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Title 49 Part 531

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter V → Part 531

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 531

e-CFR data is current as of October 17, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter V → Part 531


Title 49: Transportation


PART 531—PASSENGER AUTOMOBILE AVERAGE FUEL ECONOMY STANDARDS


Contents
§531.1   Scope.
§531.2   Purpose.
§531.3   Applicability.
§531.4   Definitions.
§531.5   Fuel economy standards.
§531.6   Measurement and calculation procedures.
§531.7   xxx
Appendix to Part 531—Example of Calculating Compliance Under §531.5(c)
Appendix B to Part 531—xxx

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 32902, delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.50.

Source: 42 FR 33552, June 30, 1977, unless otherwise noted.

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§531.1   Scope.

This part establishes average fuel economy standards pursuant to section 502 (a) and (c) of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended, for passenger automobiles.

[43 FR 28204, June 29, 1978]

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§531.2   Purpose.

The purpose of this part is to increase the fuel economy of passenger automobiles by establishing minimum levels of average fuel economy for those vehicles.

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§531.3   Applicability.

This part applies to manufacturers of passenger automobiles.

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§531.4   Definitions.

(a) Statutory terms. (1) The terms average fuel economy, manufacture, manufacturer, and model year are used as defined in section 501 of the Act.

(2) The terms automobile and passenger automobile are used as defined in section 501 of the Act and in accordance with the determination in part 523 of this chapter.

(b) Other terms. As used in this part, unless otherwise required by the context—

(1) Act means the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act, as amended by Pub. L. 94-163.

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§531.5   Fuel economy standards.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each manufacturer of passenger automobiles shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy standards in Table I, expressed in miles per gallon, in the model year specified as applicable:

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(b) For model year 2011, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 1 and the appropriate values in Table II.

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Where:

N is the total number (sum) of passenger automobiles produced by a manufacturer;

Ni is the number (sum) of the ith passenger automobile model produced by the manufacturer; and

Ti is the fuel economy target of the ith model passenger automobile, which is determined according to the following formula, rounded to the nearest hundredth:

eCFR graphic er15oc12.071.gif

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Where:

Parameters a, b, c, and d are defined in Table II;

e = 2.718; and

x = footprint (in square feet, rounded to the nearest tenth) of the vehicle model.

Table II-Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets

Model yearParameters
a (mpg)b (mpg)c (gal/mi/ft2)d (gal/mi)
201131.2024.0051.411.91

(c) For model years 2012-2025, a manufacturer's passenger automobile fleet shall comply with the fleet average fuel economy level calculated for that model year according to Figure 2 and the appropriate values in Table III.

eCFR graphic er15oc12.072.gif

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Where:

CAFErequired is the fleet average fuel economy standard for a given fleet (domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles);

Subscript i is a designation of multiple groups of automobiles, where each group's designation, i.e., i = 1, 2, 3, etc., represents automobiles that share a unique model type and footprint within the applicable fleet, either domestic passenger automobiles or import passenger automobiles;

Productioni is the number of passenger automobiles produced for sale in the United States within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint;

TARGETi is the fuel economy target in miles per gallon (mpg) applicable to the footprint of passenger automobiles within each ith designation, i.e., which share the same model type and footprint, calculated according to Figure 3 and rounded to the nearest hundredth of a mpg, i.e., 35.455 = 35.46 mpg, and the summations in the numerator and denominator are both performed over all models in the fleet in question.

eCFR graphic er15oc12.073.gif

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Where:

TARGET is the fuel economy target (in mpg) applicable to vehicles of a given footprint (FOOTPRINT, in square feet);

Parameters a, b,c, and d are defined in Table III; and

The MIN and MAX functions take the minimum and maximum, respectively, of the included values.

Table III-Parameters for the Passenger Automobile Fuel Economy Targets, MYs 2012-2025

Model yearParameters
a (mpg)b (mpg)c (gal/mi/ft2)d (gal/mi)
201235.9527.950.00053080.006057
201336.8028.460.00053080.005410
201437.7529.030.00053080.004725
201539.2429.900.00053080.003719
201641.0930.960.00053080.002573
201743.6132.650.00051310.001896
201845.2133.840.00049540.001811
201946.8735.070.00047830.001729
202048.7436.470.00046030.001643
202150.8338.020.00044190.001555
202253.2139.790.00042270.001463
202355.7141.640.00040430.001375
202458.3243.580.00038670.001290
202561.0745.610.00036990.001210

(d) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each manufacturer shall also meet the minimum fleet standard for domestically manufactured passenger automobiles expressed in Table IV:

Table IV—Minimum Fuel Economy Standards for Domestically Manufactured Passenger Automobiles, MYs 2011-2021

Model yearMinimum standard
201127.8
201230.7
201331.4
201432.1
201533.3
201634.7
201736.7
201838.0
201939.4
202040.9
202142.7
202244.7
202346.8
202449.0
202551.3

(e) For model years 2022-2025, each manufacturer shall comply with the standards set forth in paragraphs (c) and (d) in this section, if NHTSA determines in a rulemaking, initiated after January 1, 2017, and conducted in accordance with 49 U.S.C. 32902, that the standards in paragraphs (c) and (d) are the maximum feasible standards for model years 2022-2025. If, for any of those model years, NHTSA determines that the maximum feasible standard for passenger cars and the corresponding minimum standard for domestically manufactured passenger cars should be set at a different level, manufacturers shall comply with those different standards in lieu of the standards set forth for those model years in paragraphs (c) and (d), and NHTSA will revise this section to reflect the different standards.

(f) The following manufacturers shall comply with the standards indicated below for the specified model years:

(1) Avanti Motor Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
197816.1
197914.5
198015.8
198118.2
198218.2
198316.9
198416.9
198516.9

(2) Rolls-Royce Motors, Inc.

Model yearAverage fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
197810.7
197910.8
198011.1
198110.7
198210.6
19839.9
198410.0
198510.0
198611.0
198711.2
198811.2
198911.2
199012.7
199112.7
199213.8
199313.8
199413.8
199514.6
199614.6
199715.1
199816.3
199916.3

(3) Checker Motors Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
197817.6
197916.5
198018.5
198118.3
198218.4

(4) Aston Martin Lagonda, Inc.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
197911.5
198012.1
198112.2
198212.2
198311.3
198411.3
198511.4

(5) Excalibur Automobile Corporation.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
197811.5
197911.5
198016.2
198117.9
198217.9
198316.6
198416.6
198516.6

(6) Lotus Cars Ltd.

Model yearAverage fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
199424.2
199523.3

(7) Officine Alfieri Maserati, S.p.A.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
197812.5
197912.5
19809.5
198417.9
198516.8

(8) Lamborghini of North America.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
198313.7
198413.7

(9) LondonCoach Co., Inc.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
198521.0
198621.0
198721.0

(10) Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A./Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
199512.8
199612.6
199712.5

(11) Dutcher Motors, Inc.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
198616.0
198716.0
198816.0
199217.0
199317.0
199417.0
199517.0

(12) MedNet, Inc.

Model year Average fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
199617.0
199717.0
199817.0

(13) Vector Aeromotive Corporation.

Model yearAverage fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
199812.1

(14) Qvale Automotive Group Srl.

Model yearAverage fuel economy standard (miles per gallon)
200022.0
200122.0

(15) Spyker Automobielen B.V.

Average Fuel Economy Standard

Model year Miles per gallon
200618.9
200718.9

[43 FR 28204, June 29, 1978]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §531.5, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§531.6   Measurement and calculation procedures.

(a) The fleet average fuel economy performance of all passenger automobiles that are manufactured by a manufacturer in a model year shall be determined in accordance with procedures established by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under 49 U.S.C. 32904 and set forth in 40 CFR part 600. For model years 2017 to 2025, a manufacturer is eligible to increase the fuel economy performance of passenger cars in accordance with procedures established by EPA set forth in 40 CFR part 600, including any adjustments to fuel economy EPA allows, such as for fuel consumption improvements related to air conditioning efficiency and off-cycle technologies.

(b) The eligibility of a manufacturer to increase its fuel economy performance through use of an off-cycle technology requires an application request made to EPA in accordance with 40 CFR Part 86.1869-12 and an approval granted by EPA made in consultation with NHTSA. In order to expedite NHTSA's consultation with EPA, a manufacturer's application as part of the off-cycle credit approval process under 40 CFR 86.1869-12(b) or 40 CFR 86.1869-12(c) shall also be submitted to NHTSA at the same time if the manufacturer is seeking off-cycle fuel economy improvement values under the CAFE program for those technologies. For off-cycle technologies which are covered under 40 CFR 86.1869-12(b) or 40 CFR 86.1869-12(c), NHTSA will consult with EPA regarding NHTSA's evaluation of the specific off-cycle technology to ensure its impact on fuel economy and the suitability of using the off-cycle technology to adjust the fuel economy performance. NHTSA will provide its views on the suitability of the technology for that purpose to EPA. NHTSA's evaluation and review will consider:

(1) Whether the technology has a direct impact upon improving fuel economy performance;

(2) Whether the technology is related to crash-avoidance technologies, safety critical systems or systems affecting safety-critical functions, or technologies designed for the purpose of reducing the frequency of vehicle crashes;

(3) Information from any assessments conducted by EPA related to the application, the technology and/or related technologies; and

(4) Any other relevant factors.

[77 FR 63191, Oct. 15, 2012]

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§531.7   xxx

Appendix to Part 531—Example of Calculating Compliance Under §531.5(c)

Link to an amendment published at 84 FR 51362, Sept. 27, 2019.

Assume a hypothetical manufacturer (Manufacturer X) produces a fleet of domestic passenger automobiles in MY 2012 as follows:

Appendix Table I

Model typeDescriptionActual measured fuel economy
(mpg)
Volume
GroupCarline nameBasic
engine
(L)
Transmission class
1PC A FWD1.8A52-door sedan34.01,500
2PC A FWD1.8M62-door sedan34.62,000
3PC A FWD2.5A64-door wagon33.82,000
4PC A AWD1.8A64-door wagon34.41,000
5PC A AWD2.5M62-door hatchback32.93,000
6PC B RWD2.5A64-door wagon32.28,000
7PC B RWD2.5A74-door sedan33.12,000
8PC C AWD3.2A74-door sedan30.65,000
9PC C FWD3.2M62-door coupe28.53,000
Total27,500

Note to Appendix Table I: Manufacturer X's required fleet average fuel economy standard level would first be calculated by determining the fuel economy targets applicable to each unique model type and footprint combination for model type groups 1-9 as illustrated in Appendix Table II:

Manufacturer X calculates a fuel economy target standard for each unique model type and footprint combination.

Appendix Table II

Model typeDescriptionBase tire sizeWheelbase
(inches)
Track width F&R average
(inches)
Footprint
(ft2)
VolumeFuel economy target standard
(mpg)
GroupCarline nameBasic
engine
(L)
Transmission class
1PC A FWD1.8A52-door sedan205/75R1499.861.242.41,50035.01
2PC A FWD1.8M62-door sedan215/70R1599.860.942.22,00035.14
3PC A FWD2.5A64-door wagon215/70R15100.060.942.32,00035.08
4PC A AWD1.8A64-door wagon235/60R15100.061.242.51,00035.95
5PC A AWD2.5M62-door hatchback225/65R1699.659.541.23,00035.81
6PC B RWD2.5A64-door wagon265/55R18109.266.850.78,00030.33
7PC B RWD2.5A74-door sedan235/65R17109.267.851.42,00029.99
8PC C AWD3.2A74-door sedan265/55R18111.367.852.45,00029.52
9PC C FWD3.2M62-door coupe225/65R16111.367.251.93,00029.76
Total27,500

Note to Appendix Table II: With the appropriate fuel economy targets determined for each unique model type and footprint combination, Manufacturer X's required fleet average fuel economy standard would be calculated as illustrated in Appendix Figure 1:

Appendix Figure 1—Calculation of Manufacturer X's fleet average fuel economy standard using Table II:

Fleet average fuel economy standard =

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= 31.6 mpg

Appendix Figure 2—Calculation of Manufacturer X's actual fleet average fuel economy performance level using Table I:

Fleet average fuel economy performance =

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= 32.0 mpg

Note to Appendix Figure 2: Since the actual fleet average fuel economy performance of Manufacturer X's fleet is 32.0 mpg, as compared to its required fleet fuel economy standard of 31.6 mpg, Manufacturer X complied with the CAFE standard for MY 2012 as set forth in §531.5(c).

[77 FR 63191, Oct. 15, 2012]

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Appendix B to Part 531—xxx