178.960 Preparation of Large Packagings for testing.§ 178.960 Preparation of Large Packagings for testing.
(a) Except as otherwise provided in this subchapter, each Large Packaging and package must be closed in preparation for testing and tests must be carried out in the same manner as if prepared for transportation, including inner packagings. All closures must be installed using proper techniques and torques.
(b) For the drop and stacking test, inner receptacles must be filled to not less than 95 percent of maximum capacity (see § 171.8 of this subchapter) in the case of solids and not less than 98 percent of maximum in the case of liquids. Bags must be filled to the maximum mass at which they may be used. For Large Packagings where the inner packagings are designed to carry liquids and solids, separate testing is required for both liquid and solid contents. The material to be transported in the packagings may be replaced by a non-hazardous material, except for chemical compatibility testing or where this would invalidate the results of the tests.
(c) If the material to be transported is replaced for test purposes by a non-hazardous material, the material used must be of the same or higher specific gravity as the material to be carried, and its other physical properties (grain, size, viscosity) which might influence the results of the required tests must correspond as closely as possible to those of the hazardous material to be transported. It is permissible to use additives, such as bags of lead shot, to achieve the requisite total package mass, so long as they do not affect the test results.
(d) Paper or fiberboard Large Packagings must be conditioned for at least 24 hours immediately prior to testing in an atmosphere maintained -
(1) At 50 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 23 °C ±2 °C (73 °F ±4 °F). Average values should fall within these limits. Short-term fluctuations and measurement limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ±5 percent relative humidity without significant impairment of test reproducibility;
(2) At 65 percent ±2 percent relative humidity, and at a temperature of 20 °C ±2 °C (68 °F ±4 °F), or 27 °C ±2 °C (81 °F ±4 °F). Average values should fall within these limits. Short-term fluctuations and measurement limitations may cause individual measurements to vary by up to ±5 percent relative humidity without significant impairment of test reproducibility; or
(3) For testing at periodic intervals only (i.e., other than initial design qualification testing), at ambient conditions.