# Title 40

## SECTION 1065.514

### 1065.514 Cycle-validation criteria for operation over specified duty cycles.

§ 1065.514 Cycle-validation criteria for operation over specified duty cycles.Validate the execution of your duty cycle according to this section unless the standard-setting part specifies otherwise. This section describes how to determine if the engine's operation during the test adequately matched the reference duty cycle. This section applies only to speed, torque, and power from the engine's primary output shaft. Other work inputs and outputs are not subject to cycle-validation criteria. You must compare the original reference duty cycle points generated as described in § 1065.512 to the corresponding feedback values recorded during the test. You may compare reference duty cycle points recorded during the test to the corresponding feedback values recorded during the test as long as the recorded reference values match the original points generated in § 1065.512. The number of points in the validation regression are based on the number of points in the original reference duty cycle generated in § 1065.512. For example if the original cycle has 1199 reference points at 1 Hz, then the regression will have up to 1199 pairs of reference and feedback values at the corresponding moments in the test. The feedback speed and torque signals may be filtered - either in real-time while the test is run or afterward in the analysis program. Any filtering that is used on the feedback signals used for cycle validation must also be used for calculating work. Feedback signals for control loops may use different filtering.

(a) *Testing performed by EPA.* Our tests must meet the
specifications of paragraph (f) of this section, unless we
determine that failing to meet the specifications is related to
engine performance rather than to shortcomings of the dynamometer
or other laboratory equipment.

(b) *Testing performed by manufacturers.* Emission tests
that meet the specifications of paragraph (f) of this section
satisfy the standard-setting part's requirements for duty cycles.
You may ask to use a dynamometer or other laboratory equipment that
cannot meet those specifications. We will approve your request as
long as using the alternate equipment does not adversely affect
your ability to show compliance with the applicable emission
standards.

(c) *Time-alignment.* Because time lag between feedback
values and the reference values may bias cycle-validation results,
you may advance or delay the entire sequence of feedback engine
speed and torque pairs to synchronize them with the reference
sequence. If you advance or delay feedback signals for cycle
validation, you must make the same adjustment for calculating work.
You may use linear interpolation between successive recorded
feedback signals to time shift an amount that is a fraction of the
recording period.

(d) *Omitting additional points.* Besides engine cranking,
you may omit additional points from cycle-validation statistics as
described in the following table:

Table 1 of § 1065.514 - Permissible Criteria for Omitting Points From Duty-Cycle Regression Statistics

When operator demand is at its . . . | you may omit . . . | if . . . |
---|---|---|

For reference duty cycles that are specified in terms of speed and torque (fnref, Tref) | ||

minimum | power and torque | Tref <0% (motoring). |

minimum | power and speed | fnref = 0% (idle speed) and Tref = 0% (idle torque) and Tref − (2% · Tmax mapped) <T <Tref + (2% · Tmax mapped). |

minimum | power and either torque or speed | fn >fnref or T >Tref but not if fn >(fnref · 102%) and T >Tref ± (2% · Tmax mapped). |

maximum | power and either torque or speed | fn <fnref or T <Tref but not if fn <(fnref · 98%) and T <Tref − (2% · Tmax mapped). |

For reference duty cycles that are specified in terms of speed and power (fnref, Pref) | ||

minimum | power and torque | Pref <0% (motoring). |

minimum | power and speed | fnref = 0% (idle speed) and Pref = 0% (idle power) and Pref − (2% · Pmax mapped) <P <Pref + (2% · Pmax mapped). |

minimum | power and either torque or speed | fn >fnref or P >Pref but not if fn >(fnref · 102%) and P >Pref + (2% · Pmax mapped). |

maximum | power and either torque or speed | fn <fnref or P <Pref but not if fn <(fnref · 98%) and P <Pref − (2% · Pmax mapped). |

(e) *Statistical parameters.* Use the remaining points to
calculate regression statistics described in § 1065.602. Round
calculated regression statistics to the same number of significant
digits as the criteria to which they are compared. Refer to Table 2
of § 1065.514 for the default criteria and refer to the
standard-setting part to determine if there are other criteria for
your engine. Calculate the following regression statistics:

(1) Slopes for feedback speed, *a*1fn, feedback torque,
*a*1T, and feedback power *a*1P.

(2) Intercepts for feedback speed, *a*0fn, feedback torque,
*a*0T, and feedback power *a*0P.

(3) Standard estimates of error for feedback speed,
*SEE*fn, feedback torque, *SEE*T, and feedback power
*SEE*P.

(4) Coefficients of determination for feedback speed, *r*
2fn, feedback torque, *r* 2T, and feedback power *r*
2P.

(f) *Cycle-validation criteria.* Unless the
standard-setting part specifies otherwise, use the following
criteria to validate a duty cycle:

(1) For variable-speed engines, apply all the statistical criteria in Table 2 of this section.

(2) For constant-speed engines, apply only the statistical criteria for torque in Table 2 of this section.

(3) For discrete-mode steady-state testing, apply cycle-validation criteria by treating the sampling periods from the series of test modes as a continuous sampling period, analogous to ramped-modal testing and apply statistical criteria as described in paragraph (f)(1) or (f)(2) of this section. Note that if the gaseous and particulate test intervals are different periods of time, separate validations are required for the gaseous and particulate test intervals. Table 2 follows:

Table 2 of § 1065.514 - Default Statistical Criteria for Validating Duty Cycles

Parameter | Speed | Torque | Power |
---|---|---|---|

Slope, a1 | 0.950 ≤a1 ≤1.030 | 0.830 ≤a1 ≤1.030 | 0.830 ≤a1 ≤1.030. |

Absolute value of intercept, |a0| | ≤10% of warm idle | ≤2% of maximum mapped torque | ≤2% of maximum mapped power. |

Standard error of estimate, SEE | ≤5% of maximum test speed | ≤10% of maximum mapped torque | ≤10% of maximum mapped power. |

Coefficient of
determination, r ^{2} |
≥0.970 | ≥0.850 | ≥0.910. |