# Title 46

## SECTION 28.570

### 28.570 Intact righting energy.

§ 28.570 Intact righting energy.(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each vessel must have the following properties in each condition of loading:

(1) An initial metacentric height (GM) of at least 1.15 feet (0.35 meters);

(2) A righting arm (GZ) of at least 0.66 feet (0.2 meters) at an angle of heel not less than 30° (0.52 radians);

(3) A maximum righting arm that occurs at an angle of heel not less than 25° (0.44 radians);

(4) An area under each righting arm curve of at least 16.9 foot-degrees (0.090 meter-radians) up to the lesser of 40° (0.70 radians) or the angle of downflooding;

(5) An area under each righting arm curve of at least 10.3 foot-degrees (0.055 meter-radians) up to an angle of heel of 30° (0.52 radians);

(6) An area under each righting arm curve of at least 5.6 foot-degrees (0.030 meter-radians) between 30° (0.52 radians) and the lesser of 40° (0.70 radians) or the angle of downflooding; and

(7) Except as provided by paragraph (b) of this section, positive righting arms through an angle of heel of 60° (1.05 radians).

(b) In lieu of meeting the requirements of paragraph (a)(7) of this section, a vessel may comply with the following provisions:

(1) Hatches in the watertight/weathertight envelope must be normally kept closed at sea (e.g., the live tank hatch is only opened intermittently, under controlled conditions); or

(2) Unintentional flooding through these hatches must not result in progressive flooding to other spaces; and

(3) In all cases, a vessel must have positive righting arms through an angle of heel of at least 50° (0.87 radians) and the intact stability analysis must consider that spaces accessed by such hatches to be flooded full or flooded to the level having the most detrimental effect on stability when free surface effects are considered.

(c) In lieu of meeting the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section, a vessel may comply with the provisions of § 170.173(c) of this chapter, provided that righting arms are positive to an angle of heel of not less than 50° (0.87 radians).

(d) For the purpose of paragraphs (a) and (c) of this section, at each angle of heel a vessel's righting arm must be calculated assuming the vessel is permitted to trim free until the trimming moment is zero.