795.228 Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.§ 795.228 Oral/dermal pharmacokinetics.
(a) Purpose. The purposes of these studies are to:
(1) Ascertain whether the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of a chemical substance or mixture (“test substance”) are similar after oral and dermal administration.
(2) Determine bioavailability of a test substance after oral and dermal administration.
(3) Examine the effects of repeated dosing on the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of the test substance.
(b) Definitions. (1) Bioavailability refers to the rate and relative amount of administered test substance which reaches the systemic circulation.
(2) Metabolism means the study of the sum of the processes by which a particular substance is handled in the body and includes absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.
(3) Percent absorption means 100 times the ratio between total excretion of radioactivity following oral or dermal administration and total excretion following intravenous administration of test substance.
(4) Pharmacokinetics means the study of the rates of absorption, tissue distribution, biotransformation, and excretion.
(c) Test procedures - (1) Animal selection - (i) Species. The rat shall be used for pharmacokinetics testing because it has been used extensively for metabolic and toxicological studies. For dermal bioavailability studies, the rat and the mini-pig shall be used.
(ii) Test animals. For pharmacokinetics testing and dermal studies, adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, 7 to 9 weeks of age, shall be used. For dermal studies, young adult mini-pigs shall also be used. The animals should be purchased from a reputable dealer and shall be identified upon arrival at the testing laboratory. The animals shall be selected at random for the test groups and any animal showing signs of ill health shall not be used. In all studies, unless otherwise specified, each test group shall contain at least 4 animals of each sex for a total of at least 8 animals.
(iii) Animal care. (A) The animals shall be housed in environmentally controlled rooms with at least 10 air changes per hour. The rooms shall be maintained at a temperature of 24 ±2 °C and humidity of 50 ±20 percent with a 12-hour light/dark cycle per day. The animals shall be kept in a quarantine facility for at least 7 days prior to use and shall be acclimated to the experimental environment for a minimum of 48 hours prior to administration of the test substance.
(B) During the acclimatization period, the animals shall be housed in suitable cages. All animals shall be provided with certified feed and tap water ad libitum. The mini-pig diet shall be supplemented with adequate amounts of ascorbic acid in the drinking water.
(2) Administration of test substance - (i) Test substance. The use of a radioactive test substance is required for all studies. Ideally, the purity, radioactive and nonradioactive, is greater than 99 percent. The radioactive and nonradioactive test substances shall be chromatographed separately and together to establish purity and identity. If the purity is less than 99 percent or if the chromatograms differ significantly, EPA should be consulted.
(ii) Dosage and treatment - (A) Intravenous. The low dose of test substance, in an appropriate vehicle, shall be administered intravenously to groups of rats and mini-pigs of each sex. If feasible, the same low dose should be used for intravenous, oral, and dermal studies.
(B) Oral. Two doses of text substance shall be used in the oral study, a low dose and a high dose. The high dose should ideally induce some overt toxicity, such as weight loss. The low dose should correspond to a no-observed effect level. The oral dosing shall be accomplished by gavage or by administering the encapsulated test substance. If feasible, the same high and low doses should be used for oral and dermal studies.
(C) Dermal. (1) Dermal treatment. For dermal treatment, two doses, comparable to the low and high oral doses, shall be dissolved in a suitable vehicle and applied in volumes adequate to deliver comparable doses. The backs of the animals should be lightly shaved with an electric clipper 24 hours before treatment. The test substance shall be applied to the intact shaven skin (approximately 2 cm 2 for rats, 5 cm 2 for mini-pigs). The dosed areas shall be protected with a suitable porous covering which is secured in place, and the animals shall be housed separately.
(2) Washing efficacy study. Before initiation of the dermal absorption studies, an initial washing efficacy experiment shall be conducted to assess the removal of the applied low dose of the test substance by washing the exposed skin area with soap and water and an appropriate organic solvent. The low dose shall be applied to 4 rats and 4 mini-pigs in accordance with paragraph (c)(2)(ii)(C)(1) of this section. After application (5 to 10 minutes), the treated areas of 2 rats and 2 mini-pigs shall be washed with soap and water and the treated areas of the remaining rats and pigs shall be washed with an appropriate solvent. The amounts of test substance recovered in the washings shall be determined to assess efficacy of its removal by washing.
(iii) Dosing and sampling schedule - (A) Rat studies. After administration of the test substance, each rat shall be placed in a metabolic unit to facilitate collection of excreta. For the dermal studies, excreta from the rats shall also be collected during the 6 hour exposure periods. At the end of each collection period, the metabolic units shall be cleaned to recover any excreta that might adhere to them. All studies, except the repeated dosing study, shall be terminated at 7 days or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has been recovered in the excreta, whichever occurs first.
(1) Intravenous study. Group A shall be dosed once intravenously at the low dose of test substance.
(2) Oral study. (i) Group B shall be dosed once per os with the low dose of test substance.
(ii) Group C shall be dosed once per os with the high dose of test substance.
(3) Dermal studies. Unless precluded by corrosivity, the test substance shall be applied and kept on the skin for a minimum of 6 hours. At the time of removal of the porous covering, the treated area shall be washed with an appropriate solvent to remove any test substance that may be on the skin surface. Both the covering and the washing shall be assayed to recover residual radioactivity. At the termination of the studies, each animal shall be sacrificed and the exposed skin area removed. An appropriate section of the skin shall be solubilized and assayed for radio-activity to ascertain if the skin acts as a reservoir for the test substance. Studies on the dermal absorption of corrosive test substances should be discussed with EPA prior to initiation.
(i) Group D shall be dosed once dermally with the low dose of test compound.
(ii) Group E shall be dosed once dermally with the high dose of the test substance.
(4) Repeated dosing study. Group F shall receive a series of single daily oral low doses of nonradioactive test substance over a period of at least 7 days. Twenty-four hours after the last nonradioactive dose, a single oral low dose of radioactive test substance shall be administered. Following dosing with the radioactive substance, the rats shall be placed in individual metabolic units as described in paragraph (c)(2)(iii) of this section. The study shall be terminated at 7 days after the last dose, or after at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has been recovered in the excreta, whichever occurs first.
(B) Mini-Pig studies. For all mini-pig studies, the test groups shall consist of four young adult animals. After administration of the test substance, each mini-pig shall be kept in a metabolic unit to facilitate collection of excreta. At the end of each collection period, the metabolic units are to be cleaned to recover any excreta that might adhere to them. All studies shall be terminated at 7 days, or after at least 90 percent of the radio-activity has been recovered in the excreta, whichever occurs first.
(1) Intravenous study. Group G is to be dosed once intravenously at the low dose of the test substance.
(2) Dermal studies. Following the experimental guidance described in (c)(2)(iii)(A)(3) of this section:
(i) Group H shall be dosed once dermally with the low dose of test substance.
(ii) Group I shall be dosed once dermally with the high dose of the test substance.
(3) Types of studies - (i) Pharmacokinetics studies - (A) Rat studies. Groups A through F shall be used to determine the kinetics of absorption of the test substance. In the group administered the test substance by intravenous routes, (i.e., Group A), the concentration of radioactivity in blood and excreta shall be measured following administration. In groups administered the test substance by the oral and dermal route (i.e., Groups B, C, D, E and F), the concentration of radioactivity in blood and excreta shall be measured at selected time intervals during and following the exposure period.
(B) Mini-Pig studies. Groups G, H, and I shall be used to determine the extent of dermal absorption of the test substance. The amount of radioactivity in excreta shall be determined at selected time intervals.
(ii) Metabolism studies - Rat studies. Groups A through F shall be used to determine the metabolism of the test substance. Urine, feces, and expired air shall be collected for identification and quantification of the test substance and metabolites.
(4) Measurements - (i) Pharmacokinetics. Four animals from each group shall be used for these purposes.
(A) Rat studies - (1) Bioavailability. The levels of radioactivity shall be determined in whole blood, blood plasma or blood serum at 15 and 30 minutes and at 1, 2, 8, 24, 48, and 96 hours after initiation of dosing.
(2) Extent of absorption. The total quantities of radioactivity shall be determined for excerta collected daily for 7 days or until at least 90 percent of the radioactivity has been recovered in the excreta.
(3) Excretion. The quantities of radioactivity eliminated in the urine, feces, and expired air shall be determined separately at appropriate time intervals. The collection of carbon dioxide may be discontinued when less than one percent of the dose is found to be exhaled as radioactive carbon dioxide in 24 hours.
(4) Tissue distribution. At the termination of each study, the quantities of radioactivity in blood and in various tissues, including bone, brain, fat, gastrointestinal tract, gonads, heart, kidney, liver, lungs, muscle, skin, and residual carcass of each animal shall be determined.
(5) Changes in pharmacokinetics. Results of pharmacokinetics measurements (i.e., bioavailability and extent of absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion) obtained in rats receiving the single low oral dose of the test substance (Groups B and C) shall be compared to the corresponding results obtained in rats receiving repeated oral doses of the test substance (Group F).
(B) Mini-Pig studies - Extent of absorption. The total quantities of radioactivity shall be determined for excreta daily for 7 days or until at least 90 percent of the test substance has been excreted.
(ii) Metabolism. Four animals from each group shall be used for these purposes.
(A) Rat studies - (1) Biotransformation. Appropriate qualitative and quantitative methods shall be used to assay urine, feces, and expired air collected from rats. Efforts shall be made to identify any metabolite which comprises 5 percent or more of the administered dose and the major radioactive components of blood.
(2) Changes in biotransformation. Appropriate qualitative and quantitative assay methodology shall be used to compare the composition of radioactive compounds in excreta from rats receiving a single oral dose (Groups B and C) with those in the excreta from rats receiving repeated oral doses (Group H).
(d) Data and reporting. The final test report shall include the following:
(1) Presentation of results. Numerical data shall be summarized in tabular form. Pharmacokinetic data shall also be presented in graphical form. Qualitative observations shall also be reported.
(2) Evaluation of results. All quantitative results shall be evaluated by an appropriate statistical method.
(3) Reporting results. In addition to the reporting requirements as specified in 40 CFR part 792, the following specific information shall be reported:
(i) Species and strains of laboratory animals.
(ii) Chemical characterization of the test substance, including:
(A) For the radioactive test substances, information on the site(s) and degree of radiolabeling, including type of label, specific activity, chemical purity, and radiochemical purity.
(B) For the nonradioactive compound, information on chemical purity.
(C) Results of chromatography.
(iii) A full description of the sensitivity, precision, and accuracy of all procedures used to generate the data.
(iv) Percent of absorption of test substance after oral and dermal exposures to rats and dermal exposure to mini-pigs.
(v) Quantity and percent recovery of radioactivity in feces, urine, expired air, and blood. In dermal studies on rats and mini-pigs, include recovery data for skin, skin washings, and residual radioactivity in the covering as well as results of the washing efficacy study.
(vi) Tissue distribution reported as quantity of radioactivity in blood and in various tissues, including bone, brain, fat, gastrointestinal tract, gonads, heart, kidney, liver, lung, muscle, skin and in residual carcass of rats.
(vii) Materials balance developed from each study involving the assay of body tissues and excreta.
(viii) Biotransformation pathways and quantities of test substance and metabolites in excreta collected after administering single high and low doses to rats.
(ix) Biotransformation pathways and quantities of the test substance and metabolites in excreta collected after administering repeated low doses to rats.
(x) Pharmacokinetics model(s) developed from the experimental data.[54 FR 33411, Aug. 14, 1989; 54 FR 49844, Dec. 1, 1989; 55 FR 25392, June 21, 1990]