438.56 Disenrollment: Requirements and limitations.§ 438.56 Disenrollment: Requirements and limitations.
(a) Applicability. The provisions of this section apply to all managed care programs whether enrollment is mandatory or voluntary and whether the contract is with an MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity.
(b) Disenrollment requested by the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity. All MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM and PCCM entity contracts must:
(1) Specify the reasons for which the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity may request disenrollment of an enrollee.
(2) Provide that the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity may not request disenrollment because of an adverse change in the enrollee's health status, or because of the enrollee's utilization of medical services, diminished mental capacity, or uncooperative or disruptive behavior resulting from his or her special needs (except when his or her continued enrollment in the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM or PCCM entity seriously impairs the entity's ability to furnish services to either this particular enrollee or other enrollees).
(3) Specify the methods by which the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity assures the agency that it does not request disenrollment for reasons other than those permitted under the contract.
(c) Disenrollment requested by the enrollee. If the State chooses to limit disenrollment, its MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, and PCCM entity contracts must provide that a beneficiary may request disenrollment as follows:
(1) For cause, at any time.
(2) Without cause, at the following times:
(i) During the 90 days following the date of the beneficiary's initial enrollment into the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity, or during the 90 days following the date the State sends the beneficiary notice of that enrollment, whichever is later.
(ii) At least once every 12 months thereafter.
(iii) Upon automatic reenrollment under paragraph (g) of this section, if the temporary loss of Medicaid eligibility has caused the beneficiary to miss the annual disenrollment opportunity.
(iv) When the State imposes the intermediate sanction specified in § 438.702(a)(4).
(d) Procedures for disenrollment - (1) Request for disenrollment. The beneficiary (or his or her representative) must submit an oral or written request, as required by the State -
(i) To the State (or its agent); or
(ii) To the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity, if the State permits MCOs, PIHP, PAHPs, PCCMs, and PCCM entities to process disenrollment requests.
(2) Cause for disenrollment. The following are cause for disenrollment:
(i) The enrollee moves out of the MCO's, PIHP's, PAHP's, PCCM's, or PCCM entity's service area.
(ii) The plan does not, because of moral or religious objections, cover the service the enrollee seeks.
(iii) The enrollee needs related services (for example, a cesarean section and a tubal ligation) to be performed at the same time; not all related services are available within the provider network; and the enrollee's primary care provider or another provider determines that receiving the services separately would subject the enrollee to unnecessary risk.
(iv) For enrollees that use MLTSS, the enrollee would have to change their residential, institutional, or employment supports provider based on that provider's change in status from an in-network to an out-of-network provider with the MCO, PIHP, or PAHP and, as a result, would experience a disruption in their residence or employment.
(v) Other reasons, including poor quality of care, lack of access to services covered under the contract, or lack of access to providers experienced in dealing with the enrollee's care needs.
(3) MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity action on request. (i) When the MCO's, PIHP's, PAHP's, PCCM's, or PCCM entity's contract with the State permits the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity to process disenrollment requests, the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity may either approve a request for disenrollment by or on behalf of an enrollee or the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity must refer the request to the State.
(ii) If the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, PCCM entity, or State agency (whichever is responsible) fails to make a disenrollment determination so that the beneficiary can be disenrolled within the timeframes specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the disenrollment is considered approved.
(4) State agency action on request. For a request received directly from the beneficiary, or one referred by the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity, the State agency must take action to approve or disapprove the request based on the following:
(i) Reasons cited in the request.
(ii) Information provided by the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity at the agency's request.
(iii) Any of the reasons specified in paragraph (d)(2) of this section.
(5) Use of the MCO's, PIHP's, PAHP's, PCCM's, or PCCMs entity's grievance procedures. (i) The State agency may require that the enrollee seek redress through the MCO's, PIHP's, PAHP's, PCCM's, or PCCM entity's grievance system before making a determination on the enrollee's request.
(ii) The grievance process, if used, must be completed in time to permit the disenrollment (if approved) to be effective in accordance with the timeframe specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
(iii) If, as a result of the grievance process, the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity approves the disenrollment, the State agency is not required to make a determination in accordance with paragraph (d)(4) of this section.
(e) Timeframe for disenrollment determinations. (1) Regardless of the procedures followed, the effective date of an approved disenrollment must be no later than the first day of the second month following the month in which the enrollee requests disenrollment or the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, or PCCM entity refers the request to the State.
(2) If the MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, PCCM entity, or the State agency (whichever is responsible) fails to make the determination within the timeframes specified in paragraph (e)(1) of this section, the disenrollment is considered approved for the effective date that would have been established had the State or MCO, PIHP, PAHP, PCCM, PCCM entity complied with paragraph (e)(1) of this section.
(f) Notice and appeals. A State that restricts disenrollment under this section must take the following actions:
(1) Provide that enrollees and their representatives are given written notice of disenrollment rights at least 60 days before the start of each enrollment period. The notice must include an explanation of all of the enrollee's disenrollment rights as specified in this section.
(2) Ensure timely access to State fair hearing for any enrollee dissatisfied with a State agency determination that there is not good cause for disenrollment.
(g) Automatic reenrollment: Contract requirement. If the State plan so specifies, the contract must provide for automatic reenrollment of a beneficiary who is disenrolled solely because he or she loses Medicaid eligibility for a period of 2 months or less.