146.87 Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.§ 146.87 Logging, sampling, and testing prior to injection well operation.
(a) During the drilling and construction of a Class VI injection well, the owner or operator must run appropriate logs, surveys and tests to determine or verify the depth, thickness, porosity, permeability, and lithology of, and the salinity of any formation fluids in all relevant geologic formations to ensure conformance with the injection well construction requirements under § 146.86 and to establish accurate baseline data against which future measurements may be compared. The owner or operator must submit to the Director a descriptive report prepared by a knowledgeable log analyst that includes an interpretation of the results of such logs and tests. At a minimum, such logs and tests must include:
(1) Deviation checks during drilling on all holes constructed by drilling a pilot hole which is enlarged by reaming or another method. Such checks must be at sufficiently frequent intervals to determine the location of the borehole and to ensure that vertical avenues for fluid movement in the form of diverging holes are not created during drilling; and
(2) Before and upon installation of the surface casing:
(i) Resistivity, spontaneous potential, and caliper logs before the casing is installed; and
(ii) A cement bond and variable density log to evaluate cement quality radially, and a temperature log after the casing is set and cemented.
(3) Before and upon installation of the long string casing:
(i) Resistivity, spontaneous potential, porosity, caliper, gamma ray, fracture finder logs, and any other logs the Director requires for the given geology before the casing is installed; and
(ii) A cement bond and variable density log, and a temperature log after the casing is set and cemented.
(4) A series of tests designed to demonstrate the internal and external mechanical integrity of injection wells, which may include:
(i) A pressure test with liquid or gas;
(ii) A tracer survey such as oxygen-activation logging;
(iii) A temperature or noise log;
(iv) A casing inspection log; and
(5) Any alternative methods that provide equivalent or better information and that are required by and/or approved of by the Director.
(b) The owner or operator must take whole cores or sidewall cores of the injection zone and confining system and formation fluid samples from the injection zone(s), and must submit to the Director a detailed report prepared by a log analyst that includes: Well log analyses (including well logs), core analyses, and formation fluid sample information. The Director may accept information on cores from nearby wells if the owner or operator can demonstrate that core retrieval is not possible and that such cores are representative of conditions at the well. The Director may require the owner or operator to core other formations in the borehole.
(c) The owner or operator must record the fluid temperature, pH, conductivity, reservoir pressure, and static fluid level of the injection zone(s).
(d) At a minimum, the owner or operator must determine or calculate the following information concerning the injection and confining zone(s):
(1) Fracture pressure;
(2) Other physical and chemical characteristics of the injection and confining zone(s); and
(3) Physical and chemical characteristics of the formation fluids in the injection zone(s).
(e) Upon completion, but prior to operation, the owner or operator must conduct the following tests to verify hydrogeologic characteristics of the injection zone(s):
(1) A pressure fall-off test; and,
(2) A pump test; or
(3) Injectivity tests.
(f) The owner or operator must provide the Director with the opportunity to witness all logging and testing by this subpart. The owner or operator must submit a schedule of such activities to the Director 30 days prior to conducting the first test and submit any changes to the schedule 30 days prior to the next scheduled test.