494.40 Condition: Water and dialysate quality.§ 494.40 Condition: Water and dialysate quality.
The facility must be able to demonstrate the following:
(a) Standard: Water purity. Water and equipment used for dialysis meets the water and dialysate quality standards and equipment requirements found in the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) publication, “Dialysate for hemodialysis,” ANSI/AAMI RD52: 2004. The Director of the Federal Register approves this incorporation by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. This publication is available for inspection at the CMS Information Resource Center, 7500 Security Boulevard, Central Building, Baltimore, MD or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. Copies may be purchased from the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation, 3300 Washington Boulevard, Suite 400, Arlington, VA 22201-4598.
(b) Standard: Chlorine/chloramines. (1) The water treatment system must include a component or carbon tank which removes chlorine/chloramine along with a backup component or second carbon tank in series for chlorine/chloramine removal;
(2)(i) If the test results from the port of the initial component or carbon tank referred to in section 6.2.5 of AAMI RD52:2004 are greater than 0.5 mg/L for free chlorine or 0.1 mg/L for chloramines, or equal to or greater than 0.1 mg/L of total chlorine, then the second component or carbon tank which removes chlorine/chloramine must be tested;
(ii) If the test results from the last component or carbon tank are greater than the parameters for chlorine or chloramine specified in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section the facility must -
(A) Immediately take corrective action to bring chlorine or chloramine levels into compliance with paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section and confirm through testing that the corrective action has been effective, or terminate dialysis treatment to protect patients from exposure to chlorine/chloramine;
(B) Only allow use of purified water in a holding tank, if appropriate, and if testing shows water chlorine or chloramine levels that are in compliance with paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section; and
(C) Immediately notify the medical director; and
(D) Take corrective action to ensure ongoing compliance with acceptable chlorine and chloramine levels as described in paragraph (b)(2)(i) of this section.
(c) Standard: Corrective action plan. Water testing results including, but not limited to, chemical, microbial, and endotoxin levels which meet AAMI action levels or deviate from the AAMI standards must be addressed with a corrective action plan that ensures patient safety.
(d) Standard: Adverse events. A dialysis facility must maintain active surveillance of patient reactions during and following dialysis. When clinically indicated (for example, after adverse patient reactions) the facility must -
(1) Obtain blood and dialysate cultures and endotoxin levels;
(2) Evaluate the water purification system; and
(3) Take corrective action.
(e) Standard: In-center use of preconfigured hemodialysis systems. When using a preconfigured, FDA-approved hemodialysis system designed, tested and validated to yield AAMI quality (which includes standards for chemical and chlorine/chloramine testing) water and dialysate, the system's FDA-approved labeling must be adhered to for machine use and monitoring of the water and dialysate quality. The facility must meet all AAMI RD52:2004 requirements for water and dialysate. Moreover, the facility must perform bacteriological and endotoxin testing on a quarterly, or more frequent basis, as needed, to ensure that the water and dialysate are within AAMI limits.