299.425 Low-location emergency exit path marking.§ 299.425 Low-location emergency exit path marking.
(a) General. Low-location emergency exit path marking (LLEEPM) shall be provided in each unit of a trainset. The LLEEPM system shall be designed to identify the location of primary door exits and the exit path to be used to reach such doors by passengers and trainset crewmembers under conditions of darkness when normal and emergency sources of illumination are obscured by smoke or are inoperative.
(b) Visual identity and recognition. The LLEEPM system shall be conspicuous (i.e., clearly recognizable/distinguishable), or become conspicuous immediately and automatically from a low-location upon loss of power for normal lighting, and under the minimum general emergency light illumination levels as specified in § 299.423.
(c) Signage and markings. At a minimum, the LLEEPM system shall have the following three components:
(1) Primary door exit signs. (i) Each primary door exit shall be clearly marked with an exit sign;
(ii) The exit sign shall be visible from a low-location from the exit along the exit path; and
(iii) Each exit sign shall be located on or immediately adjacent to each door and placed between 152.4 and 457.2 mm (6 and 18 inches) above the floor.
(2) Primary door exit marking/delineators. (i) The location of the exit path shall be marked using electrically powered (active) marking/delineators or light fixtures, HPPL (passive) marking/delineators or a combination of these two systems.
(ii) The requirements in this section apply for both electrical and HPPL components, whether installed on the walls, floors, or seat assemblies.
(iii) Each primary door shall be marked on or around the door's operating handle.
(3) Exit path marking/delineators. (i) The marking/delineator components shall be positioned so as to identify an exit path to all primary exits that is clearly visible and easily recognizable from any seat or compartment in the trainset, when normal lighting and emergency lighting are unavailable in conditions of darkness and/or smoke.
(ii) Markings/delineators shall be located on the floor or no higher than 457.2 mm (18 inches) on the seat assembly, or walls/partitions of aisles, and/or passageways.
(iii) Changes in the direction of the exit path shall be indicated by the LLEEPM and be placed within 102 mm (4 inches) of the corner of the exit path.
(d) Material - (1) HPPL passive systems. HPPL strip marking/delineator material used for LLEEPM components shall be capable of providing a minimum luminance level of 7.5 mcd/m 2, measured 90 minutes after normal power has ceased.
(2) Electroluminescent marking/delineator strips. The luminance value of the electroluminescent (EL) marking/delineator strip shall be at least 1,000 mcd/m 2, as measured on the strip surface.
(e) Conspicuity of markings. LLEEPM signs shall comply with the text, color and respective illuminance or luminance requirements specified in § 299.423 and in this section.
(f) Emergency performance duration. The LLEEPM system shall operate independently of the car's normal and emergency lighting systems for 90 minutes after loss of all power for normal lighting.
(g) Recordkeeping. (1) The railroad shall retain a copy of the car manufacturer/supplier provided certified independent laboratory test report results showing that the illuminance or luminance measurements, as appropriate, on the active area of the signage/marking/delineator component comply with the criteria specified in § 299.423 and in this section.
(2) The railroad shall retain a copy of the railroad-approved illuminance test plan(s) and test results until the next periodic test, or other test specified in accordance with the railroad's inspection, testing, and maintenance program and ensure that tests are conducted on a representative car, or until all cars of that type are retired, transferred, leased, or conveyed to another railroad. A copy of such records shall be provided to the accepting railroads along with any car(s) that are transferred, leased, or conveyed.
(3) Illegible, broken, damaged, missing, or non-functioning components of the LLEEPM system, including the normal and emergency power systems, shall be reported and repaired in accordance with the railroad's inspection, testing, and maintenance program as specified in § 299.445.