Title 23 Part 500 → Subpart A
Title 23 → Chapter I → Subchapter F → Part 500 → Subpart A
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 23 Part 500 → Subpart A
The purpose of this part is to implement the requirements of 23 U.S.C. 303(a) which directs the Secretary of Transportation (the Secretary) to issue regulations for State development, establishment, and implementation of systems for managing highway pavement of Federal-aid highways (PMS), bridges on and off Federal-aid highways (BMS), highway safety (SMS), traffic congestion (CMS), public transportation facilities and equipment (PTMS), and intermodal transportation facilities and systems (IMS). This regulation also implements 23 U.S.C. 303(b) which directs the Secretary to issue guidelines and requirements for State development, establishment, and implementation of a traffic monitoring system for highways and public transportation facilities and equipment (TMS).
(a) Federal, State, and local governments are under increasing pressure to balance their budgets and, at the same time, respond to public demands for quality services. Along with the need to invest in America's future, this leaves transportation agencies with the task of trying to manage current transportation systems as cost-effectively as possible to meet evolving, as well as backlog needs. The use of existing or new transportation management systems provides a framework for cost-effective decision making that emphasizes enhanced service at reduced public and private life-cycle cost. The primary outcome of transportation management systems is improved system performance and safety. The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) and the Federal Transit Administration (FTA) strongly encourage implementation of transportation management systems consistent with State, metropolitan planning organization, transit operator, or local government needs.
(b) Whether the systems are developed under the provisions of this part or under a State's own procedures, the following categories of FHWA administered funds may be used for development, establishment, and implementation of any of the management systems and the traffic monitoring system: National highway system; surface transportation program; State planning and research and metropolitan planning funds (including the optional use of minimum allocation funds authorized under 23 U.S.C. 157(c) and restoration funds authorized under §202(f) of the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 (Pub.L. 104-59) for carrying out the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 307(c)(1) and 23 U.S.C. 134(a)); congestion mitigation and air quality improvement program funds for those management systems that can be shown to contribute to the attainment of a national ambient air quality standard; and apportioned bridge funds for development and establishment of the bridge management system. The following categories of FTA administered funds may be used for development, establishment, and implementation of the CMS, PTMS, IMS, and TMS: Metropolitan planning; State planning and research, and formula transit funds.
Unless otherwise specified in this part, the definitions in 23 U.S.C. 101(a) are applicable to this part. As used in this part:
Federal-aid highways means those highways eligible for assistance under title 23, U.S.C., except those functionally classified as local or rural minor collectors.
Metropolitan planning organization (MPO) means the forum for cooperative transportation decision making for a metropolitan planning area.
National Highway System (NHS) means the system of highways designated and approved in accordance with the provisions of 23 U.S.C. 103(b).
State means any one of the fifty States, the District of Columbia, or Puerto Rico.
Transportation management area (TMA) means an urbanized area with a population over 200,000 (as determined by the latest decennial census) or other area when TMA designation is requested by the Governor and the MPO (or affected local officials), and officially designated by the Administrators of the FHWA and the FTA. The TMA designation applies to the entire metropolitan planning area(s).
§500.104 State option.
Except as specified in §500.105 (a) and (b), a State may elect at any time not to implement any one or more of the management systems required under 23 U.S.C. 303, in whole or in part.
(a) The metropolitan transportation planning process (23 U.S.C. 134 and 49 U.S.C. 5303-5005) in TMAs shall include a CMS that meets the requirements of §500.109 of this regulation.
(b) States shall develop, establish, and implement a TMS that meets the requirements of subpart B of this regulation.
(c) Any of the management systems that the State chooses to implement under 23 U.S.C. 303 and this regulation shall be developed in cooperation with MPOs in metropolitan areas, affected agencies receiving assistance under the Federal Transit Act (49 U.S.C., Chapter 53), and other agencies (including private owners and operators) that have responsibility for operation of the affected transportation systems or facilities.
(d) The results (e.g., policies, programs, projects, etc.) of any of the management systems that a State chooses to develop under 23 U.S.C. 303 and this regulation shall be considered in the development of metropolitan and statewide transportation plans and improvement programs and in making project selection decisions under title 23, U.S.C., and under the Federal Transit Act. Plans and programs adopted after September 30, 1997, shall demonstrate compliance with this requirement.
An effective PMS for Federal-aid highways is a systematic process that provides information for use in implementing cost-effective pavement reconstruction, rehabilitation, and preventative maintenance programs and that results in pavements designed to accommodate current and forecasted traffic in a safe, durable, and cost-effective manner. The PMS should be based on the “AASHTO Guidelines for Pavement Management Systems.”1
1AASHTO Guidelines for Pavement Management Systems, July 1990, can be purchased from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 N. Capitol Street, NW., Suite 249, Washington, D.C. 20001. Available for inspection as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D.
An effective BMS for bridges on and off Federal-aid highways that should be based on the “AASHTO Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems”2 and that supplies analyses and summaries of data, uses mathematical models to make forecasts and recommendations, and provides the means by which alternative policies and programs may be efficiently considered. An effective BMS should include, as a minimum, formal procedures for:
2AASHTO Guidelines for Bridge Management Systems, 1992, can be purchased from the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 444 N. Capitol Street, NW., Suite 249, Washington, D.C. 20001. Available for inspection as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D.
(a) Collecting, processing, and updating data;
(b) Predicting deterioration;
(c) Identifying alternative actions;
(d) Predicting costs;
(e) Determining optimal policies;
(f) Performing short- and long-term budget forecasting; and
(g) Recommending programs and schedules for implementation within policy and budget constraints.
An SMS is a systematic process with the goal of reducing the number and severity of traffic crashes by ensuring that all opportunities to improve highway safety are identified, considered, implemented as appropriate, and evaluated in all phases of highway planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation and by providing information for selecting and implementing effective highway safety strategies and projects. The development of the SMS may be based on the guidance in “Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for Development and Implementation.”3 An effective SMS should include, at a minimum:
3Safety Management Systems: Good Practices for Development and Implementation, FHWA and NHTSA, May 1996. Available for inspection and copying as prescribed in 49 CFR part 7, appendix D.
(a) Communication, coordination, and cooperation among the organizations responsible for the roadway, human, and vehicle safety elements;
(b) A focal point for coordination of the development, establishment, and implementation of the SMS among the agencies responsible for these major safety elements;
(c) Establishment of short- and long-term highway safety goals to address identified safety problems;
(d) Collection, analysis, and linkage of highway safety data;
(e) Identification of the safety responsibilities of units and positions;
(f) Public information and education activities; and
(g) Identification of skills, resources, and training needs to implement highway safety programs.
(a) For purposes of this part, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is unacceptable due to excessive travel times and delays. Congestion management means the application of strategies to improve system performance and reliability by reducing the adverse impacts of congestion on the movement of people and goods in a region. A congestion management system or process is a systematic and regionally accepted approach for managing congestion that provides accurate, up-to-date information on transportation system operations and performance and assesses alternative strategies for congestion management that meet State and local needs.
(b) The development of a congestion management system or process should result in performance measures and strategies that can be integrated into transportation plans and programs. The level of system performance deemed acceptable by State and local officials may vary by type of transportation facility, geographic location (metropolitan area or subarea and/or non-metropolitan area), and/or time of day. In both metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas, consideration needs to be given to strategies that manage demand, reduce single occupant vehicle (SOV) travel, and improve transportation system management and operations. Where the addition of general purpose lanes is determined to be an appropriate congestion management strategy, explicit consideration is to be given to the incorporation of appropriate features into the SOV project to facilitate future demand management strategies and operational improvements that will maintain the functional integrity of those lanes.
[72 FR 7285, Feb. 14, 2007]
An effective PTMS for public transportation facilities (e.g., maintenance facilities, stations, terminals, transit related structures), equipment, and rolling stock is a systematic process that collects and analyzes information on the condition and cost of transit assets on a continual basis, identifies needs, and enables decision makers to select cost-effective strategies for providing and maintaining transit assets in serviceable condition. The PTMS should cover public transportation systems operated by the State, local jurisdictions, public transportation agencies and authorities, and private (for profit and non-profit) transit operators receiving funds under the Federal Transit Act and include, at a minimum:
(a) Development of transit asset condition measures and standards;
(b) An inventory of the transit assets including age, condition, remaining useful life, and replacement cost; and
(c) Identification, evaluation, and implementation of appropriate strategies and projects.
An effective IMS for intermodal facilities and systems provides efficient, safe, and convenient movement of people and goods through integration of transportation facilities and systems and improvement in the coordination in planning, and implementation of air, water, and the various land-based transportation facilities and systems. An IMS should include, at a minimum:
(a) Establishment of performance measures;
(b) Identification of key linkages between one or more modes of transportation, where the performance or use of one mode will affect another;
(c) Definition of strategies for improving the effectiveness of these modal interactions; and
(d) Evaluation and implementation of these strategies to enhance the overall performance of the transportation system.