1033.501 General provisions.§ 1033.501 General provisions.
(a) Except as specified in this subpart, use the equipment and procedures for compression-ignition engines in 40 CFR part 1065 to determine whether your locomotives meet the duty-cycle emission standards in § 1033.101. Use the applicable duty cycles specified in this subpart. Measure emissions of all the pollutants we regulate in § 1033.101 plus CO2. Measure N2O, and CH4 as described in § 1033.235. The general test procedure is the procedure specified in 40 CFR part 1065 for steady-state discrete-mode cycles. However, if you use the optional ramped modal cycle in § 1033.520, follow the procedures for ramped modal testing in 40 CFR part 1065. The following exceptions from the 1065 procedures apply:
(1) You must average power and emissions over the sampling periods specified in this subpart for both discrete-mode testing and ramped modal testing.
(2) The test cycle is considered to be steady-state with respect to operator demand rather than engine speed and load.
(3) The following provisions apply for engine mapping, duty-cycle generation, and cycle validation to account for the fact that locomotive operation and locomotive duty cycles are based on operator demand from locomotive notch settings, not on target values for engine speed and load:
(i) The provisions related to engine mapping, duty-cycle generation, and cycle validation in 40 CFR 1065.510, 1065.512, and 1065.514 do not apply for testing complete locomotives.
(ii) The provisions related to engine mapping and duty-cycle generation in 40 CFR 1065.510 and 1065.512 are not required for testing with an engine dynamometer; however, the cycle validation criteria of 40 CFR 1065.514 apply for such testing. Demonstrate compliance with cycle validation criteria based on manufacturer-declared values for maximum torque, maximum power, and maximum test speed, or determine these values from an engine map generated according to 40 CFR 1065.510. If you test using a ramped-modal cycle, you may perform cycle validation over all the test intervals together.
(4) If you perform discrete-mode testing and use only one batch fuel measurement to determine your mean raw exhaust flow rate, you must target a constant sample flow rate over the mode. Verify proportional sampling as described in 40 CFR 1065.545 using the mean raw exhaust molar flow rate paired with each recorded sample flow rate.
(5) If you perform discrete-mode testing by grouping the modes in the same manner as the test intervals of the ramped modal cycle using three different dilution settings for the groups, as allowed in § 1033.515(c)(5)(ii), you may verify proportional sampling over each group instead of each discrete mode.
(b) You may use special or alternate procedures to the extent we allow as them under 40 CFR 1065.10. In some cases, we allow you to use procedures that are less precise or less accurate than the specified procedures if they do not affect your ability to show that your locomotives comply with the applicable emission standards. This generally requires emission levels to be far enough below the applicable emission standards so that any errors caused by greater imprecision or inaccuracy do not affect your ability to state unconditionally that the locomotives meet all applicable emission standards.
(c) This part allows (with certain limits) testing of either a complete locomotive or a separate uninstalled engine. When testing a locomotive, you must test the complete locomotive in its in-use configuration, except that you may disconnect the power output and fuel input for the purpose of testing. To calculate power from measured alternator/generator output, use an alternator/generator efficiency curve that varies with speed/load, consistent with good engineering judgment.
(d) Unless smoke standards do not apply for your locomotives or the testing requirement is waived, measure smoke emissions using the procedures in § 1033.525.
(e) Use the applicable fuel listed in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, to perform valid tests.
(1) For diesel-fueled locomotives, use the appropriate diesel fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H, for emission testing. The applicable diesel test fuel is either the ultra low-sulfur diesel or low-sulfur diesel fuel, as specified in § 1033.101. Identify the test fuel in your application for certification and ensure that the fuel inlet label is consistent with your selection of the test fuel (see §§ 1033.101 and 1033.135).
(2) You may ask to use as a test fuel commercially available diesel fuel similar but not identical to the applicable fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065, subpart H; we will approve your request if you show us that it does not affect your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable emission standards. If your locomotive uses sulfur-sensitive technology, you may not use an in-use fuel that has a lower sulfur content than the range specified for the otherwise applicable test fuel in 40 CFR part 1065. If your locomotive does not use sulfur-sensitive technology, we may allow you to use an in-use fuel that has a lower sulfur content than the range specified for the otherwise applicable test fuel in 40 CFR part 1065, but may require that you correct PM emissions to account for the sulfur differences.
(3) For service accumulation, use the test fuel or any commercially available fuel that is representative of the fuel that in-use locomotives will use.
(f) See § 1033.505 for information about allowable ambient testing conditions for testing.
(g) This subpart is addressed to you as a manufacturer/remanufacturer, but it applies equally to anyone who does testing for you, and to us when we perform testing to determine if your locomotives meet emission standards.
(h) We may also perform other testing as allowed by the Clean Air Act.
(i) For passenger locomotives that can generate hotel power from the main propulsion engine, the locomotive must comply with the emission standards when in non-hotel setting. For hotel mode, the locomotive is subject to the notch cap provisions of § 1033.101 and the defeat device prohibition of § 1033.115.
(j) The following provisions apply for locomotives using aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration events that may occur during testing:
(1) Adjust measured emissions to account for aftertreatment technology with infrequent regeneration as described in § 1033.535.
(2) Invalidate a smoke test if active regeneration starts to occur during the test.[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 56508, Oct. 30, 2008; 75 FR 22984, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]