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Title 7 Part 51 → §51.1564

Title 7 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 51 → §51.1564

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 7 Part 51 → §51.1564

e-CFR data is current as of November 18, 2019

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → §51.1564


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 51—FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)
Subpart—United States Standards for Grades of Potatoes


§51.1564   External defects.

External defects are defects which can be detected externally. However, cutting may be required to determine the extent of the injury. Some external defects are listed in Tables III, IV, V and VI.

Table III—External Defects

DefectsDamageSerious damage1
Air CracksWhen removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the air crack(s) affects more than 13 the length or diameter of the potato (whichever is greater) in the aggregateWhen removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the air crack(s) affects more than 34 the length or diameter of the potato (whichever is greater) in the aggregate.
Artificial ColoringWhen unsightly or when concealing any defect causing damage or when penetrating the flesh and removal causes loss of more than 5 percent of total weight of potatoWhen concealing a serious defect or when penetrating into the flesh and removal causes loss of more than 10 percent of total weight of potato.
Bruises (Not including pressure bruise and sunken discolored areas)When removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the area affected is more than 5 percent of the surface in the aggregate (i.e., 34 inch on a 212 inch or 6 oz. potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoesWhen removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the area affected is more than 10 percent of the surface in the aggregate (i.e., 114 inches on a 212 inch or 6 oz. potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoes.
CutsWhen one smooth cut affects more than 5 percent of the surface areaCut(s) that affect more than 10 percent of the surface area in the aggregate or when a single side cut extends beyond 12 the length of the potato.
DirtWhen materially detracting from the appearance of the potatoWhen seriously detracting from the appearance of the potato.
Elephant HideWhen affecting over 10 percent of the surface area of the potatoWhen affecting over 25 percent of the surface area.
Enlarged LenticelsWhen materially detracting from the appearance of the potatoWhen seriously detracting from the appearance of the potato.
External Discoloration (Areas that are light tan or lighter in color and blends should be ignored)When more than 30 percent of the surface is affected by light tan or light brown colors which do not blend or when more than 15 percent of the surface is affected by colors darker than light tan or light brownWhen more than 60 percent of the surface is affected by light tan or light brown colors which do not blend or when more than 30 percent of the surface is affected by colors darker than light tan or light brown.
Flattened or Depressed Areas/Pressure BruisesWhen removal of underlying discolored flesh causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the flattened or depressed area(s) covers more surface area than allowed in Table IV. (See Table IV.)When removal of underlying discolored flesh the causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the weight of the potato or when the flattened depressed area(s) covers more surface area than allowed in the Table IV. (See Table IV.)
Flea Beetle InjuryWhen materially detracting from the appearance or when removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when the area affected is more than 5 percent of the surface in the aggregateWhen seriously detracting from the appearance of the potato or when removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the weight of the potato or when the area affected is more than 10 percent of the surface in the aggregate.
GreeningWhen removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when green color affects more than 25 percent of the surface in the aggregateWhen removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the weight of the potato or when green color affects more than 50 percent of the surface in the aggregate.
Growth CracksWhen the growth crack(s) affects more than 12 the length of the potato in the aggregate on round varieties or more than 13 the length in the aggregate on long varieties; or, when the depth is greater than that as outlined in Table V. (See Table V.)When the growth crack(s) affects more than 34 the length of the potato in the aggregate or when the depth is greater than that as outlined in Table V. (See Table V.).
Grub DamageWhen removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when affecting more than 5 percent of the surface area (i.e. more than 34 inch on a 212 inch or 6 ounce potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoesWhen removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the total weight of the potato or when affecting more than 10 percent of the surface area (i.e. more than 114 inch on a 212 inch or 6 ounce potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoes.
Insects or Worms(See Serious Damage.)When present inside the potato.
Nematode (Root Knot)When removal causes loss of more than 5 percent of total weight of potatoWhen removal causes loss of more than 10 percent of total weight of potato.
RhizoctoniaWhen affecting more than 15 percent of the surface in the aggregateWhen affecting more than 50 percent of the surface in the aggregate.
Russeting (On Non Russet Type)When more than 50 percent of the surface is affected in the aggregateN/A.
Rodent or Bird DamageWhen removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when affecting more than 5 percent of the surface area (i.e. more than 34 inch on a 212 inch or 6 ounce potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoesWhen removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the total weight of the potato or when affecting more than 10 percent of the surface area (i.e. more than 114 inch on a 212 inch or 6 ounce potato). Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoes.
Scab, PittedWhen removal causes a loss of more than 5 percent of the total weight of the potato or when scab affects an aggregate area of more than 12 inch. (Based on a potato 212 inches in diameter or 6 oz. in weight.) Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoesWhen the removal causes a loss of more than 10 percent of the total weight of the potato or when scab affects an aggregate area of more than 1 inch. (Based on a potato 212 inches in diameter or 6 oz. in weight.) Correspondingly lesser or greater areas in smaller or larger potatoes.
Scab, RussetSmooth and affecting more than 13 of the surface or rough russet scab which affects more than 10 percent of the surface in the aggregateRough and affecting more than 25 percent of the surface in the aggregate.
Scab, SurfaceWhen more than 5 percent of the surface in the aggregate is affectedWhen more than 25 percent of the surface in the aggregate is affected.
Second GrowthWhen materially detracting from the appearance of the potatoWhen seriously detracting from the appearance of the potato.
Silver ScurfWhen affecting more than 50 percent of the surface area of the potatoWhen its severity causes a wrinkling of the skin over more than 50 percent of the surface.
SproutsWhen more than 5 percent of the potatoes in any lot have any sprout more than 14 inch in length at shipping point; more than 12 inch in length at destination; or have numerous individual and/or clusters of sprouts which materially detract from the appearance of the potatoWhen more than 10 percent of the potatoes in any lot have any sprout more than 12 inch in length at shipping point; more than 1 inch in length at destination; or have numerous individual and/or clusters of sprouts which seriously detract from the appearance of the potato. Serious damage by sprouts shall only be scored against the U.S. Commercial and U.S. No. 2 grades.
SunburnWhen removal causes loss of more than 5 percent of total weight of potatoWhen removal causes loss more than 10 percent of total weight of potato.
Sunken Discolored AreasSEE TABLE VISEE TABLE VI.
Surface Cracks (Areas affected by fine net-like cracking should be ignored.)When smooth shallow cracking affects more than 13 of the surface or when rough deep cracking affects more than 5 percent of the surfaceWhen rough deep cracking affects more than 10 percent of the surface.
Wireworm or Grass DamageWhen affecting the flesh of the potato and removal causes loss of more than 5 percent of total weight of potato.When affecting the flesh of the potato and removal causes loss of more than 10 percent of total weight of potato.

The following defects are considered serious damage when present in any degree: 1. Freezing. 2. Late blight. 3. Ring rot. 4. Southern bacterial wilt. 5. Soft rot. 6. Wet breakdown.

Table IV—Flattened or Depressed Areas—Pressure Bruises Maximum Area Allowed

Diameter Weight No. 1
(aggregate area)
No. 2
(aggregate area)
Potato is:Potato is:Not more than:Not more than:
Less than 2 inLess than 4 oz 12 in1 in
2 to 212 in4 to 6 oz1 in112 in
More than 212 to 3 inMore than 6 to 8 oz114 in134 in
More than 3 to 312 inMore than 8 to 14 oz112 in178 in
More than 312 to 4 inMore than 14 to 20 oz134 in2 in
More than 4 to 412 inMore than 20 to 28 oz2 in214 in
More than 412 to 5 inMore than 28 to 36 oz214 in234 in
More than 5 inMore than 36 oz212 in314 in

Table V—Depth Allowed for Growth Cracks

Diameter Weight No. 1
(depth)
No. 2
(depth)
Potato is:Potato is:Not more than:Not more than:
Less than 2 inLess than 4 oz 18 in 14 in
2 to 212 in4 oz to 6 oz 14 in 38 in
More than 212 to 3 inMore than 6 oz to 8 oz 38 in 12 in
More than 3 inMore than 8 oz 12 in 58 in

Table VI—Sunken Discolored Areas Maximum Area Allowed

Diameter Weight No. 1
(aggregate area)
No. 2
(aggregate area)
Potato is:Potato is:Not more than:Not more than:
Less than 2 inLess than 4 oz 38 in 34 in
2 to 212 in4 to 6 oz 34 in1 in
More than 212 to 3 inMore than 6 to 8 oz1 in114 in
More than 3 to 312 inMore than 8 to 14 oz114 in112 in
More than 312 to 4 inMore than 14 to 20 oz112 in134 in
More than 4 to 412 inMore than 20 to 28 oz134 in2 in
More than 412 to 5 inMore than 28 to 36 oz2 in214 in
More than 5 inMore than 36 oz214 in212 in

[35 FR 18258, Dec. 1, 1970, as amended at 73 FR 15055, Mar. 21, 2008; 73 FR 70586, Nov. 21, 2008; 76 FR 31789, June 2, 2011]


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