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Title 7 Part 51 → §51.1321

Title 7 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 51 → §51.1321

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 7 Part 51 → §51.1321

e-CFR data is current as of November 15, 2019

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → §51.1321


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 51—FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)
Subpart—United States Standards for Winter Pears


§51.1321   Damage.

Damage means any injury or defect which materially affects the appearance, or the edible or shipping quality.

(a) Hard end shall be considered as damage if the pear shows an abnormally yellow color at the blossom end, or an abnormally smooth rounded base with little or no depression at the calyx, or if the flesh near the calyx is abnormally dry and tough or woody.

(b) Slight handling bruises and package bruises such as are incident to good commercial handling in the preparation of a tight pack shall not be considered damage.

(c) Any pear with one skin break larger than three-sixteenths inch in diameter of depth, or with more than one skin break one-eighth inch or larger in diameter or depth, shall be considered damaged, and scored against the grade tolerance.2

(1) Small inconspicuous skin breaks, less than one-eighth inch in diameter or depth, shall not be considered damage. In addition, not more than 15 percent of the pears in any container may have not more than one skin break from one-eighth inch to three-sixteenths inch, inclusive, in diameter or depth.2

(d) Russeting which exceeds the following shall be considered as damage:

(1) On all varieties excessively rough russeting (russeting which shows “frogging” or slight cracking) when the aggregate area exceeds one-half inch in diameter.2

(2) On Anjou and other smooth-skinned varieties, slightly rough russeting, or thick russeting such as is characteristic of frost injury, when the aggregate area exceeds three-fourths inch in diameter.2

(3) On Anjou, smooth solid or smooth netlike russeting when the aggregate area exceeds one-third of the surface, and on other smooth-skinned varieties, 15 percent of the surface, except that, in addition, on Anjou and other smooth-skinned varieties, any amount of characteristic smooth russeting shall be permitted on that portion of the calyx end not visible for more than one-half inch along the contour of the pear, when it is placed calyx end down on a flat surface.

(4) On any of the following and other similar varieties, rough or thick russeting such as is characteristic of frost injury, when the aggregate area exceeds three-fourths inch in diameter. On any of these varieties any amount of characteristic russeting is permitted whether due to natural causes such as weather or stimulated by artificial means; leaf whips or light limbrubs which resemble and blend into russeted areas shall be considered as russet:

Bosc, Clairgeau, Comice, Easter Beurre, Flemish Beauty, Kieffer, P. Barry, Pound, Seckel, Sheldon, Winter Nelis, and other similar varieties.

(e) Any one of the following defects or any combination thereof, the seriousness of which exceeds the maximum allowed for any one defect, shall be considered as damage:

(1) Any limbrubs which are cracked, softened, or more than slightly depressed.

(2) Black discoloration caused by limbrubs which exceeds an aggregate area of three-eighths inch in diameter.

(3) Dark brown discoloration or excessive roughness caused by limbrubs which exceeds an aggregate area of one-half inch in diameter.

(4) Slightly rough, light colored discoloration caused by limbrubs which exceeds an aggregate area of three-fourths inch in diameter.

(5) Smooth, light colored discoloration caused by limbrubs which exceeds an aggregate area of 1 inch in diameter.2

(6) Hail marks or other similar depressions or scars which are not shallow or superficial, or where the injury affects an aggregate area of more than three-eighths inch in diameter.2

(7) Cork spot when more than one in number is visible externally or when the flesh is materially affected.

(8) Drought spot when more than one in number, or when the external injury exceeds an aggregate area of three-eighths inch in diameter, or when the appearance of the flesh is materially affected by corky tissue or brownish discoloration.2

(9) Sunburn or sprayburn where the skin is blistered, cracked, or shows any light tan or brownish color, or the shape of the pear is appreciably flattened, or the flesh is appreciably softened or changed in color, except that sprayburn of a russet character shall be considered under the definition of russeting.

(10) Insects: (i) More than two healed codling moth stings, or any insect sting which is over three thirty-seconds of an inch in diameter, or other insect stings affecting the appearance to an equal extent.2

(ii) Blister mite or canker worm injury which is not shallow or superficial, or where the injury affects an aggregate area of more than three-eighths inch in diameter.2

(11) Disease: (i) Scab spots which are black and which cover an aggregate area of more than one-fourth inch in diameter, except that scab spots of a russet character shall be considered under the definition of russeting.2

(ii) Sooty blotch which is thinly scattered over more than 5 percent of the surface, or dark, heavily concentrated spots which affect an area of more than three-eighths inch in diameter.2


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