175.310 Transportation of flammable liquid fuel; aircraft only means of transportation.§ 175.310 Transportation of flammable liquid fuel; aircraft only means of transportation.
(a) When other means of transportation are impracticable, flammable liquid fuels may be carried on certain passenger and cargo aircraft as provided in this section, without regard to the packaging references and quantity limits listed in Columns 7, 8 and 9 of the § 172.101 Hazardous Materials Table. All requirements of this subchapter that are not specifically covered in this section continue to apply to shipments made under the provisions of this section. For purposes of this section “impracticable” means transportation is not physically possible or cannot be performed by routine and frequent means of other transportation, due to extenuating circumstances. Extenuating circumstances include: conditions precluding highway or water transportation, such as a frozen vessel route; road closures due to catastrophic weather or volcanic activity; or a declared state of emergency. The desire for expedience of a shipper, carrier, or consignor, is not relevant in determining whether other means of transportation are impracticable. The stowage requirements of § 175.75(a) do not apply to a person operating an aircraft under the provisions of this section which, because of its size and configuration, makes it impossible to comply.
(b) A small passenger-carrying aircraft operated entirely within the State of Alaska or into a remote area, in other than scheduled passenger operations, may carry up to 76 L (20 gallons) of flammable liquid fuel (in Packing Group II or Packing Group III), when:
(1) The flight is necessary to meet the needs of a passenger; and
(2) The fuel is carried in one of the following types of containers:
(i) Strong tight metal containers of not more than 20 L (5.3 gallons) capacity, each packed inside a UN 4G fiberboard box, at the Packing Group II performance level, or each packed inside a UN 4C1 wooden box, at the Packing Group II performance level;
(ii) Airtight, leakproof, inside containers of not more than 40 L (11 gallons) capacity and of at least 28-gauge metal, each packed inside a UN 4C1 wooden box, at the Packing Group II performance level;
(iii) UN 1A1 steel drums, at the Packing Group I or II performance level, of not more than 20 L (5.3 gallons) capacity; or
(iv) In fuel tanks attached to flammable liquid fuel powered equipment under the following conditions:
(A) Each piece of equipment is secured in an upright position;
(B) Each fuel tank is filled in a manner that will preclude spillage of fuel during loading, unloading, and transportation; and
(C) Fueling and refueling of the equipment is prohibited in or on the aircraft.
(3) In the case of a passenger-carrying helicopter, the fuel or fueled equipment must be carried on external cargo racks or slings.
(c) Flammable liquid fuels may be carried on a cargo aircraft, subject to the following conditions:
(1)(i) The flammable liquid fuel is in Packing Group II or Packing Group III except as indicated in paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this section;
(ii) The fuel is carried in packagings authorized in paragraph (b) of this section;
(iii) The fuel is carried in metal drums (UN 1A1, 1B1, 1N1) authorized for Packing Group I or Packing Group II liquid hazardous materials and having rated capacities of 220 L (58 gallons) or less. These single packagings may not be transported in the same aircraft with Class 1, Class 5, or Class 8 materials.
(iv) Combustible and flammable liquid fuels (including those in Packing Group I) may be carried in installed aircraft tanks each having a capacity of more than 450 L (118.9 gallons), subject to the following additional conditions:
(A) The tanks and their associated piping and equipment and the installation thereof must have been approved for the material to be transported by the appropriate FAA Flight Standards District Office.
(B) In the case of an aircraft being operated by a certificate holder, the operator shall list the aircraft and the approval information in its operating specifications. If the aircraft is being operated by other than a certificate holder, a copy of the FAA Flight Standards District Office approval required by this section must be carried on the aircraft.
(C) The crew of the aircraft must be thoroughly briefed on the operation of the particular bulk tank system being used.
(D) During loading and unloading and thereafter until any remaining fumes within the aircraft are dissipated:
(1) Only those electrically operated bulk tank shutoff valves that have been approved under a supplemental type certificate may be electrically operated.
(2) No engine or electrical equipment, avionic equipment, or auxiliary power units may be operated, except position lights in the steady position and equipment required by approved loading or unloading procedures, as set forth in the operator's operations manual, or for operators that are not certificate holders, as set forth in a written statement.
(3) Static ground wires must be connected between the storage tank or fueler and the aircraft, and between the aircraft and a positive ground device.
(d) The following restrictions apply to loading, handling, or carrying fuel under the provisions of this section:
(1) During loading and unloading, no person may smoke, carry a lighted cigarette, cigar, or pipe, or operate any device capable of causing an open flame or spark within 15 m (50 feet) of the aircraft.
(2) No person may fill a container, other than an approved bulk tank, with a Class 3 material or combustible liquid or discharge a Class 3 material or combustible liquid from a container, other than an approved bulk tank, while that container is inside or within 15 m (50 feet) of the aircraft.
(3) When filling an approved bulk tank by hose from inside the aircraft, the doors and hatches of the aircraft must be fully open to insure proper ventilation.
(4) Each area or compartment in which the fuel is loaded is suitably ventilated to prevent the accumulation of fuel vapors.
(5) Fuel is transferred to the aircraft fuel tanks only while the aircraft is on the ground.
(6) Before each flight, the pilot-in-command:
(i) Prohibits smoking, lighting matches, the carrying of any lighted cigar, pipe, cigarette or flame, and the use of anything that might cause an open flame or spark, while in flight; and
(ii) For passenger aircraft, informs each passenger of the location of the fuel and the hazards involved.
(e) Operators must comply with the following:
(1) If the aircraft is being operated by a holder of a certificate issued under 14 CFR part 121 or part 135, operations must be conducted in accordance with conditions and limitations specified in the certificate holder's operations specifications or operations manual accepted by the FAA. If the aircraft is being operated under 14 CFR part 91, operations must be conducted in accordance with an operations plan accepted and acknowledged in writing by the FAA Principal Operations Inspector assigned to the operator.
(2) The aircraft and the loading arrangement to be used must be approved for the safe carriage of the particular materials concerned by the FAA Principal Operations Inspector assigned to the operator.