178.57 Specification 4L welded insulated cylinders.§ 178.57 Specification 4L welded insulated cylinders.
(a) Type, size, service pressure, and design service temperature. A DOT 4L cylinder is a fusion welded insulated cylinder with a water capacity (nominal) not over 1,000 pounds water capacity and a service pressure of at least 40 but not greater than 500 psig conforming to the following requirements:
(1) For liquefied hydrogen service, the cylinders must be designed to stand on end, with the axis of the cylindrical portion vertical.
(2) The design service temperature is the coldest temperature for which a cylinder is suitable. The required design service temperatures for each cryogenic liquid is as follows:
|Cryogenic liquid||Design service temperature|
|Argon||Minus 320 °F or colder.|
|Helium||Minus 452 °F or colder.|
|Hydrogen||Minus 42 3 °F or colder.|
|Neon||Minus 411 °F or colder.|
|Nitrogen||Minus 320 °F or colder.|
|Oxygen||Minus 320 °F or colder.|
(b) Material. Material use in the construction of this specification must conform to the following:
(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Designations and limiting chemical compositions of steel authorized by this specification must be as shown in table 1 in paragraph (o) of this section.
(2) Outer jacket. Steel or aluminum may be used subject to the requirements of paragraph (o)(2) of this section.
(c) Identification of material. Material must be identified by any suitable method.
(d) Manufacture. Cylinders must be manufactured using equipment and processes adequate to ensure that each cylinder produced conforms to the requirements of this subpart and to the following requirements:
(1) No defect is permitted that is likely to weaken the finished cylinder appreciably. A reasonably smooth and uniform surface finish is required. The shell portion must be a reasonably true cylinder.
(2) The heads must be seamless, concave side to the pressure, hemispherical or ellipsoidal in shape with the major diameter not more than twice the minor diameter. Minimum thickness of heads may not be less than 90 percent of the required thickness of the sidewall. The heads must be reasonably true to shape, have no abrupt shape changes, and the skirts must be reasonably true to round.
(3) The surface of the cylinder must be insulated. The insulating material must be fire resistant. The insulation on non-evacuated jackets must be covered with a steel jacket not less than 0.060-inch thick or an aluminum jacket not less than 0.070 inch thick, so constructed that moisture cannot come in contact with the insulating material. If a vacuum is maintained in the insulation space, the evacuated jacket must be designed for a minimum collapsing pressure of 30 psig differential whether made of steel or aluminum. The construction must be such that the total heat transfer, from the atmosphere at ambient temperature to the contents of the cylinder, will not exceed 0.0005 Btu per hour, per Fahrenheit degree differential in temperature, per pound of water capacity of the cylinder. For hydrogen, cryogenic liquid service, the total heat transfer, with a temperature differential of 520 Fahrenheit degrees, may not exceed that required to vent 30 SCF of hydrogen gas per hour.
(4) For a cylinder having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F, a calculation of the maximum weight of contents must be made and that weight must be marked on the cylinder as prescribed in § 178.35.
(5) Welding procedures and operations must be qualified in accordance with CGA Pamphlet C-3 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). In addition, an impact test of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.
(e) Welding. Welding of the cylinder must be as follows:
(1) All seams of the cylinder must be fusion welded. A means must be provided for accomplishing complete penetration of the joint. Only butt or joggle butt joints for the cylinder seams are authorized. All joints in the cylinder must have reasonably true alignment.
(2) All attachments to the sidewalls and heads of the cylinder must be by fusion welding and must be of a weldable material complying with the impact requirements of paragraph (l) of this section.
(3) For welding the cylinder, each procedure and operator must be qualified in accordance with the sections of CGA Pamphlet C-3 that apply. In addition, impact tests of the weld must be performed in accordance with paragraph (l) of this section as part of the qualification of each welding procedure and operator.
(4) Brazing, soldering and threading are permitted only for joints not made directly to the cylinder body. Threads must comply with the requirements of paragraph (h) of this section.
(f) Wall thickness. The minimum wall thickness of the cylinder must be such that the calculated wall stress at the minimum required test pressure may not exceed the least value of the following:
(1) 45,000 psi.
(2) One-half of the minimum tensile strength across the welded seam determined in paragraph (l) of this section.
(3) One-half of the minimum tensile strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (j) of this section.
(4) The yield strength of the base metal determined as required in paragraph (l) of this section.
(5) Further provided that wall stress for cylinders having longitudinal seams may not exceed 85 percent of the above value, whichever applies.
(6) Calculation must be made by the following formula:S = [P(1.3D 2 + 0.4d 2)] / (D 2 − d 2) where: S = wall stress in pounds psi; P = minimum test pressure prescribed for pressure test in psig; D = outside diameter in inches; d = inside diameter in inches.
(g) Heat treatment. Heat treatment is not permitted.
(h) Openings in cylinder. Openings in cylinders must conform to the following:
(1) Openings are permitted in heads only. They must be circular and may not exceed 3 inches in diameter or one third of the cylinder diameter, whichever is less. Each opening in the cylinder must be provided with a fitting, boss or pad, either integral with, or securely attached to, the cylinder body by fusion welding. Attachments to a fitting, boss or pad may be made by welding, brazing, mechanical attachment, or threading.
(2) Threads must comply with the following:
(i) Threads must be clean-cut, even, without checks and cut to gauge.
(ii) Taper threads to be of a length not less than that specified for NPT.
(iii) Straight threads must have at least 4 engaged threads, tight fit and calculated shear strength at least 10 times the test pressure of the cylinder. Gaskets, which prevent leakage and are inert to the hazardous material, are required.
(i) Pressure test. Each cylinder, before insulating and jacketing, must be examined under a pressure of at least 2 times the service pressure maintained for at least 30 seconds without evidence of leakage, visible distortion or other defect. The pressure gauge must permit reading to an accuracy of 1 percent.
(j) Physical test. A physical test must be conducted to determine yield strength, tensile strength, and elongation as follows:
(1) The test is required on 2 specimens selected from material of each heat and in the same condition as that in the completed cylinder.
(2) Specimens must conform to the following:
(i) A gauge length of 8 inches with a width not over 1 1/2 inches, a gauge length of 2 inches with width not over 1 1/2 inches, or a gauge length at least 24 times thickness with a width not over 6 times thickness (authorized when cylinder wall is not over 1/16 inch thick).
(ii) The specimen, exclusive of grip ends, may not be flattened. Grip ends may be flattened to within one inch of each end of the reduced section.
(iii) When size of the cylinder does not permit securing straight specimens, the specimens may be taken in any location or direction and may be straightened or flattened cold by pressure only, not by blows. When specimens are so taken and prepared, the inspector's report must show in connection with record of physical tests detailed information in regard to such specimens.
(iv) Heating of a specimen for any purpose is not authorized.
(3) The yield strength in tension must be the stress corresponding to a permanent strain of 0.2 percent of the gauge length. The following conditions apply:
(i) The yield strength must be determined by either the “offset” method or the “extension under load” method as prescribed in ASTM E 8 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter).
(ii) In using the “extension under load” method, the total strain (or “extension under load”), corresponding to the stress at which the 0.2 percent permanent strain occurs may be determined with sufficient accuracy by calculating the elastic expansion of the gauge length under appropriate load and adding thereto 0.2 percent of the gauge length. Elastic extension calculations must be based on the elastic modulus of the material used. In the event of controversy, the entire stress-strain diagram must be plotted and the yield strength determined from the 0.2 percent offset.
(iii) For the purpose of strain measurement, the initial strain reference must be set while the specimen is under a stress of 12,000 psi and the strain indicator reading being set at the calculated corresponding strain.
(iv) Cross-head speed of the testing machine may not exceed 1/8 inch per minute during yield strength determination.
(k) Acceptable results for physical tests. Physical properties must meet the limits specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section, for the particular steel in the annealed condition. The specimens must show at least a 20 percent elongation for a 2-inch gage length. Except that the percentage may be reduced numerically by 2 for each 7,500 psi increment of tensile strength above 100,000 psi to a maximum of 5 such increments. Yield strength and tensile strength must meet the requirements of paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section.
(l) Tests of welds. Welds must be tested as follows:
(1) Tensile test. A specimen must be cut from one cylinder of each lot of 200 or less, or welded test plate. The welded test plate must be of one of the heats in the lot of 200 or less which it represents, in the same condition and approximately the same thickness as the cylinder wall except that it may not be of a lesser thickness than that required for a quarter size Charpy impact specimen. The weld must be made by the same procedures and subjected to the same heat treatment as the major weld on the cylinder. The specimen must be taken across the major seam and must be prepared in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3. Should this specimen fail to meet the requirements, specimens may be taken from two additional cylinders or welded test plates from the same lot and tested. If either of the latter specimens fails to meet the requirements, the entire lot represented must be rejected.
(2) Guided bend test. A “root” bend test specimen must be cut from the cylinder or welded test plate, used for the tensile test specified in paragraph (l)(1) of this section and from any other seam or equivalent welded test plate if the seam is welded by a procedure different from that used for the major seam. Specimens must be taken across the particular seam being tested and must be prepared and tested in accordance with and must meet the requirements of CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(3) Alternate guided-bend test. This test may be used and must be as specified in CGA Pamphlet C-3. The specimen must be bent until the elongation at the outer surface, adjacent to the root of the weld, between the lightly scribed gage lines a to b, is at least 20 percent, except that this percentage may be reduced for steels having a tensile strength in excess of 100,000 psig, as provided in paragraph (c) of this section.
(4) Impact tests. One set of three impact test specimens (for each test) must be prepared and tested for determining the impact properties of the deposited weld metal -
(i) As part of the qualification of the welding procedure.
(ii) As part of the qualification of the operators.
(iii) For each “heat” of welding rodor wire used.
(iv) For each 1,000 feet of weld made with the same heat of welding rod or wire.
(v) All impact test specimens must be of the charpy type, keyhole or milled U-notch, and must conform in all respects to ASTM E 23 (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter). Each set of impact specimens must be taken across the weld and have the notch located in the weld metal. When the cylinder material thickness is 2.5 mm or thicker, impact specimens must be cut from a cylinder or welded test plate used for the tensile or bend test specimens. The dimension along the axis of the notch must be reduced to the largest possible of 10 mm, 7.5 mm, 5 mm or 2.5 mm, depending upon cylinder thickness. When the material in the cylinder or welded test plate is not of sufficient thickness to prepare 2.5 mm impact test specimens, 2.5 mm specimens must be prepared from a welded test plate made from 1/8 inch thick material meeting the requirements specified in paragraph (o)(1), table 1, of this section and having a carbon analysis of .05 minimum, but not necessarily from one of the heats used in the lot of cylinders. The test piece must be welded by the same welding procedure as used on the particular cylinder seam being qualified and must be subjected to the same heat treatment.
(vi) Impact test specimens must be cooled to the design service temperature. The apparatus for testing the specimens must conform to requirements of ASTM Standard E 23. The test piece, as well as the handling tongs, must be cooled for a length of time sufficient to reach the service temperature. The temperature of the cooling device must be maintained within a range of plus or minus 3 °F. The specimen must be quickly transferred from the cooling device to the anvil of the testing machine and broken within a time lapse of not more than six seconds.
(vii) The impact properties of each set of impact specimens may not be less than the values in the following table:
|Size of specimen||Minimum
impact value required for avg. of each set of three specimens (ft.-lb.)
impact value permitted on one only of a set of three (ft.-lb.)
|10 mm × 10 mm||15||10|
|10 mm × 7.5 mm||12.5||8.5|
|10 mm × 5 mm||10||7.0|
|10 mm × 2.5 mm||5||3.5|
(viii) When the average value of the three specimens equals or exceeds the minimum value permitted for a single specimen and the value for more than one specimen is below the required average value, or when the value for one specimen is below the minimum value permitted for a single specimen, a retest of three additional specimens must be made. The value of each of these retest specimens must equal or exceed the required average value. When an erratic result is caused by a defective specimen, or there is uncertainty in test procedure, a retest is authorized.
(m) Radiographic examination. Cylinders must be subject to a radiographic examination as follows:
(1) The techniques and acceptability of radiographic inspection must conform to the standards set forth in CGA Pamphlet C-3.
(2) One finished longitudinal seam must be selected at random from each lot of 100 or less successively produced and be radiographed throughout its entire length. Should the radiographic examination fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (m)(1) of this section, two additional seams of the same lot must be examined, and if either of these fail to meet the requirements of (m)(1) of this section, only those passing are acceptable.
(n) Rejected cylinders. Reheat treatment of rejected cylinders is authorized. Subsequent thereto, cylinders must pass all prescribed tests to be acceptable. Welds may be repaired by suitable methods of fusion welding.
(o) Authorized materials of construction. Authorized materials of construction are as follows:
(1) Inner containment vessel (cylinder). Electric furnace steel of uniform quality must be used. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A 240/A 240M (IBR, see § 171.7 of this subchapter), Type 304 stainless steel. Chemical analysis must conform to ASTM A240, Type 304 Stainless Steel. A heat of steel made under table 1 and table 2 in this paragraph (o)(1) is acceptable, even though its check chemical analysis is slightly out of the specified range, if it is satisfactory in all other respects, provided the tolerances shown in table 3 in this paragraph (o)(1) are not exceeded. The following chemical analyses and physical properties are authorized:
Table 1 - Authorized Materials
|Designation||Chemical analysis, limits in percent|
|Carbon 1||0.08 max.|
1 The carbon analysis must be reported to the nearest hundredth of one percent.
Table 2 - Physical Properties
|Physical properties (annealed)|
|Tensile strength, p.s.i. (minimum)||75,000|
|Yield strength, p.s.i. (minimum)||30,000|
|Elongation in 2 inches (minimum) percent||30.0|
|Elongation other permissible gauge lengths (minimum) percent||15.0|
Table 3 - Check Analysis Tolerances
|Elements||Limit or specified range (percent)||Tolerance over the maximum limit or under the minimum limit|
|Carbon||To 0.030, incl||0.005|
|Over 0.30 to 0.20, incl||0.01|
|Manganese||To 1.00 incl||.03|
|Over 1.00 to 3.00, incl||0.04|
|Phosphorus 1||To 0.040, incl||0.005|
|Over 0.040 to 0.020 incl||0.010|
|Sulphur||To .40 incl||0.005|
|Silicon||To 1.00, incl||0.05|
|Nickel||Over 5.00 to 10.00, incl||0.10|
|Over 10.00 to 20.00, incl||0.15|
|Chromium||Over 15.00 to 20.00, incl||0.20|
1 Rephosphorized steels not subject to check analysis for phosphorus.
(2) Outer jacket. (i) Nonflammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of nonflammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel or aluminum.
(ii) Flammable cryogenic liquids. Cylinders intended for use in the transportation of flammable cryogenic liquid must have an outer jacket made of steel.
(p) Markings. (1) Markings must be stamped plainly and permanently on shoulder or top head of jacket or on a permanently attached plate or head protective ring.
(2) The letters “ST”, followed by the design service temperature (for example, ST-423F), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature of colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be just below the DOT mark.
(3) The maximum weight of contents, in pounds (for example, “Max. Content 51 #”), must be marked on cylinders having a design service temperature colder than minus 320 °F only. Location to be near symbol.
(4) Special orientation instructions must be marked on the cylinder (for example, THIS END UP), if the cylinder is used in an orientation other than vertical with openings at the top of the cylinder.
(5) If the jacket of the cylinder is constructed of aluminum, the letters “AL” must be marked after the service pressure marking. Example: DOT-4L150 AL.
(6) Except for serial number and jacket material designation, each marking prescribed in this paragraph (p) must be duplicated on each cylinder by any suitable means.
(q) Inspector's report. In addition to the information required by § 178.35, the inspector's reports must contain information on:
(1) The jacket material and insulation type;
(2) The design service temperature(°F); and
(3) The impact test results, on a lot basis.[Amdt. 178-114, 61 FR 25942, May 23, 1996, as amended at 66 FR 45386, Aug. 28, 2001; 67 FR 51653, Aug. 8, 2002; 68 FR 75748, Dec. 31, 2003]