching, train makeup, setting out, etc.
Passenger train means a train transporting persons (other than employees, contractors, or persons riding equipment to observe or monitor railroad operations) in intercity passenger service, commuter or other short-haul service, or for excursion or recreational purposes.
Person means an entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to the following: A railroad; a manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad, such as a service agent performing functions under part 40 of this title; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor.
Plant railroad means a plant or installation that owns or leases a locomotive, uses that locomotive to switch cars throughout the plant or installation, and is moving goods solely for use in the facility's own industrial processes. The plant or installation could include track immediately adjacent to the plant or installation if the plant railroad leases the track from the general system railroad and the lease provides for (and actual practice entails) the exclusive use of that trackage by the plant railroad and the general system railroad for purposes of moving only cars shipped to or from the plant. A plant or installation that operates a locomotive to switch or move cars for other entities, even if solely within the confines of the plant or installation, rather than for its own purposes or industrial processes, will not be considered a plant railroad because the performance of such activity makes the operation part of the general railroad system of transportation.
Positive rate for random drug testing means the number of verified positive results for random drug tests conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random drug tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random drug tests results (i.e., positives, negatives, and refusals) under this part.
Possess means to have on one's person or in one's personal effects or under one's control. However, the concept of possession as used in this part does not include control by virtue of presence in the employee's personal residence or other similar location off of railroad property.
Railroad means any form of nonhighway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic guideways, and any person providing such transportation, including -
(1) Commuter or other short-haul railroad passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area and commuter railroad service that was operated by the Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and
(2) High speed ground transportation systems that connect metropolitan areas, without regard to whether those systems use new technologies not associated with traditional railroads; but does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation.
Railroad property damage or damage to railroad property means damage to railroad property (specifically, on-track equipment, signals, track, track structure, or roadbed) and must be calculated according to the provisions for calculating costs and reportable damage in the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports (see § 225.21 of this chapter for instructions on how to obtain a copy). Generally, railroad property damage includes labor costs and all other costs to repair or replace in-kind damaged on-track equipment, signals, track, track structures (including bridges and tunnels), or roadbed. (Labor costs that must be accounted for include hourly wages, transportation costs, and hotel expenses.) It does not include the cost of clearing a wreck; however, additional damage to the above-listed items caused while clearing the wreck must be included in the damage estimate. It also includes the cost of rental and/or operation of machinery such as cranes and bulldozers, including the services of contractors, to replace or repair the track right-of-way and associated structures. Railroad property damage does not include damage to lading. Trailers/containers on flatcars are considered to be lading and damage to these is not to be included in on-track equipment damage. Damage to a flat car carrying a trailer/container, however, is included in railroad property damage. Railroads should refer directly to the FRA Guide for Preparing Accident/Incident Reports for additional guidance on what constitutes railroad property damage.
Raking collision means a collision between parts or lading of a consist on an adjacent track, or with a structure such as a bridge.
Regulated employee means a covered employee or maintenance-of-way employee who performs regulated service for a railroad subject to the requirements of this part.
Regulated service means covered service or maintenance-of-way activities, the performance of which makes an employee subject to the requirements of this part.
Reportable injury means an injury reportable under part 225 of this chapter except for an injury that is classified as “covered data” under § 225.5 of this chapter (i.e., employee injury/illness cases reportable exclusively because a physician or other licensed health care professional either made a one-time topical application of a prescription-strength medication to the employee's injury or made a written recommendation that the employee: Take one or more days away from work when the employee instead reports to work (or would have reported had he or she been scheduled) and takes no days away from work in connection with the injury or illness; work restricted duty for one or more days when the employee instead works unrestricted (or would have worked unrestricted had he or she been scheduled) and takes no other days of restricted work activity in connection with the injury or illness; or take over-the-counter medication at a dosage equal to or greater than the minimum prescription strength, whether or not the employee actually takes the medication.
Reporting threshold means the amount specified in § 225.19(e) of this chapter, as adjusted from time to time in accordance with appendix B to part 225 of this chapter.
Responsible railroad supervisor means any responsible line supervisor (e.g., a trainmaster or road foreman of engines) or superior official in authority over the regulated employees to be tested.
Side collision means a collision at a turnout where one consist strikes the side of another consist.
State means a State of the United States of America or the District of Columbia.
Supervisory employee means an officer, special agent, or other employee of the railroad who is not a co-worker and who is responsible for supervising or monitoring the conduct or performance of one or more employees.
Tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operations that are not part of the general railroad system of transportation means a tourist, scenic, historic, or excursion operation conducted only on track used exclusively for that purpose (i.e., there is no freight, intercity passenger, or commuter passenger railroad operation on the track).
Train accident means a rail equipment accident described in § 225.19(c) of this chapter involving damage in excess of the current reporting threshold (see § 225.19(e) of this chapter), including an accident involving a switching movement. Rail equipment accidents include, but are not limited to, collisions, derailments, and other events involving the operations of on-track or fouling equipment (whether standing or moving).
Train incident means an event involving the operation of railroad on-track or fouling equipment that results in a casualty but in which railroad property damage does not exceed the reporting threshold.
United States means all of the States.
Violation rate for random alcohol testing means the number of 0.04 and above random alcohol confirmation test results conducted under this part plus the number of refusals of random alcohol tests required by this part, divided by the total number of random alcohol screening tests (including refusals) conducted under this part.
Watchman/lookout means an employee who has been annually trained and qualified to provide warning of approaching trains or on-track equipment. Watchmen/lookouts must be properly equipped to provide visual and auditory warning by such means as a whistle, air horn, white disk, red flag, lantern, or fusee. A watchman/lookout's sole duty is to look out for approaching trains/on-track equipment and provide at least fifteen seconds advanced warning to employees before the arrival of trains/on-track equipment.[66 FR 41973, Aug. 9, 2001, as amended at 68 FR 10135, Mar. 3, 2003; 68 FR 75463, Dec. 31, 2003; 69 FR 19287, Apr. 12, 2004; 78 FR 14224, Mar. 5, 2013; 81 FR 37923, June 10, 2016]