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Title 49 Part 230

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter II → Part 230

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 230

e-CFR data is current as of October 18, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter II → Part 230


Title 49: Transportation


PART 230—STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS


Contents

Subpart B—Boilers and Appurtenances

§230.23   Responsibility for general construction and safe working pressure.

Allowable Stress

§230.24   Maximum allowable stress.
§230.25   Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

Strength of Materials

§230.26   Tensile strength of shell plates.
§230.27   Maximum shearing strength of rivets.
§230.28   Higher shearing strength of rivets.

Inspection and Repair

§230.29   Inspection and repair.
§230.30   Lap-joint seam boilers.
§230.31   Flues to be removed.
§230.32   Time and method of inspection.
§230.33   Welded repairs and alterations.
§230.34   Riveted repairs and alterations.

Pressure Testing of Boilers

§230.35   Pressure testing.
§230.36   Hydrostatic testing of boilers.
§230.37   Steam test following repairs or alterations.

Staybolts

§230.38   Telltale holes.
§230.39   Broken staybolts.
§230.40   Time and method of staybolt testing.
§230.41   Flexible staybolts with caps.

Steam Gauges

§230.42   Location of gauges.
§230.43   Gauge siphon.
§230.44   Time of testing.
§230.45   Method of testing.
§230.46   Badge plates.
§230.47   Boiler number.

Safety Relief Valves

§230.48   Number and capacity.
§230.49   Setting of safety relief valves.
§230.50   Time of testing.

Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks

§230.51   Number and location.
§230.52   Water glass valves.
§230.53   Time of cleaning.
§230.54   Testing and maintenance.
§230.55   Tubular type water and lubricator glasses and shields.
§230.56   Water glass lamps.

Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs

§230.57   Injectors and feedwater pumps.
§230.58   Flue plugs.

Fusible Plugs

§230.59   Fusible plugs.

Washing Boilers

§230.60   Time of washing.
§230.61   Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

Steam Pipes

§230.62   Dry pipe.
§230.63   Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

Steam Leaks

§230.64   Leaks under lagging.
§230.65   Steam blocking view of engine crew.

Subpart C—Steam Locomotives and Tenders

§230.66   Design, construction, and maintenance.
§230.67   Responsibility for inspection and repairs.

Speed Indicators

§230.68   Speed indicators.

Ash Pans

§230.69   Ash pans.

Brake and Signal Equipment

§230.70   Safe condition.
§230.71   Orifice testing of compressors.
§230.72   Testing main reservoirs.
§230.73   Air gauges.
§230.74   Time of cleaning.
§230.75   Stenciling dates of tests and cleaning.
§230.76   Piston travel.
§230.77   Foundation brake gear.
§230.78   Leakage.
§230.79   Train signal system.

Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights

§230.80   Cabs.
§230.81   Cab aprons.
§230.82   Fire doors.
§230.83   Cylinder cocks.
§230.84   Sanders.
§230.85   Audible warning device.
§230.86   Required illumination.
§230.87   Cab lights.

Throttles and Reversing Gear

§230.88   Throttles.
§230.89   Reverse gear.

Draw Gear and Draft Systems

§230.90   Draw gear between steam locomotive and tender.
§230.91   Chafing irons.
§230.92   Draw gear and draft systems.

Driving Gear

§230.93   Pistons and piston rods.
§230.94   Crossheads.
§230.95   Guides.
§230.96   Main, side, and valve motion rods.
§230.97   Crank pins.

Running Gear

§230.98   Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.
§230.99   Tender truck axles.
§230.100   Defects in tender truck axles and journals.
§230.101   Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.
§230.102   Tender plain bearing journal boxes.
§230.103   Tender roller bearing journal boxes.
§230.104   Driving box shoes and wedges.
§230.105   Lateral motion.

Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System

§230.106   Steam locomotive frame.
§230.107   Tender frame and body.
§230.108   Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.
§230.109   Tender trucks.
§230.110   Pilots.
§230.111   Spring rigging.

Wheels and Tires

§230.112   Wheels and tires.
§230.113   Wheels and tire defects.
§230.114   Wheel centers.

Steam Locomotive Tanks

§230.115   Feed water tanks.
§230.116   Oil tanks.

   

Appendix A to Part 230—Inspection Requirements
Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings
Appendix C to Part 230—FRA Inspection Forms

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 20103, 20107, 20702; 28 U.S.C. 2461, note; and 49 CFR 1.89.

Source: 64 FR 62865, Nov. 17, 1999, unless otherwise noted.

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Subpart A—General

§230.1   Purpose and scope.

This part prescribes minimum Federal safety standards for all steam-propelled locomotives operated on railroads to which this part applies. This part does not restrict a railroad from adopting and enforcing additional or more stringent requirements not inconsistent with this part.

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§230.2   Applicability.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, this part applies to all railroads that operate steam locomotives.

(b) This part does not apply to:

(1) A railroad with track gage of less than 24 inches;

(2) A railroad that operates exclusively freight trains and does so only on track inside an installation that is not part of the general system of transportation;

(3) Rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the general system of transportation; or

(4) A railroad that operates passenger trains and does so only on track inside an installation that is insular, i.e., its operations are limited to a separate enclave in such a way that there is no reasonable expectation that the safety of the public—except a business guest, a licensee of the railroad or an affiliated entity, or a trespasser—would be affected by the operation. An operation will not be considered insular if one or more of the following exists on its line:

(i) A public highway-rail crossing that is in use;

(ii) An at-grade rail crossing that is in use;

(iii) A bridge over a public road or waters used for commercial navigation; or

(iv) A common corridor with another railroad, i.e., its operations are conducted within 30 feet of those of any other railroad.

(c) See appendix A of part 209 for a current statement of the FRA's policy on its exercise of jurisdiction.

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§230.3   Implementation.

Except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, the locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform a 1472 service day inspection that meets the requirements of §230.17 when the locomotive's flues would be required to be removed pursuant to §230.10, of the regulations in effect prior to January 18, 2000. (See 49 CFR parts 200-999, revised October 1, 1978) At the time the locomotive owner and/or operator completes this inspection, it must begin to comply with the rest of the provisions of this part. Up until such time, and except as provided in paragraphs (a) through (c) of this section, compliance with the regulations in effect prior to January 18, 2000 (See 49 CFR parts 200-999, revised October 1, 1978) will constitute full compliance with this part. Any interested person may obtain the October 1, 1978 revision of 49 CFR parts 200-999 by contacting the Federal Railroad Administration, Office of Chief Counsel, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590.

(a) One year after January 18, 2000. The following sections of this part must be complied with by January 18, 2001: §§230.7, 230.51, 230.57, 230.68, 230.70, 230.85, 230.87, 230.115, and 230.116.

(b) Interim flue removal extensions. FRA will continue to consider requests for flue removal extensions under the provisions of §230.10 of the regulations in effect prior to January 18, 2000 (See 49 CFR parts 200-999, revised October 1, 1978) until January 18, 2002.

(c) Petition for special consideration. The locomotive owner or operator may petition FRA for special consideration of this part's implementation with respect to any locomotive that has either fully or partially satisfied the requirements of §230.17 within the three (3) year period prior to September 25, 1998—provided the locomotive is in full compliance with §230.17 by the time the petition is actually filed.1

1Note: As an example, where a locomotive has received a proper boiler inspection after September 25, 1995 pursuant to §§230.10 and 230.11 of the regulations in effect prior to January 18, 2000 but has not had its FRA Form No. 4 updated, the locomotive owner or operator may update and verify the FRA Form No. 4 for that locomotive, and submit a timely petition that requests retroactive credit for the boiler inspection. (See 49 CFR parts 200-999, revised October 1, 1978.)

(1) Petition process. Petitions must be filed by January 18, 2001 and must be accompanied by all relevant documentation to be considered, including a FRA Form No. 4 (see appendix C of this part) that has been calculated in accordance with §230.17, and all records that demonstrate the number of days the locomotive has been in service. Based upon the documentation provided, FRA will calculate the number of “service days” the locomotive has accrued and will notify the petitioner of the number of service days that remain in the locomotive's 1472 service day cycle. Petitions should be sent to FRA by some form of registered mail to ensure a record of delivery. FRA will investigate these petitions and will respond to these petitions within one year of their receipt. FRA will send its response by some form of registered mail to ensure that a record of delivery is created. In its response, FRA may grant the petition or deny it. If FRA grants the petition, the entirety of the revised requirements will become effective upon receipt of FRA's response, unless FRA's response indicates otherwise. If FRA denies the petition, the rule will become effective as provided in the first paragraph of this section.

(2) FRA silence. Anyone who does not receive a response within one year of the date they filed their petition, whether through administrative or postal error, must notify FRA that the response has not been received. The notification should be provided to FRA by some form of registered mail to ensure a record of delivery. Upon receipt of this notification, FRA will ensure that a response is either issued, or re-issued, as soon as possible. In the interim, however, any operator who is at the end of their inspection cycle under the rules in effect prior to January 18, 2000 (See 49 CFR parts 200-999, revised October 1, 1978) will be allowed to remain in service without conducting the required inspection under §230.17 for an additional six months, or until they receive FRA's decision, whichever occurs first.

[64 FR 62865, Nov. 17, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009]

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§230.4   Penalties.

(a) Any person who violates any requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $892 and not more than $29,192 per violation, except that: Penalties may be assessed against individuals only for willful violations, and, where a grossly negligent violation or a pattern of repeated violations has created an imminent hazard of death or injury to persons, or has caused death or injury, a penalty not to exceed $116,766 per violation may be assessed. Each day a violation continues shall constitute a separate offense. See appendix A of part 209 for a statement of agency civil penalty policy.

(b) Any person who knowingly and willfully falsifies a record or report required by this part may be subject to criminal penalties under 49 U.S.C. 21311.

[64 FR 62865, Nov. 17, 1999, as amended at 69 FR 30594, May 28, 2004; 72 FR 51197, Sept. 6, 2007; 73 FR 79703, Dec. 30, 2008; 77 FR 24421, Apr. 24, 2012; 81 FR 43111, July 1, 2016; 82 FR 16134, Apr. 3, 2017; 83 FR 60748, Nov. 27, 2018; 84 FR 37074, July 31, 2019]

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§230.5   Preemptive effect.

The Locomotive Boiler Inspection Act (49 U.S.C. 20701-20703) preempts all State laws or regulations concerning locomotive safety. Napier v. Atlantic Coast Line R.R., 272 U.S. 605 (1926). However, FRA believes Congress did not intend to preempt State laws or regulations concerning rail operations over which FRA does not exercise jurisdiction. Therefore, in issuing this part, it is FRA's intent that State laws or regulations applicable to those rail operations to which this part does not apply (i.e., insular tourist operations) not be preempted.

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§230.6   Waivers.

(a) A person subject to a requirement of this part may petition the Administrator of FRA for a waiver of compliance with such requirement. The filing of such a petition does not affect that person's responsibility for compliance with that requirement while the petition is being considered.

(b) Each petition for waiver under this section must be filed in the manner and contain the information required by part 211 of this chapter.

(c) If the Administrator finds that a waiver of compliance is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety, the Administrator may grant the waiver subject to any conditions the Administrator deems necessary. Where a waiver is granted, the Administrator publishes a notice containing the reasons for granting the waiver.

(d) All waivers of every form and type from any requirement of any order or regulation implementing the Locomotive Boiler Inspection Act, 36 Stat. 913, as amended, 49 U.S.C. 20702, applicable to one or more steam locomotives, shall lapse on January 18, 2000 unless a copy of the grant of waiver is filed for reassessment prior to that date with the Office of Safety, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FRA will review the waiver and notify the applicant whether the waiver has been continued.

[64 FR 62865, Nov. 17, 1999, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009]

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§230.7   Responsibility for compliance.

(a) The locomotive owner and/or operator is directly responsible for ensuring that all requirements of this part are satisfied, and is the entity primarily responsible for compliance with this part.

(b) Although the duties imposed by this part are generally stated in terms of the duties of a railroad or a steam locomotive owner and/or operator, any person, including a contractor for a railroad, who performs any function covered by this part must perform that function in accordance with this part.

(c) Chapter 207 of Title 49 of the United States Codes makes it unlawful for any railroad to use or permit to be used on its line any steam locomotive or tender unless the entire steam locomotive or tender and its parts and appurtenances are in proper condition and safe to operate in the service to which they are put, without unnecessary danger of personal injury and have been inspected and tested as required by this part.

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§230.8   Definitions.

As used in this part, the terms listed in this section have the following definitions:

Administrator. The Administrator of the Federal Railroad Administration or the Administrator's delegate.

Alteration. Any change to the boiler which affects its pressure retention capability. Rating changes are considered alterations.

ANSI. American National Standards Institute.

API. American Petroleum Institute.

ASME. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Boiler surfaces. The boiler interior is all the space inside a boiler occupied by water or steam under pressure, and all associated surfaces inside that space exposed to that water and steam. The boiler exterior is the opposite surface of all components directly exposed to the boiler interior. This includes the fire side of the firebox sheets.

Break. A fracture resulting in complete separation into parts.

Code of original construction. The manufacturer's or industry code in effect when the boiler was constructed. If the exact code is not known, the closest contemporary code may be used provided it does not pre-date the construction date of the boiler.

Crack. A fracture without complete separation into parts, except that castings with shrinkage cracks or hot tears that do not significantly diminish the strength of the member are not considered to be cracked.

Dead locomotive. A locomotive unable to produce tractive effort.

Fire. Anything that produces products of combustion that heat transferring components of the locomotive are exposed to.

FRA. The Federal Railroad Administration.

Locomotive operator. Person or entity which operates, but which does not necessarily own, one or more steam locomotives. This term means, for purposes of inspection and maintenance responsibility, the entity responsible for the day-to-day operation of the steam locomotive, or the delegate thereof. This entity may be a railroad or a person or persons who operate a steam locomotive under contract for a railroad.

Locomotive owner. Person or entity which owns, but which does not necessarily operate, one or more steam locomotives that is operated on a railroad to which this part applies. For purposes of inspection and maintenance responsibility, this term includes that entity's delegate as well.

MAWP. Maximum allowable working pressure as specified by the steam locomotive specification FRA Form No. 4. (See appendix C of this part.)

NBIC. National Board Inspection Code published by the National Board of Boiler and Pressure Vessel Inspectors.

NDE. Non-destructive Examination.

NPS. Nominal Pipe Size.

Person. An entity of any type covered under 1 U.S.C. 1, including but not limited to the following: a railroad; a manager, supervisor, official, or other employee or agent of a railroad; any owner, manufacturer, lessor, or lessee of railroad equipment, track, or facilities; any independent contractor providing goods or services to a railroad; and any employee of such owner, manufacturer, lessor, lessee, or independent contractor.

Railroad. Any form of non-highway ground transportation that runs on rails or electromagnetic guideways and any entity providing such transportation, including commuter or other short-haul railroad passenger service in a metropolitan or suburban area and commuter railroad service that was operated by the Consolidated Rail Corporation on January 1, 1979; and high speed ground transportation systems that connect metropolitan areas, without regard to whether those systems use new technologies not associated with traditional railroads; but does not include rapid transit operations in an urban area that are not connected to the general railroad system of transportation.

Renewal. Replacement in kind with a newly manufactured or remanufactured (restored to original tolerances) component. Materials shall be suitable for the service intended.

Repair. Any work which results in a restoration in kind.

Serious injury. An injury that results in the amputation of any appendage, the loss of sight in an eye, the fracture of a bone, or the confinement in a hospital for a period of more than 24 consecutive hours.

Service day. Any calendar day that the boiler has steam pressure above atmospheric pressure with fire in the firebox. In the case of a fireless steam locomotive, any calendar day that the boiler has steam pressure above atmospheric pressure.

Stayed portion of the boiler. That portion of the boiler designed to require support to retain internal pressure by the addition of strength members, such as staybolts, braces, diagonal stays, tubes, etc.

Steam locomotive. A self-propelled unit of equipment powered by steam that is either designed or used for moving other equipment. This includes a self-propelled unit designed or used to carry freight and/or passenger traffic.

Unstayed portion of the boiler. That portion of the boiler designed to be self-supported in retaining internal pressure without additional strength members such as staybolts, braces, diagonal stays, tubes, etc.

Wastage. A reduction in the thickness of a mechanical component, such as a pipe or sheet.

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§230.9   Information collection.

(a) [Reserved]

(b) The information collection requirements are found in the following sections: §§230.3, 230.12 through 230.21, 230.33, 230.34, 230.41, 230.46, 230.47, 230.75, 230.96, 230.98, and 230.116.

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§230.10   [Reserved]

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General Inspection Requirements

§230.11   Repair of non-complying conditions.

The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall repair any steam locomotive that fails to comply with the conditions of this part, and shall approve any such repairs made, before placing the locomotive back into service.

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§230.12   Movement of non-complying steam locomotives.

(a) General limitations on movement. A steam locomotive with one or more non-complying conditions may be moved only as a lite steam locomotive or a steam locomotive in tow, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section. Cars essential to the movement of the steam locomotive and tender(s), including tool cars and a bunk car, may accompany lite movements.

(b) Conditions for movement. Prior to movement, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall determine that it is safe to move the locomotive, determine the maximum speed and other restrictions necessary for safely conducting the movement, and notify in writing the engineer in charge of the defective steam locomotive and, if towed, the engineer in charge of the towing locomotive consist, as well as all other crew members in the cabs, of the presence of the non-complying steam locomotive and the maximum speed and other movement restrictions. In addition, a tag bearing the words “non-complying locomotive” shall be securely attached to each defective steam locomotive and shall contain the following information:

(1) The steam locomotive number;

(2) The name of the inspecting entity;

(3) The inspection location and date;

(4) The nature of the defect;

(5) Movement restrictions, if any;

(6) The destination; and

(7) The signature of the person making the determinations required by this paragraph (b).

(c) Yard movements. A non-complying steam locomotive may be moved lite or dead within a yard at speeds not in excess of 10 miles per hour without meeting the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section if the movement is solely for the purpose of repair. The locomotive owner and/or operator is responsible for ensuring that the movement may be safely made.

(d) Non-complying conditions developed en route. The locomotive owner and/or operator may continue in use a steam locomotive that develops a non-complying condition en route until the next daily inspection or the nearest forward point where the repairs necessary to bring it into compliance can be made, whichever is earlier. Before continuing en route, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall determine that it is safe to move the steam locomotive, determine the maximum speed and other restrictions necessary for safely conducting the movement, and notify in writing the engineer in charge of the defective steam locomotive and, if towed, the engineer in charge of the towing steam locomotive consist, as well as all other crew members in the cabs, of the presence of the non-complying steam locomotive and the maximum speed and other movement restrictions.

(e) Special notice for repair. Nothing in this section authorizes the movement of a steam locomotive subject to a Special Notice for Repair unless the movement is made in accordance with the restrictions contained in the Special Notice.

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§230.13   Daily inspection.

(a) General. An individual competent to conduct the inspection shall inspect each steam locomotive and its tender each day that they are offered for use to determine that they are safe and suitable for service. The daily inspection shall be conducted to comply with all sections of this part, and a daily inspection report filed, by an individual competent to conduct the inspection. See appendices A and B of this part.

(b) Pre-departure. At the beginning of each day the steam locomotive is used, an individual competent to do so shall, together with the daily inspection required in paragraph (a) of this section, inspect the steam locomotive and its tender and appurtenances to ensure that they are safe and suitable for service, paying special attention to the following items:

(1) Water glasses and gauge cocks;

(2) Boiler feedwater delivery systems, such as injectors and feedwater pumps; and

(3) Air compressors and governors, and the air brake system.

(c) Inspection reports. The results of the daily inspection shall be entered on an FRA Form No. 2 (See appendix C of this part) which shall contain, at a minimum, the name of the railroad, the initials and number of the steam locomotive, the place, date and time of the inspection, the signature of the employee making the inspection, a description of the non-complying conditions disclosed by the inspection, conditions found in non-compliance during the day and repaired and the signature of the person who repaired the non-conforming conditions. This report shall be filed even if no non-complying conditions are detected. A competent individual shall sign the report, certifying that all non-complying conditions were repaired before the steam locomotive is operated. This report shall be filed and retained for at least 92 days at the location designated by the steam locomotive owner and/or operator.

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§230.14   Thirty-one (31) service day inspection.

(a) General. An individual competent to conduct the inspection shall perform the 31 service day inspection after the steam locomotive has accrued 31 service days. This inspection shall consist of all 31 service day inspection items and all daily inspection items. See appendix A of this part. Days in service shall be counted, recorded and readily available for inspection when requested by an FRA inspector.

(b) FRA notification. FRA Regional Administrators or their delegate(s) may require a steam locomotive owner or operator to provide FRA with timely notification before performing a 31 service day inspection. If the Regional Administrator or their delegate indicates their desire to be present for the 31 service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall provide them a scheduled date and location for inspection. Once scheduled, the inspection must be performed at the time and place specified, unless the Regional Administrator and the steam locomotive owner and/or operator mutually agree to reschedule. If the Regional Administrator requests the inspection be performed on another date but the steam locomotive owner and/or operator and the Regional Administrator are unable to agree on a date for rescheduling, the inspection may be performed as scheduled.

(c) Filing inspection reports. Within 10 days of conducting the 31 service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file, for each steam locomotive inspected, a report of inspection (FRA Form No. 1), in the place where the steam locomotive is maintained and with the FRA Regional Administrator for that region. When the report of annual inspection (FRA Form No. 3), is filed, the FRA Form No. 1 does not have to be filed until the next 31 service day inspection. (See appendix B of this part.)

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§230.15   Ninety-two (92) service day inspection.

(a) General. An individual competent to conduct the inspection shall perform the 92 service day inspection after the steam locomotive has accrued 92 “service-days.” This inspection shall include all daily, all 31 service day, and all 92 service day inspection items. See appendix A of this part. Days in service shall be counted, recorded, and readily available for inspection when requested by an FRA inspector.

(b) Filing inspection reports. Within 10 days of conducting the 92 service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file, for each steam locomotive inspected, a report of inspection (FRA Form No. 1), in the place the locomotive is maintained and with the FRA Regional Administrator for that region.

When the report of annual inspection (FRA Form No. 3), is filed, the FRA Form No. 1 does not have to be filed until the next 92 service day inspection. (See appendix C of this part.)

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§230.16   Annual inspection.

(a) General. (1) An individual competent to conduct the inspection shall perform the annual inspection after 368 calendar days have elapsed from the time of the previous annual inspection. This inspection shall include all daily, all 31 service day, all 92 service day, and all annual inspection items. (See appendix B of this part.)

(2) Fifth annual inspection. An individual competent to do so shall perform a flexible staybolt and cap inspection in accordance with §230.41 at each fifth annual inspection.

(b) FRA notification. FRA Regional Administrators shall be provided written notice at least one month prior to an annual inspection and shall be afforded an opportunity to be present. If the Regional Administrator or their delegate indicates a desire to be present, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator will provide a scheduled date and location for the inspection. Once scheduled, the inspection must be performed at the time and place specified, unless the Regional Administrator and the steam locomotive owner and/or operator mutually agree to reschedule. If the Regional Administrator requests the inspection be performed on another date but the steam locomotive owner and/or operator and the Regional Administrator are unable to agree on a date for rescheduling, the inspection may be performed as scheduled.

(c) Filing inspection reports. Within 10 days of completing the annual inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file, for each steam locomotive inspected, a report of inspection (FRA Form No. 3), in the place where the steam locomotive is maintained and with the FRA Regional Administrator for that region. (See appendix A of this part)

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§230.17   One thousand four hundred seventy-two (1472) service day inspection.

(a) General. Before any steam locomotive is initially put in service or brought out of retirement, and after every 1472 service days or 15 years, whichever is earlier, an individual competent to conduct the inspection shall inspect the entire boiler. In the case of a new locomotive or a locomotive being brought out of retirement, the initial 15 year period shall begin on the day that the locomotive is placed in service or 365 calendar days after the first flue tube is installed in the locomotive, whichever comes first. This 1472 service day inspection shall include all annual, and 5th annual, inspection requirements, as well as any items required by the steam locomotive owner and/or operator or the FRA inspector. At this time, the locomotive owner and/or operator shall complete, update and verify the locomotive specification card (FRA Form No. 4), to reflect the condition of the boiler at the time of this inspection. See appendices A and B of this part.

(b) Filing inspection reports. Within 30 days of completing the 1472 service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall, for each steam locomotive inspected, file in the place where the steam locomotive is maintained and with the FRA Regional Administrator for that region a report of inspection (FRA Form No. 3), and a completed FRA Form No.4. See appendix C of this part.

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Recordkeeping Requirements

§230.18   Service days.

(a) Service day record. For every steam locomotive currently in service, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall have available, and be able to show an FRA inspector upon request, a current copy of the service day record that contains the number of service days the steam locomotive has accrued since the last 31, 92, Annual and 1472 service day inspections.

(b) Service day report. By the 31st of every January, every steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file a service day report, FRA Form No. 5, with the Regional Administrator accounting for the days the steam locomotive was in service from January 1 through December 31st of the preceding year. If the steam locomotive was in service zero (0) days during that period, a report must still be filed to prevent the steam locomotive from being considered retired by FRA. (See appendix B of this part.)

(c) Retirement where no service day reports filed. Where the steam locomotive owner and/or operator does not file the required service day report for a steam locomotive, that steam locomotive may be considered retired by FRA. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator must complete all 1472 service day inspection items to return a retired steam locomotive to service.

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§230.19   Posting of FRA Form No. 1 and FRA Form No. 3.

(a) FRA Form No. 1. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall place a copy of the 31 and 92 service day inspection report (FRA Form No. 1), properly filled out, under transparent cover in a conspicuous place in the cab of the steam locomotive before the inspected boiler is put into service. This FRA Form No. 1 will not be required for the first 31 service days following an annual inspection and the posting of an FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix B of this part.)

(b) FRA Form No. 3. In addition to the FRA Form No. 1, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall also maintain in the cab a current copy of FRA Form No. 3 in the manner described in paragraph (a) of this section. (See appendix C of this part.)

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§230.20   Alteration and repair report for steam locomotive boilers.

(a) Alterations. When an alteration is made to a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file an alteration report (FRA Form No. 19), detailing the changes to the locomotive with the FRA Regional Administrator within 30 days from the date the work was completed. This form shall be attached to, and maintained with, the FRA Form No. 4 until such time as a new FRA Form No. 4 reflecting the alteration is submitted to the Regional Administrator. Alteration reports shall be filed and maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.)

(b) Welded and riveted repairs to unstayed portions of the boiler. Whenever welded or riveted repairs are performed on unstayed portions of a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall file with the FRA Regional Administrator, within 30 days from the time the work was completed, a repair report, FRA Form No. 19, that details the work done to the steam locomotive. Repair reports shall be filed and maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.)

(c) Welded and riveted repairs to stayed portions of the boiler. Whenever welded or riveted repairs are performed on stayed portions of a steam locomotive boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall complete a repair report (FRA Form No. 19), detailing the work done. Repair reports shall be maintained for the life of the boiler. (See appendix C of this part.)

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§230.21   Steam locomotive number change.

When a steam locomotive number is changed, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator must reflect the change in the upper right-hand corner of all documentation related to the steam locomotive by showing the old and new numbers:

Old No. 000

New No. XXX.

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§230.22   Accident reports.

In the case of an accident due to failure, from any cause, of a steam locomotive boiler or any part or appurtenance thereof, resulting in serious injury or death to one or more persons, the railroad on whose line the accident occurred shall immediately make a telephone report of the accident by calling the National Response Center (toll free) at Area Code 800-424-0201. The report shall state the nature of the accident, the number of persons killed or seriously injured, the place at which it occurred, and the location where the steam locomotive may be inspected. Confirmation of this report shall be immediately mailed to the Associate Administrator for Safety, Federal Railroad Administration, Washington, DC 20590, and contain a detailed report of the accident, including, to the extent known, the causes and a complete list of the casualties.

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Subpart B—Boilers and Appurtenances

§230.23   Responsibility for general construction and safe working pressure.

The steam locomotive owner and operator are responsible for the general design and construction of the steam locomotive boilers under their control. The steam locomotive owner shall establish the safe working pressure for each steam locomotive boiler, after giving full consideration to the general design, workmanship, age, and overall condition of the complete boiler unit. The condition of the boiler unit shall be determined by, among other factors, the minimum thickness of the shell plates, the lowest tensile strength of the plates, the efficiency of the longitudinal joint, the inside diameter of the course, and the maximum allowable stress value allowed. The steam locomotive operator shall not place the steam locomotive in service before ensuring that the steam locomotive's safe working pressure has been established.

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Allowable Stress

§230.24   Maximum allowable stress.

(a) Maximum allowable stress value. The maximum allowable stress value on any component of a steam locomotive boiler shall not exceed 14 of the ultimate tensile strength of its material.

(b) Safety factor. When it is necessary to use the code of original construction in boiler calculations, the safety factor value shall not be less than 4.

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§230.25   Maximum allowable stress on stays and braces.

The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on fire box and combustion chamber stays shall be 7,500 psi. The maximum allowable stress per square inch of net cross sectional area on round, rectangular, or gusset braces shall be 9,000 psi.

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Strength of Materials

§230.26   Tensile strength of shell plates.

When the tensile strength of steel or wrought-iron shell plates is not known, it shall be taken at 50,000 psi for steel and 45,000 psi for wrought iron.

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§230.27   Maximum shearing strength of rivets.

The maximum shearing strength of rivets per square inch of cross sectional area shall be taken as follows:

RivetsPounds per square inch
Iron Rivets in Single Shear38,000
Iron Rivets in Double Shear76,000
Steel Rivets in Single Shear44,000
Steel Rivets in Double Shear88,000

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§230.28   Higher shearing strength of rivets.

A higher shearing strength may be used for rivets when it can be shown through testing that the rivet material used is of such quality as to justify a higher allowable shearing strength.

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Inspection and Repair

§230.29   Inspection and repair.

(a) Responsibility. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotive boilers and appurtenances under their control. They shall immediately remove from service any boiler that has developed cracks in the barrel. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall also remove the boiler from service whenever either of them, or the FRA inspector, considers it necessary due to other defects.

(b) Repair standards. (1) All defects disclosed by inspection shall be repaired in accordance with accepted industry standards—which may include established railroad practices, or NBIC or API established standards—before the steam locomotive is returned to service. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall not return the steam locomotive boiler or appurtenances to service unless they are in good condition and safe and suitable for service.

(2) Any welding to unstayed portions of the boiler made pursuant to §230.33 shall be made in accordance with an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall not return the steam locomotive boiler or appurtenances to service unless they are in good condition and safe and suitable for service.

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§230.30   Lap-joint seam boilers.

Every boiler having lap-joint longitudinal seams without reinforcing plates shall have sufficient lagging, jacketing, flues, and tubes removed at every annual inspection so that an inspection of the entire joint, inside and out, can be made, taking special care to detect grooving or cracks at the edges of the seams.

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§230.31   Flues to be removed.

(a) Inspection of the boiler interior. During the 1472 service day inspection, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall remove all flues of steam locomotive boilers in service, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, for the purpose of inspecting the entire interior of the boiler and its bracing. After removing the flues, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall enter the boiler to remove scale from the interior and thoroughly clean and inspect it.

(b) NDE testing. If the boiler can be thoroughly cleaned and inspected without removing the superheater flues, and it can be shown through appropriate NDE testing methods that they are safe and suitable for service, their removal may not be required at this time. Their removal may be required, however, if the FRA inspector, or the steam locomotive owner and/or operator, considers it necessary due to identifiable safety concerns.

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§230.32   Time and method of inspection.

(a) Time of inspection. The entire boiler shall completely be inspected at the 1472 service day inspection. The jacket, lagging and any other components interfering with the provision of inspection access shall be removed at this time. Those portions of the boiler that are exposed and able to be inspected as required by the daily, 31service day, annual and fifth annual inspections shall be inspected at those times. The interior of the boiler also shall be inspected at each annual inspection, after the completion of any hydrostatic test above MAWP, and whenever a sufficient number of flues are removed to allow examination. The jacket, lagging and any other components shall also be removed to provide inspection access whenever the FRA inspector, or the steam locomotive owner and/or operator, considers it necessary due to identifiable safety concerns.

(b) Method of inspection—(1) Entire boiler. During the 1472 service day inspection, the entire boiler shall be examined for cracks, pitting, grooving, or indications of overheating and for damage where mud has collected, or heavy scale formed. The edges of plates, all laps, seams, and points where cracks and defects are likely to develop, shall be thoroughly inspected. Rivets shall be inspected for corrosion and looseness.

(2) Boiler interior. When inspecting the boiler interior, it must be seen that braces and stays are taut, that pins are properly secured in place, and that each is in condition to support its proportion of the load. Washout plugs shall be removed for access and visual inspection of the water side of the firebox sheets. Washout plug threads, sleeves and threaded openings shall be examined at this time.

(3) Boiler exterior. A thorough inspection shall be made of the entire exterior of the boiler while under hydrostatic pressure.

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§230.33   Welded repairs and alterations.

(a) Unstayed portions of the boiler containing alloy steel or carbon steel with a carbon content over 0.25 percent. Prior to welding on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator. If the approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any welding to unstayed portions of the boiler in accordance with an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

(b) Unstayed portions of the boiler containing carbon steel not exceeding 0.25 percent carbon. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any welding to unstayed portions of the boiler in accordance with an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

(c) Wastage. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator before performing weld build up on wasted areas of unstayed surfaces of the boiler that exceed a total of 100 square inches or the smaller of 25 percent of minimum required wall thickness or 12 inch. Wasted sheets shall not be repaired by weld build up if the wasted sheet has been reduced to less than 60 percent of the minimum required thickness as required by this part.

(d) Flush patches. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator for the installation of flush patches of any size on unstayed portions of the boiler.

(e) Stayed portions of the boiler. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform welded repairs or alterations on stayed portions of the boiler in accordance with established railroad practices, or an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy the reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

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§230.34   Riveted repairs and alterations.

(a) Alterations to unstayed portions of the boiler. Prior to making riveted alterations on unstayed portions of the boiler, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator. If approval is granted, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveting to unstayed portions of the boiler in accordance with established railroad practices or an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

(b) Repairs to unstayed portions of the boiler. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform any riveted repairs to unstayed portions of the boiler in accordance with established railroad practices, or an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

(c) Repairs to stayed portions of the boiler. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall perform riveted repairs or alterations on stayed portions of the boiler in accordance with established railroad practices or an accepted national standard for boiler repairs. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall satisfy reporting requirements in §230.20 at this time.

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Pressure Testing of Boilers

§230.35   Pressure testing.

The temperature of the steam locomotive boiler shall be raised to at least 70 deg. F any time hydrostatic pressure is applied to the boiler.

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§230.36   Hydrostatic testing of boilers.

(a) Time of test. The locomotive owner and/or operator shall hydrostatically test every boiler at the following times:

(1) During the 1472 service day inspection, and at every annual inspection thereafter;

(2) After making any alteration to the boiler;

(3) After installing a flush patch on an unstayed portion of the boiler; and

(4) After any riveting on an unstayed portion of the boiler.

(b) Method of testing. The metal temperature of the boiler shall be between 70 degrees Fahrenheit and 120 degrees Fahrenheit each time it is subjected to any hydrostatic pressure. Hydrostatic testing required by these rules shall be conducted at 25 percent above the MAWP.

(c) Internal inspection. An internal inspection of the boiler shall be conducted following any hydrostatic test where the pressure exceeds MAWP.

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§230.37   Steam test following repairs or alterations.

Upon completion of any repair or alteration, the locomotive owner and/or operator shall conduct a steam test of the boiler with steam pressure raised to between 95 percent and 100 percent of the MAWP. At this time, the boiler shall be inspected to ensure that it is in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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Staybolts

§230.38   Telltale holes.

(a) Staybolts less than 8 inches long. All staybolts shorter than 8 inches, except flexible bolts, shall have telltale holes 316 inch to 732 inch diameter and at least 114 inches deep in the outer end.

(b) Reduced body staybolts. On reduced body staybolts, the telltale hole shall extend beyond the fillet and into the reduced section of the staybolt. Staybolts may have through telltale holes.

(c) Telltale holes kept open. All telltale holes, except as provided for in §230.41, must be kept open at all times.

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§230.39   Broken staybolts.

(a) Maximum allowable number of broken staybolts. No boiler shall be allowed to remain in service with two broken staybolts located within 24 inches of each other, as measured inside the firebox or combustion chamber on a straight line. No boiler shall be allowed to remain in service with more than 4 broken staybolts inside the entire firebox and combustion chamber, combined.

(b) Staybolt replacement. Broken staybolts must be replaced during the 31 service day inspection, if detected at that time. Broken staybolts detected in between 31 service day inspections must be replaced no later than 30 calendar days from the time of detection. When staybolts 8 inches or less in length are replaced, they shall be replaced with bolts that have telltale holes 316 inch to 732 inch in diameter and at least 114 inches deep at each end, or that have telltale holes 316 inch to 732 inch in diameter their entire length. At the time of replacement of broken staybolts, adjacent staybolts shall be inspected.

(c) Assessment of broken staybolts. Telltale holes leaking, plugged, or missing shall be counted as broken staybolts.

(d) Prohibited methods of closing telltale holes. Welding, forging, or riveting broken staybolt ends is prohibited as a method of closing telltale holes.

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§230.40   Time and method of staybolt testing.

(a) Time of hammer testing—(1) General. All staybolts shall be hammer tested at every 31 service day inspection, except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. All staybolts also shall be hammer tested under hydrostatic pressure any time hydrostatic pressure above the MAWP specified on the boiler specification form (FRA Form No. 4), is applied to the boiler. (See appendix B of this part.)

(2) Exception for inaccessible staybolts. The removal of brickwork or grate bearers for the purpose of hammer testing staybolts during each 31 service day inspection will not be required if the staybolts behind these structural impediments have a telltale hole 316 inch to 732 inch in diameter their entire length. Whenever the brickwork or grate bearers are removed for any other reason, however, the bolts shall be inspected at that time.

(b) Method of hammer testing. If staybolts are tested while the boiler contains water, the hydrostatic pressure must be not less than 95 percent of the MAWP. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall tap each bolt with a hammer and determine broken bolts from the sound or the vibration of the sheet. Whenever staybolts are tested while the boiler is not under pressure, such as during the 31 service day inspection, the staybolt test must be made with all the water drained from the boiler.

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§230.41   Flexible staybolts with caps.

(a) General. Flexible staybolts with caps shall have their caps removed during every 5th annual inspection for the purpose of inspecting the bolts for breakage, except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section.

(b) Drilled flexible staybolts. For flexible staybolts that have telltale holes between 316 inch and 732 inch in diameter, and which extend the entire length of the bolt and into the head not less than one third of the diameter of the head, the steam locomotive owner and/or operator need not remove the staybolt caps if it can be established, by an electrical or other suitable method, that the telltale holes are open their entire length. Any leakage from these telltale holes during the hydrostatic test indicates that the bolt is broken and must be replaced. Before the steam locomotive is placed in service, the inner ends of all telltale holes shall be closed with a fireproof porous material that will keep the telltale holes free of foreign matter and permit steam or water to exit the telltale hole when the bolt is broken or fractured.

(c) Recordkeeping. The removal of flexible staybolt caps and other tests shall be reported on FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix B of this part.)

(d) Testing at request of FRA inspector. Staybolt caps also shall be removed, or any of the tests in this section made, whenever the FRA inspector or the steam locomotive owner and/or operator considers it necessary due to identifiable safety concerns about the condition of staybolts, staybolt caps or staybolt sleeves.

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Steam Gauges

§230.42   Location of gauges.

Every boiler shall have at least one steam gauge which will correctly indicate the working pressure. The gauge shall be positioned so that it will be kept reasonably cool and can conveniently be read by the engine crew.

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§230.43   Gauge siphon.

The steam gauge supply pipe shall have a siphon on it of ample capacity to prevent steam from entering the gauge. The supply pipe shall directly enter the boiler and be maintained steam tight. The supply pipe and its connections shall be cleaned each time the gauge is tested.

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§230.44   Time of testing.

Steam gauges shall be tested prior to being installed or being reapplied, during the 92 service day inspection, and whenever any irregularity is reported.

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§230.45   Method of testing.

Steam gauges shall be compared with an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester. While under test load at the MAWP of the boiler to which the gauge will be applied, the gauge shall be set to read that pressure as accurately as the physical limitations of the gauge will allow. Under test the gauge shall read within the manufacturer's tolerance at all points on the gauge up to 25 percent above the allowed pressure. If the manufacturer's tolerance is not known, the gauge must read within 2 percent full scale accuracy at all points on the gauge up to 25 percent above allowed pressure.

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§230.46   Badge plates.

A metal badge plate showing the allowed steam pressure shall be attached to the boiler backhead in the cab. If boiler backhead is lagged, the lagging and jacket shall be cut away so that the plate can be seen.

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§230.47   Boiler number.

(a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange. If the builder's number cannot be obtained, an assigned number, which shall be used in making out specification cards, shall be stamped on the steam dome or manhole flange.

(b) Numbers after January 10, 1912. Numbers which are stamped after January 10, 1912 shall be located on the front side of the steam dome or manhole flange at the upper edge of the vertical surface, oriented in a horizontal manner, and have figures at least 38 inch high.

(c) Name of manufacturer or owner. The number shall be preceded by the name of the manufacturer if the original number is known or the name of the steam locomotive owner if a new number is assigned.

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Safety Relief Valves

§230.48   Number and capacity.

(a) Number and capacity. Every boiler shall be equipped with at least two safety relief valves, suitable for the service intended, that are capable of preventing an accumulation of pressure greater than 6 percent above the MAWP under any conditions of service. An FRA inspector may require verification of sufficient safety valve relieving capacity.

(b) Determination of capacity. Safety relief valve capacity may be determined by making an accumulation test with the fire in good, bright condition and all steam outlets closed. Additional safety relief valve capacity shall be provided if the safety relief valves allow an excess pressure of more than 6 percent above the MAWP during this test.

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§230.49   Setting of safety relief valves.

(a) Qualifications of individual who adjusts. Safety relief valves shall be set and adjusted by a competent person who is thoroughly familiar with the construction and operation of the valve being set.

(b) Opening pressures. At least one safety relief valve shall be set to open at a pressure not exceeding the MAWP. Safety relief valves shall be set to open at pressures not exceeding 6 psi above the MAWP.

(c) Setting procedures. When setting safety relief valves, two steam gauges shall be used, one of which must be so located that it will be in full view of the persons engaged in setting such valves; and if the pressure indicated by the gauges varies more than 3 psi they shall be removed from the boiler, tested, and corrected before the safety relief valves are set. Gauges shall in all cases be tested immediately before the safety relief valves are set or any change made in the setting. When setting safety relief valves, the water level shall not be higher than 34 of the length of the visible water glass, as measured from the bottom of the glass.

(d) Labeling of lowest set pressure. The set pressure of the lowest safety relief valve shall be indicated on a tag or label attached to the steam gauge so that it may be clearly read while observing the steam gauge.

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§230.50   Time of testing.

All safety relief valves shall be tested, and adjusted if necessary, under steam at every 92 service day inspection, and also whenever any irregularity is reported.

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Water Glasses and Gauge Cocks

§230.51   Number and location.

Every boiler shall be equipped with at least two water glasses. The lowest reading of the water glasses shall not be less than 3 inches above the highest part of the crown sheet. If gauge cocks are used, the reading of the lowest gauge cock shall not be less than 3 inches above the highest part of the crown sheet.

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§230.52   Water glass valves.

All water glasses shall be equipped with no more than two valves capable of isolating the water glass from the boiler. They shall also be equipped with a drain valve capable of evacuating the glass when it is so isolated.

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§230.53   Time of cleaning.

The spindles of all water glass valves and of all gauge cocks shall be removed and valves and cocks thoroughly cleaned of scale and sediment at every 31 service day inspection, and when testing indicates that the apparatus may be malfunctioning. In addition, the top and bottom passages of the water column shall be cleaned and inspected at each annual inspection.

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§230.54   Testing and maintenance.

(a) Testing. All water glasses must be blown out, all gauge cocks must be tested, and all passages verified to be open at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used, and as often as necessary to ensure proper functioning.

(b) Maintenance. Gauge cocks, water column drain valves, and water glass valves must be maintained in such condition that they can easily be opened and closed by hand, without the aid of a wrench or other tool.

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§230.55   Tubular type water and lubricator glasses and shields.

(a) Water glasses. Tubular type water glasses shall be renewed at each 92 service day inspection.

(b) Shields. All tubular water glasses and lubricator glasses must be equipped with a safe and suitable shield which will prevent the glass from flying in case of breakage. This shield shall be properly maintained.

(c) Location and maintenance. Water glasses and water glass shields shall be so located, constructed, and maintained that the engine crew can at all times have an unobstructed view of the water in the glass from their proper positions in the cab.

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§230.56   Water glass lamps.

All water glasses must be supplied with a suitable lamp properly located to enable the engine crew to easily see the water in the glass.

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Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs

§230.57   Injectors and feedwater pumps.

(a) Water delivery systems required. Each steam locomotive must be equipped with at least two means of delivering water to the boiler, at least one of which is a live steam injector.

(b) Maintenance and testing. Injectors and feedwater pumps must be kept in good condition, free from scale, and must be tested at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used, and as often as conditions require, to ensure that they are delivering water to the boiler. Boiler checks, delivery pipes, feed water pipes, tank hose and tank valves must be kept in good condition, free from leaks and from foreign substances that would obstruct the flow of water.

(c) Bracing. Injectors, feedwater pumps, and all associated piping shall be securely braced so as to minimize vibration.

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§230.58   Flue plugs.

(a) When plugging is permitted. Flues greater than 214 inches in outside diameter (OD) shall not be plugged. Flues 214 inches in outside diameter (OD) or smaller may be plugged following failure, provided only one flue is plugged at any one time. Plugs must be removed and proper repairs made no later than 30 days from the time the plug is applied.

(b) Method of plugging. When used, flue plugs must be made of steel. The flue must be plugged at both ends. Plugs must be tied together by means of a steel rod not less than 58 inch in diameter.

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Fusible Plugs

§230.59   Fusible plugs.

If boilers are equipped with fusible plugs, the plugs shall be removed and cleaned of scale each time the boiler is washed but not less frequently than during every 31 service day inspection. Their removal shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix B of this part.)

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Washing Boilers

§230.60   Time of washing.

(a) Frequency of washing. All boilers shall thoroughly be washed as often as the water conditions require, but not less frequently than at each 31 service day inspection. The date of the boiler wash shall be noted on the FRA Form No. 1 or FRA Form No. 3. (See appendix B of this part.)

(b) Plug removal. All washout plugs, arch tube plugs, thermic siphon plugs, circulator plugs and water bar plugs must be removed whenever locomotive boilers are washed.

(c) Plug maintenance. All washout plugs, washout plug sleeves and threaded openings shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service and shall be examined for defects each time the plugs are removed.

(d) Fusible plugs cleaned. Fusible plugs shall be cleaned in accordance with §230.59.

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§230.61   Arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and thermic siphons.

(a) Frequency of cleaning. Each time the boiler is washed, arch tubes and water bar tubes shall thoroughly be cleaned mechanically, washed, and inspected. Circulators and thermic siphons shall thoroughly be cleaned, washed and inspected.

(b) Defects. Arch tubes and water bar tubes found blistered, bulged, or otherwise defective shall be renewed. Circulators and thermic siphons found blistered, bulged or otherwise defective shall be either repaired or renewed.

(c) Method of examination. Arch tubes, water bar tubes and circulators shall be examined using an appropriate NDE method that accurately measures wall thickness at each annual inspection. All arch brick shall be removed for this inspection. If any are found with wall thickness reduced below that required to render them safe and suitable for the service intended at the MAWP specified on the boiler specification FRA Form No. 4, they must be replaced or repaired. (See appendix B of this part.)

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Steam Pipes

§230.62   Dry pipe.

Dry pipes subject to pressure shall be examined at each annual inspection to measure wall thickness. Dry pipes with wall thickness reduced below that required to render the pipe suitable for the service intended at the MAWP must be replaced or repaired.

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§230.63   Smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts.

The smoke box, steam pipes and pressure parts shall be inspected at each annual inspection, or any other time that conditions warrant. The individual conducting the inspection must enter the smoke box to conduct the inspection, looking for signs of leaks from any of the pressure parts therein and examining all draft appliances.

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Steam Leaks

§230.64   Leaks under lagging.

The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall take out of service at once any boiler that has developed a leak under the lagging due to a crack in the shell, or to any other condition which may reduce safety. Pursuant to §230.29, the boiler must be repaired before being returned to service.

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§230.65   Steam blocking view of engine crew.

The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall keep the boiler, and its piping and appurtenances, in such repair that they do not emit steam in a manner that obscures the engine crew's vision.

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Subpart C—Steam Locomotives and Tenders

§230.66   Design, construction, and maintenance.

The steam locomotive owner and operator are responsible for the general design, construction and maintenance of the steam locomotives and tenders under their control.

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§230.67   Responsibility for inspection and repairs.

The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall inspect and repair all steam locomotives and tenders under their control. All defects disclosed by any inspection shall be repaired in accordance with accepted industry standards, which may include established railroad practices, before the steam locomotive or tender is returned to service. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall not return the steam locomotive or tender to service unless they are in good condition and safe and suitable for service.

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Speed Indicators

§230.68   Speed indicators.

Steam locomotives that operate at speeds in excess of 20 miles per hour over the general system of railroad transportation shall be equipped with speed indicators. Where equipped, speed indicators shall be maintained to ensure accurate functioning.

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Ash Pans

§230.69   Ash pans.

Ash pans shall be securely supported from mud-rings or frames with no part less than 212 inches above the rail. Their operating mechanism shall be so arranged that they may be safely operated and securely closed.

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Brake and Signal Equipment

§230.70   Safe condition.

(a) Pre-departure inspection. At the beginning of each day the locomotive is used, the steam locomotive operator shall ensure that:

(1) The brakes on the steam locomotive and tender are in safe and suitable condition for service;

(2) The air compressor or compressors are in condition to provide an ample supply of air for the locomotive service intended;

(3) The devices for regulating all pressures are properly performing their functions;

(4) The brake valves work properly in all positions; and

(5) The water has been drained from the air-brake system.

(b) Brake pipe valve required. Each steam locomotive shall have a brake pipe valve attached to the front of the tender, the rear of the back cab wall, or adjacent to the exit of a vestibuled cab. The words “Emergency Brake Valve” shall be clearly displayed near the valve.

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§230.71   Orifice testing of compressors.

(a) Frequency of testing. The compressor or compressors shall be tested for capacity by orifice test as often as conditions may require, but not less frequently than once every 92 service days.

(b) Orifice testing criteria. (1) Compressors in common use, as listed in the following table, shall have orifice test criteria as follows:

MakeCompressor sizeSingle strokes per minuteDiameter of orifice
(in inches)
Air pressure maintained
(in pounds)
Westinghouse912 120 1164 60
Westinghouse11100 316 60
Westinghouse150 CFM 812 CC100 932 60
Westinghouse120 CFM 812 100 1564 60
New York2a120 532 60
New York6a100 1364 60
New York5b100 1564 60

Note: This table shall be used for altitudes to and including 1,000 feet. For altitudes over 1,000 feet the speed of compressor may be increased 5 single strokes per minute for each 1,000 feet increase in altitude.

(2) For compressors not listed in the table in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the air pressure to be maintained shall be no less than 80 percent of the manufacturer's rated capacity for the compressor.

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§230.72   Testing main reservoirs.

(a) Hammer and hydrostatic testing. Except as described in paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, every main reservoir, except those cast integrally with the frame, shall be hammer and hydrostatically tested during each annual inspection. The reservoir shall be hammer tested while empty and with no pressure applied. If no defective areas are detected, a hydrostatic test of MAWP shall be applied.

(b) Drilling of main reservoirs. (1) Only welded main reservoir originally constructed to withstand at least five times the MAWP may be drilled over its entire surface with telltale holes that are 316 of an inch in diameter. The holes shall be spaced not more than 12 inches apart, measured both longitudinally and circumferentially, and drilled from the outer surface to an extreme depth determined by the following formula:

D = (.6PR/(S−.6P))

Where:

D = Extreme depth of telltale holes in inches but in no case less than one-sixteenth inch;

P = certified working pressure in psi;

S = 15 of the minimum specified tensile strength of the material in psi; and

R = inside radius of the reservoir in inches.

(2) One row of holes shall be drilled lengthwise of the reservoir on a line intersecting the drain opening. When main reservoirs are drilled as described in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, the hydrostatic and hammer tests described in paragraph (a) of this section are not required during the annual inspection. Whenever any telltale hole shall have penetrated the interior of any reservoir, the reservoir shall be permanently withdrawn from service.

(c) Welded main reservoirs without longitudinal lap seams. For welded main reservoirs that do not have longitudinal lap seams, an appropriate NDE method that can measure the wall thickness of the reservoir may be used instead of the hammer test and hydrostatic test required in paragraph (a) of this section. The spacing of the sampling points for wall thickness shall not be greater than 12 inches longitudinally and circumferentially. The reservoir shall permanently be withdrawn from service where the NDE testing reveals wall thickness less than the value determined by the following formula:

t = (PR/(S−.6P)

Where:

t = Minimum value for wall thickness;

P = Certified working pressure in psi;

S = 15 of the minimum specified tensile strength of the material in psi, or 10,000 psi if the tensile strength is unknown; and

R = Inside radius of the reservoir in inches.

(d) Welded or riveted longitudinal lap seam main reservoirs. (1) For welded or riveted longitudinal lap seam main reservoirs, an appropriate NDE method that can measure wall thickness of the reservoir shall be used instead of, or in addition to, the hammer test and hydrostatic test. The spacing of the sampling points for wall thickness shall not be greater than 12 inches longitudinally and circumferentially. Particular care shall be taken to measure along the longitudinal seam on both plates at an interval of no more than 6 inches longitudinally. The reservoir shall be withdrawn permanently from service where NDE testing reveals wall thickness less than the value determined by the following formula:

t = (PR/(0.5S−0.6P))

Where:

t = Minimum value for wall thickness;

P = Certified working pressure in psi;

S = 15 of the minimum specified tensile strength of the material in psi, or 10,000 psi if the tensile strength of steel is unknown; and

R = Inside radius of the reservoir in inches.

(2) Repairs of reservoirs with reduced wall thickness are prohibited.

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§230.73   Air gauges.

(a) Location. Air gauges shall be so located that they may be conveniently read by the engineer from his or her usual position in the cab. No air gauge may be more than 3 psi in error.

(b) Frequency of testing. Air gauges shall be tested prior to reapplication following removal, as well as during the 92 service day inspection and whenever any irregularity is reported.

(c) Method of testing. Air gauges shall be tested using an accurate test gauge or dead weight tester designed for this purpose.

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§230.74   Time of cleaning.

All valves in the air brake system, including related dirt collectors and filters, shall be cleaned and tested in accordance with accepted brake equipment manufacturer's specifications, or as often as conditions require to maintain them in a safe and suitable condition for service, but not less frequently than after 368 service days or during the second annual inspection, whichever occurs first.

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§230.75   Stenciling dates of tests and cleaning.

The date of testing and cleaning and the initials of the shop or station at which the work is done, shall legibly be stenciled in a conspicuous place on the tested parts or placed on a card displayed under a transparent cover in the cab of the steam locomotive.

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§230.76   Piston travel.

(a) Minimum piston travel. The minimum piston travel shall be sufficient to provide proper brake shoe clearance when the brakes are released.

(b) Maximum piston travel. The maximum piston travel when steam locomotive is standing shall be as follows:

   Type of wheel brakeMaximum piston travel (in inches)
Cam Type Driving Wheel Brake312
Other forms of Driving Wheel Brake6
Engine Truck Brake8
Tender Brake9

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§230.77   Foundation brake gear.

(a) Maintenance. Foundation brake gear shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Levers, rods, brake beams, hangers, and pins shall be of ample strength, and shall not be fouled in any way which will affect the proper operation of the brake. All pins shall be properly secured in place with cotter pine, split keys, or nuts. Brake shoes must be properly applied and kept approximately in line with the tread of the wheel.

(b) Distance above the rails. No part of the foundation brake gear of the steam locomotive or tender shall be less than 212 inches above the rails.

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§230.78   Leakage.

(a) Main reservoirs and related piping. Leakage from main reservoir and related piping shall be tested at every 92 service day inspection and shall not exceed an average of 3 psi per minute in a test of 3 minutes duration that is made after the pressure has been reduced to 60 percent of the maximum operating pressure.

(b) Brake cylinders. Leakage from brake cylinders shall be tested at every 92 service day inspection. With a full service application from maximum brake pipe pressure, and with communication to the brake cylinders closed, the brakes on the steam locomotive and tender must remain applied for a minimum of 5 minutes.

(c) Brake pipes. Steam locomotive brake pipe leakage shall be tested at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used, and shall not exceed 5 psi per minute.

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§230.79   Train signal system.

Where utilized, the train signal system, or any other form of on-board communication, shall be tested and known to be in safe and suitable condition for service at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used.

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Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights

§230.80   Cabs.

(a) General provisions. Cabs shall be securely attached or braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives shall provide an undistorted view of the track and signals for the crew from their normal position in the cab. Cab floors shall be kept free of tripping or slipping hazards. The cab climate shall be maintained to provide an environment that does not unreasonably interfere with the engine crew's performance of their duties under ordinary conditions of service.

(b) Steam pipes. Steam pipes shall not be fastened to the cab. New construction or renewals made of iron or steel pipe greater than 18 inch NPS that are subject to boiler pressure in cabs shall have a minimum wall thickness equivalent to schedule 80 pipe, with properly rated valves and fittings. Live steam heating radiators must not be fastened to the cab. Exhaust steam radiators may be fastened to the cab.

(c) Oil-burning steam locomotives. If the cab is enclosed, oil burning steam locomotives that take air for combustion through the fire-door opening shall have a suitable conduit extending from the fire-door to the outside of the cab.

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§230.81   Cab aprons.

(a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper length and width to ensure safety. Cab aprons shall be securely hinged, maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service, and roughened, or other provision made, to afford secure footing.

(b) Width of apron. The cab apron shall be of a sufficient width to prevent, when the drawbar is disconnected and the safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive and tender.

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§230.82   Fire doors.

(a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall have a fire door which shall latch securely when closed and which shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Fire doors on all oil-burning locomotives shall be latched securely with a pin or key.

(b) Mechanically operated fire doors. Mechanically operated fire doors shall be so constructed and maintained that they may be operated by pressure of the foot on a pedal, or other suitable appliance, located on the floor of the cab or tender at a suitable distance from the fire door, so that they may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive.

(c) Hand-operated doors. Hand operated fire doors shall be so constructed and maintained that they may be conveniently operated by the person firing the steam locomotive.

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§230.83   Cylinder cocks.

Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with cylinder cocks which can be operated from the cab of the steam locomotive. All cylinder cocks shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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§230.84   Sanders.

Steam locomotives shall be equipped with operable sanders that deposit sand on the rail head in front of a set of driving wheels. Sanders shall be tested at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used.

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§230.85   Audible warning device.

(a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive shall be equipped with an audible warning device that produces a minimum sound level of 96db(A) at 100 feet in front of the steam locomotive in its direction of travel. The device shall be arranged so that it may conveniently be operated by the engineer from his or her normal position in the cab.

(b) Method of measurement. Measurement of the sound level shall be made using a sound level meter conforming, at a minimum, to the requirements of ANSI S1.4-1971, Type 2, and set to an A-weighted slow response. While the steam locomotive is on level, tangent track, the microphone shall be positioned 4 feet above the ground at the center line of the track and shall be oriented with respect to the sound source in accordance with the microphone manufacturer's recommendations.

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§230.86   Required illumination.

(a) General provisions. Each steam locomotive used between sunset and sunrise shall be equipped with an operable headlight that provides illumination sufficient for a steam locomotive engineer in the cab to see, in a clear atmosphere, a dark object as large as a man of average size standing at least 800 feet ahead and in front of such headlight. If a steam locomotive is regularly required to run backward for any portion of its trip other than to pick up a detached portion of its train or to make terminal movements, it shall also be equipped on its rear end with an operable headlight that is capable of providing the illumination described in this paragraph (a).

(b) Dimming device. Such headlights shall be provided with a device whereby the light from same may be diminished in yards and at stations or when meeting trains.

(c) Where multiple locomotives utilized. When two or more locomotives are used in the same train, the leading locomotive only will be required to display a headlight.

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§230.87   Cab lights.

Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights that sufficiently illuminate the control instruments, meters and gauges to allow the engine crew to make accurate readings from their usual and proper positions in the cab. These lights shall be so located and constructed that the light will shine only on those parts requiring illumination and does not interfere with the engine crew's vision of the track and signals. Each steam locomotive shall also have a conveniently located additional lamp that can be readily turned on and off by the persons operating the steam locomotive and that provides sufficient illumination to read train orders and timetables.

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Throttles and Reversing Gear

§230.88   Throttles.

Throttles shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service, and efficient means shall be provided to hold the throttle lever in any desired position.

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§230.89   Reverse gear.

(a) General provisions. Reverse gear, reverse levers, and quadrants shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Reverse lever latch shall be so arranged that it can be easily disengaged, and provided with a spring which will keep it firmly seated in quadrant. Proper counterbalance shall be provided for the valve gear.

(b) Air-operated power reverse gear. Steam locomotives that are equipped with air operated power reverse gear shall be equipped with a connection whereby such gear may be operated by steam or by an auxiliary supply of air in case of failure of the main reservoir air pressure. The operating valve handle for such connection shall be conveniently located in the cab of the locomotive and shall be plainly marked. If an independent air reservoir is used as the source of the auxiliary supply for the reverse gear, it shall be provided with means to automatically prevent loss of pressure in event of failure of the main reservoir air pressure.

(c) Power reverse gear reservoirs. Power reverse gear reservoirs, if provided, must be equipped with the means to automatically prevent the loss of pressure in the event of a failure of main air pressure and have storage capacity for not less than one complete operating cycle of control equipment.

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Draw Gear and Draft Systems

§230.90   Draw gear between steam locomotive and tender.

(a) Maintenance and testing. The draw gear between the steam locomotive and tender, together with the pins and fastenings, shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service. The pins and drawbar shall be removed and tested for defects using an appropriate NDE method at every annual inspection. Where visual inspection does not disclose any defects, an additional NDE testing method shall be employed. Suitable means for securing the drawbar pins in place shall be provided. Inverted drawbar pins shall be held in place by plate or stirrup.

(b) Safety bars and chains generally. One or more safety bar(s) or two or more safety chains shall be provided between the steam locomotive and tender. The combined strength of the safety chains or safety bar(s) and their fastenings shall be not less than 50 percent of the strength of the drawbar and its connections. These shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service, and inspected at the same time draw gear is inspected.

(c) Minimum length of safety chains or bars. Safety chains or safety bar(s) shall be of the minimum length consistent with the curvature of the railroad on which the steam locomotive is operated.

(d) Lost motion. Lost motion between steam locomotives and tenders not equipped with spring buffers shall be kept to a minimum and shall not exceed 12 inch.

(e) Spring buffers. When spring buffers are used between steam locomotives and tenders the spring shall be applied with not less than 34 inch compression, and shall at all times be under sufficient compression to keep the chafing faces in contact.

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§230.91   Chafing irons.

Chafing irons that permit proper curving shall be securely attached to the steam locomotive and tender, and shall be maintained to permit lateral and vertical movement.

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§230.92   Draw gear and draft systems.

Couplers, draft gear and attachments on steam locomotives and tenders shall be securely fastened, and maintained in safe and suitable condition for service.

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Driving Gear

§230.93   Pistons and piston rods.

(a) Maintenance and testing. Pistons and piston rods shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service. Piston rods shall be inspected for cracks each time they are removed, and shall be renewed if found defective.

(b) Fasteners. Fasteners (keys, nuts, etc.) shall be kept tight and shall have some means to prevent them from loosening or falling out of place.

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§230.94   Crossheads.

Crossheads shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service, with not more than 14 inch vertical or 516 inch lateral clearance between crossheads and guides.

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§230.95   Guides.

Guides shall be securely fastened and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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§230.96   Main, side, and valve motion rods.

(a) General. Main, side or valve motion rods developing cracks or becoming otherwise defective shall be removed from service immediately and repaired or renewed.

(b) Repairs. Repairs, and welding of main, side or valve motion rods shall be made in accordance with an accepted national standard. The steam locomotive owner and/or operator shall submit a written request for approval to the FRA Regional Administrator prior to welding defective main rods, side rods, and valve gear components.

(c) Bearings and bushings. Bearings and bushings shall so fit the rods as to be in a safe and suitable condition for service, and means shall be provided to prevent bushings from turning in the rod. Straps shall fit and be securely bolted to rods. Floating bushings need not be provided with means to prevent bushings from turning.

(d) Side motion of rods. The total amount of side motion of each rod on its crank pin shall not exceed 14 inch.

(e) Oil and grease cups. Oil and grease cups shall be securely attached to rods, and grease cup plugs shall be equipped with a suitable fastening that will prevent them from being ejected.

(f) Main rod bearings. The bore of main rod bearings shall not exceed pin diameters more than 332 inch at front or back end. The total lost motion at both ends shall not exceed 532 inch.

(g) Side rod bearings. The bore of side rod bearings shall not exceed pin diameters more than 532 inch on main pin nor more than 316 inch on other pins.

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§230.97   Crank pins.

(a) General provisions. Crank pins shall be securely applied. Securing the fit of a loose crank pin by shimming, prick punching, or welding is not permitted.

(b) Maintenance. Crank pin collars and collar fasteners shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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Running Gear

§230.98   Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles.

(a) Condemning defects. Driving, trailing, and engine truck axles with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired (see appendix A of this part for inspection requirements):

(1) Bent axle;

(2) Cut journals that cannot be made to run cool without turning;

(3) Transverse seams in iron or steel axles;

(4) Seams in axles causing journals to run hot;

(5) Axles that are unsafe on account of usage, accident or derailment;

(6) Any axle worn 12 inch or more in diameter below the original/new journal diameter, except as provided in paragraph (a)(7) of this section;

(7) Any driving axles other than main driving axles with an original or new diameter greater than 6 inches that are worn 34 inch or more in diameter below the original/new diameter.

(b) Journal diameter stamped. For steam locomotives with plain bearings, the original/new journal diameter shall be stamped on one end of the axle no later than January 18, 2005.

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§230.99   Tender truck axles.

The minimum diameters of axles for various axle loads shall be as follows:

Axle load (in pounds)Minimum
diameter of journal
(in inches)
Minimum
diameter of wheel seat
(in inches)
Minimum
diameter of center
(in inches)
50000512 738 6716
380005   634 578   
31000412 614 5516
22000334 5   438   
15000314 458 378   

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§230.100   Defects in tender truck axles and journals.

(a) Tender truck axle condemning defects. Tender truck axles with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired:

(1) Axles that are bent;

(2) Collars that are broken, cracked, or worn to 14 inch or less in thickness;

(3) Truck axles that are unsafe on account of usage, accident, or derailment;

(4) A fillet in the back shoulder that is worn out; or

(5) A gouge between the wheel seats that is more than 18 of an inch in depth.

(b) Tender truck journal condemning defects. Tender truck journals with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired :

(1) Cut journals that cannot be made to run cool without turning;

(2) Seams in axles causing journals to run hot;

(3) Overheating, as evidenced by pronounced blue black discoloration;

(4) Transverse seams in journals of iron or steel axles; or

(5) Journal surfaces having any of the following:

(i) A circumferential score;

(ii) Corrugation;

(iii) Pitting;

(iv) Rust;

(v) Etching.

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§230.101   Steam locomotive driving journal boxes.

(a) Driving journal boxes. Driving journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Not more than one shim may be used between the box and bearing.

(b) Broken bearings. Broken bearings shall be renewed.

(c) Loose bearings. Loose bearings shall be repaired or renewed.

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§230.102   Tender plain bearing journal boxes.

Plain bearing journal boxes with the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired:

(a) A box that does not contain visible free oil;

(b) A box lid that is missing, broken, or open except to receive servicing;

(c) A box containing foreign matter, such as dirt, sand, or coal dust that can reasonably be expected to damage the bearing; or have a detrimental effect on the lubrication of the journal and bearing;

(d) A lubricating pad that:

(1) Is missing;

(2) Is not in contact with the journal;

(3) Has a tear extending half the length or width of the pad, or more, except by design;

(4) Shows evidence of having been scorched, burned, or glazed;

(5) Contains decaying or deteriorated fabric that impairs proper lubrication of the pad;

(6) Has an exposed center core (except by design); or

(7) Has metal parts contacting the journal;

(e) A plain bearing that:

(1) Is missing, cracked, broken;

(2) Has a bearing liner loose;

(3) Has a broken out piece; or

(4) Has indications of having been overheated, as evidenced by:

(i) Melted babbitt:

(ii) Smoke from hot oil; or

(iii) Journal surface damage; or

(f) A plain bearing wedge that:

(1) Is missing, cracked or broken; or

(2) Is not located in its design position.

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§230.103   Tender roller bearing journal boxes.

Tender roller bearing journal boxes shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition.

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§230.104   Driving box shoes and wedges.

Driving box shoes and wedges shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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§230.105   Lateral motion.

(a) Condemning limits. The total lateral motion or play between the hubs of the wheels and the boxes on any pair of wheels shall not exceed the following limits:

   Inches
Engine truck wheels (with swing centers)1   
Engine truck wheels (with rigid centers)112
Trailing truck wheels1   
Driving wheels 34

(b) Limits increased. These limits may be increased on steam locomotives operating on track where the curvature exceeds 20 degrees when it can be shown that conditions require additional lateral motion.

(c) Non-interference with other parts. The lateral motion shall in all cases be kept within such limits that the driving wheels, rods, or crank pins will not interfere with other parts of the steam locomotive.

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Trucks, Frames and Equalizing System

§230.106   Steam locomotive frame.

(a) Maintenance and inspection. Frames, decks, plates, tailpieces, pedestals, and braces shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service, and shall be cleaned and thoroughly inspected as often as necessary to maintain in a safe and suitable condition for service with cleaning intervals, in any case, not to exceed every 1472 service days.

(b) Broken frames. Broken frames properly patched or secured by clamps or other suitable means which restores the rigidity of the frame are permitted.

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§230.107   Tender frame and body.

(a) Maintenance. Tender frames shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

(b) Height difference. The difference in height between the deck on the tender and the cab floor or deck on the steam locomotive shall not exceed 112 inches.

(c) Gangway minimum width. The minimum width of the gangway between steam locomotive and tender, while standing on tangent track, shall be 16 inches.

(d) Tender frame condemning defects. A tender frame with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired:

(1) Portions of the tender frame or body (except wheels) that have less than a 212 inches clearance from the top of rail;

(2) Tender center sill that is broken, cracked more than 6 inches, or permanently bent or buckled more than 212 inches in any six foot length;

(3) Tender coupler carrier that is broken or missing;

(4) Tender center plate, any portion of which is missing or broken or that is not properly secured; or

(5) Tender that has a broken side sill, crossbearer, or body bolster.

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§230.108   Steam locomotive leading and trailing trucks.

(a) Maintenance. Trucks shall be maintained in safe and suitable condition for service. Center plates shall fit properly, and the male center plate shall extend into the female center plate not less than 34 inch. All centering devices shall be properly maintained and shall not permit lost motion in excess of 12 inch.

(b) Safety chain required. A suitable safety chain shall be provided at each front corner of all four wheel engine trucks.

(c) Clearance required. All parts of trucks shall have sufficient clearance to prevent them from interfering with any other part of the steam locomotive.

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§230.109   Tender trucks.

(a) Tender truck frames. A tender truck frame shall not be broken, or have a crack in a stress area that affects its structural integrity. Tender truck center plates shall be securely fastened, maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service, and provided with a center pin properly secured. The male center plate must extend into the female center plate at least 34 inch. Shims may be used between truck center plates.

(b) Tender truck bolsters. Truck bolsters shall be maintained approximately level.

(c) Condemning defects for springs or spring rigging. Springs or spring rigging with any of the following defects shall be taken out of service immediately and renewed or properly repaired:

(1) An elliptical spring with its top (long) leaf or any other five leaves in the entire spring pack broken;

(2) A broken coil spring or saddle;

(3) A coil spring that is fully compressed;

(4) A broken or cracked equalizer, hanger, bolt, gib or pin;

(5) A broken coil spring saddle; and

(6) A semi-elliptical spring with a top (long) leaf broken or two leaves in the top half broken, or any three leaves in the entire spring broken.

(d) Tender securing arrangement. Where equipped, tender devices and/or securing arrangements intended to prevent the truck and tender body from separating in case of derailment shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

(e) Side bearings and truck centering devices. Where equipped, side bearings and truck centering devices shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

(f) Friction side bearings. Friction side bearings shall not be run in contact, and shall not be considered to be in contact if there is clearance between them on either side when measured on tangent level track.

(g) Side bearings. All rear trucks shall be equipped with side bearings. When the spread of side bearings is 50 inches, their maximum clearance shall be 38 inch on each side for rear trucks and 34 inch on each side for front trucks, where used. When the spread of the side bearings is increased, the maximum clearance shall be increased proportionately.

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§230.110   Pilots.

(a) General provisions. Pilots shall be securely attached, properly braced, and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

(b) Minimum and maximum clearance. The minimum clearance of pilot above the rail shall be 3 inches and the maximum clearance shall be 6 inches measured on tangent level track.

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§230.111   Spring rigging.

(a) Arrangement of springs and equalizers. Springs and equalizers shall be arranged to ensure the proper distribution of weight to the various wheels of the steam locomotive, maintained approximately level and in a safe and suitable condition for service. Adjusting weights by shifting weights from one pair of wheels to another is permissible.

(b) Spring or spring rigging condemning defects. Springs or spring rigging with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and renewed or properly repaired:

(1) Top leaf broken or two leaves in top half or any three leaves in spring broken. (The long side of a spring to be considered the top.) Broken springs not exceeding these requirements may be repaired by applying clips providing the clips can be made to remain in place;

(2) Any spring with leaves excessively shifting in the band;

(3) Broken coil springs; or

(4) Broken driving box saddle, equalizer, hanger, bolt, or pin.

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Wheels and Tires

§230.112   Wheels and tires.

(a) Mounting. Wheels shall be securely mounted on axles. Prick punching or shimming the wheel fit will not be permitted. The diameter of wheels on the same axle shall not vary more than 332 inch.

(b) Gage. Wheels used on standard gage track will be out of gage if the inside gage of flanges, measured on base line is less than 53 inches or more than 5338 inches. Wheels used on less than standard gage track will be out of gage if the inside gage of flanges, measured on base line, is less than the relevant track gage less 312 inches or more than the relevant track gage less 318 inches.

(c) Flange distance variance. The distance back to back of flanges of wheels mounted on the same axle shall not vary more than 14 inch.

(d) Tire thickness. Wheels may not have tires with a minimum thickness less than that indicated in the table in this paragraph (d). When retaining rings are used, measurements of tires to be taken from the outside circumference of the ring, and the minimum thickness of tires may be as much below the limits specified earlier in this paragraph (d) as the tires extend between the retaining rings, provided it does not reduce the thickness of the tire to less than 118 inches from the throat of flange to the counterbore for the retaining rings. The required minimum thickness for tires, by wheel center diameter and weight per axle, is as follows:

Weight per axle (weight on drivers divided by number of pairs of driving wheels)Diameter of wheel center (inches)Minimum thickness (inches)
30,000 pounds and under44 and under114
   Over 44 to 501516
   Over 50 to 56138
   Over 56 to 621716
   Over 62 to 68112
   Over 68 to 741916
   Over 74158
Over 30,000 to 35,000 pounds44 and under1516
   Over 44 to 50138
   Over 50 to 561716
   Over 56 to 62112
   Over 62 to 681916
   Over 68 to 74158
   Over 7411116
Over 35,000 to 40,000 pounds44 and under138
   Over 44 to 501716
   Over 50 to 56112
   Over 56 to 621916
   Over 62 to 68158
   Over 68 to 7411116
   Over 74134
Over 40,000 to 45,000 pounds44 and under1716
   Over 44 to 50112
   Over 50 to 561916
   Over 56 to 62158
   Over 62 to 6811116
   Over 68 to 74134
   Over 7411316
Over 45,000 to 50,000 pounds44 and under112
   Over 44 to 501916
   Over 50 to 56158
   Over 56 to 6211116
   Over 62 to 68134
   Over 68 to 7411316
   Over 74178
Over 50,000 to 55,000 pounds44 and under1916
   Over 44 to 50158
   Over 50 to 5611116
   Over 56 to 62134
   Over 62 to 6811316
   Over 68 to 74178
   Over 7411516
Over 55,000 pounds44 and under158
   Over 44 to 5011116
   Over 50 to 56134
   Over 56 to 6211316
   Over 62 to 68178
   Over 68 to 7411516
   Over 742

(e) Tire width. Flanged tires shall be no less than 512 inches wide for standard gage and no less than 5 inches wide for narrow gage. Plain tires shall be no less than 6 inches wide for standard gage and no less than 512 inches wide for narrow gage.

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§230.113   Wheels and tire defects.

Steam locomotive and tender wheels or tires developing any of the defects listed in this section shall be removed from service immediately and repaired. Except as provided in §230.114, welding on wheels and tires is prohibited. A wheel that has been welded is a welded wheel for the life of the wheel.

(a) Cracks or breaks. Wheels and tires may not have a crack or break in the flange, tread, rim, plate, hub or brackets.

(b) Flat spots. Wheels and tires may not have a single flat spot that is 212 inches or more in length, or two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length.

(c) Chipped flange. Wheels and tires may not have a gouge or chip in the flange that is more than 112 inches in length and 12 inch in width.

(d) Broken rims. Wheels and tires may not have a circumferentially broken rim if the tread, measured from the flange at a point 58 inch above the tread, is less than 334 inches in width.

(e) Shelled-out spots. Wheels and tires may not have a shelled-out spot 212 inches or more in length, or two adjoining spots that are each two or more inches in length, or so numerous as to endanger the safety of the wheel.

(f) Seams. Wheels and tires may not have a seam running lengthwise that is within 334 inches of the flange.

(g) Worn flanges. Wheels and tires may not have a flange worn to a 1516 inch thickness or less, as measured at a point 38 inch above the tread.

(h) Worn treads. Wheels and tires may not have a tread worn hollow 516 inch or more.

(i) Flange height. Wheels and tires may not have a flange height of less than 1 inch nor more than 112 inches, as measured from the tread to the top of the flange.

(j) Rim thickness. Wheels may not have rims less than 1 inch thick.

(k) Wheel diameter. Wheels may not have wheel diameter variance, for wheels on the same axle or in the same driving wheel base, greater than 332 inch, when all tires are turned or new tires applied to driving and trailing wheels. When a single tire is applied, the diameter must not vary more than 332 inch from that of the opposite wheel on the same axle. When a single pair of tires is applied the diameter must be within 332 inch of the average diameter of the wheels in the driving wheel base to which they are applied.

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§230.114   Wheel centers.

(a) Filling blocks and shims. Driving and trailing wheel centers with divided rims shall be properly fitted with iron or steel filling blocks before the tires are applied, and such filling blocks shall be properly maintained. When shims are inserted between the tire and the wheel center, not more than two thicknesses of shims may be used, one of which must extend entirely around the wheel. The shim which extends entirely around the wheel may be in three or four pieces, providing they do not lap.

(b) Wheel center condemning defects. Wheel centers with any of the following defects shall be removed from service immediately and repaired:

(1) Wheels centers loose on axle;

(2) Broken or defective tire fastenings;

(3) Broken or cracked hubs, plates, bolts or spokes, except as provided in paragraph (b)(4) of this section; or

(4) Driving or trailing wheel center with three adjacent spokes or 25 percent or more of the spokes in the wheel broken.

(c) Wheel center repairs. Wheel centers may be repaired by welding or brazing provided that the defect can properly be so repaired and, following the repair, the crankpin and axle shall remain tight in the wheel. Banding of the hub is permitted.

(d) Counterbalance maintenance. Wheel counterbalances shall be maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service.

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Steam Locomotive Tanks

§230.115   Feed water tanks.

(a) General provisions. Tanks shall be maintained free from leaks, and in safe and suitable condition for service. Suitable screens must be provided for tank wells or tank hose and shall be maintained in a manner that allows the unobstructed flow of water. Feed water tanks shall be equipped with a device that permits the measurement of the quantity of water in the tender feed water tank from the cab or tender deck of the steam locomotive. Such device shall be properly maintained.

(b) Inspection frequency. As often as conditions warrant but not less frequently than every 92 service days, the interior of the tank shall be inspected, and cleaned if necessary.

(c) Top of tender. Top of tender behind fuel space shall be kept clean, and means provided to carry off excess water. Suitable covers shall be provided for filling holes.

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§230.116   Oil tanks.

The oil tanks on oil burning steam locomotives shall be maintained free from leaks. The oil supply pipe shall be equipped with a safety cut-off device that:

(a) Is located adjacent to the fuel supply tank or in another safe location;

(b) Closes automatically when tripped and that can be reset without hazard; and

(c) Can be hand operated from clearly marked locations, one inside the cab and one accessible from the ground on each exterior side of the steam locomotive.

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Appendix A to Part 230—Inspection Requirements

The lists in this appendix are intended as guidance only. Adherence to this list does not relieve the steam locomotive owner and/or operator of responsibility for either: (1) Completing the inspection and maintenance requirements described in this part; or (2) ensuring that the steam locomotive, tender and its parts and appurtenances are safe and suitable for service.

Daily Inspection Requirements; §230.13

1. Observance of lifting pressure of the lowest safety valve.

2. Testing of water glasses and gauge cocks.*

3. Inspection of tubular water glass shields.

4. Inspection of all cab lamps.*

5. Inspection of boiler feedwater delivery systems.*

6. Inspection of lagging for indication of leaks.

7. Inspection for leaks obstructing vision of engine crew.

8. Observance of compressor(s) and governor to ascertain proper operation.*

9. Inspection of brake and signal equipment.*

10. Inspection of brake cylinders for piston travel.

11. Inspection of foundation brake gear.

12. Inspection of sanders.*

13. Inspection of draw gear and chafing irons.

14. Inspection of draft gear.

15. Inspection of crossheads and guides.

16. Inspection of piston rods and fasteners.

17. Inspection of main, side, and valve motion rods.

18. Inspection of headlights and classification lamps.*

19. Inspection of running gear.

20. Inspection of tender frames and tanks.

21. Inspection of tender trucks for amount of side bearing clearance.

Note: All items marked (*) should be checked at the beginning of each day the locomotive is used.

31 Service Day Inspection Requirements; §230.14

1. Washing of boiler.

2. Cleaning and inspection of water glass valves and gauge cocks.

3. Cleaning, washing and inspection of arch tubes, water bar tubes, circulators and siphons.

4. Removal and inspection of all washout and water tube plugs.

5. Testing of all staybolts.

6. Removal, cleaning and inspection of fusible plugs (if any).

92 Service Day Inspection Requirements; §230.15

1. Removal and testing of all air and steam gauges.

2. Cleaning of steam gauge siphon pipe.

3. Renewal of tubular water glasses.

4. Testing and adjusting of safety relief valves.

5. Testing of main reservoir and brake cylinder leakage.

6. Entering and inspection of tender tank interior.

Annual Inspection Requirements; §230.16

1. Testing of thickness of arch and water bar tubes (arch brick to be removed)

2. Hydrostatic testing of boiler.

3. Testing of all staybolts.

4. Interior inspection of boiler.

5. Thickness verification of dry pipes.

6. Smoke box inspection.

7. Main reservoir hammer or UT testing and hydrostatic testing (for non-welded and drilled main reservoirs)

8. Removal and inspection of steam locomotive drawbar(s) and pins (NDE testing other than merely visual)

9. Inspection of longitudinal lap joint boiler seams.

5 Year Inspection Requirements; §230.16

1. Inspection of flexible staybolt caps and sleeves.

1472 Service Day Inspection Requirements; §230.17

1. Removal of boiler flues (as necessary) and cleaning of boiler interior.

2. Removal of jacket and lagging and inspection of boiler interior and exterior.

3. Hydrostatic testing of boiler.

4. Thickness verification (boiler survey) and recomputation and update of steam locomotive specification card, (FRA Form No. 4).

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Appendix B to Part 230—Diagrams and Drawings

Appendix C to Part 230—FRA Inspection Forms