57.302 Performance level of interim constant controls.§ 57.302 Performance level of interim constant controls.
(a) Maximum feasible efficiency. Each NSO shall require: that the smelter operate its interim constant control systems at their maximum feasible efficiency, including the making of any improvements necessary to correct the effects of any serious deficiencies; that the process and control equipment be maintained in the way best designed to ensure such operation; and that process operations be scheduled and coordinated to facilitate treatment of process gas streams to the maximum possible extent. Maximum feasible efficiency shall be expressed in the NSO in the form of a limitation on the concentration of SO2 in the tail gas of each individual control system in combination with an appropriate averaging period, as provided below in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section.
(b) The limitation level for SO2 concentration in the control system tail gas. The level at which the concentration limitation is set shall take into account fluctuations in the strength and volume of process off-gases to the extent that those fluctuations affect the SO2 content of the tail gas and cannot be avoided by improved scheduling and coordination of process operations. The limitation shall exclude the effect of any increase in emissions caused by process or control equipment malfunction. The limitation shall take into account unavoidable catalyst deterioration in sulfuric acid plants, but may prescribe the frequency of catalyst screening or replacement. The NSO shall also prohibit the smelter owner from using dilution air to meet the limitation.
(c) Averaging period. (1) The averaging period shall be derived in combination with the concentration limitation and shall take into account the same factors described in paragraph (b). The averaging period established under this paragraph should generally not exceed the following:
(i) For sulfuric acid plants on copper smelters, 12-hour running average;
(ii) For sulfuric acid plants on lead smelters, 6-hour running average;
(iii) For sulfuric acid plants on zinc smelters, 2-hour running average;
(iv) For dimethylaniline (DMA) scrubbing units on copper smelters, 2-hour running average.
(2) A different averaging period may be established if the applicant demonstrates that such a period is necessary in order to account for the factors described in paragraph (b) of this section: Provided, that the period is enforceable and satisfies the criteria of paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Improved performance. (1) The performance level representing maximum feasible efficiency for any existing control system (e.g., a sulfuric acid plant or a DMA scrubber) shall require the correction of the effects of any serious deficiencies in the system. For the purpose of this paragraph, at least the following problems shall constitute serious deficiencies in acid plants:
(i) Heat exchangers and associated equipment inadequate to sustain efficient, autothermal operation at the average gas strengths and volumes received by the acid plant during routine process equipment operation;
(ii) Failure to completely fill all available catalyst bed stages with sufficient catalyst;
(iii) Inability of the gas pre-treatment system to prevent unduly frequent plugging or fouling (deterioration) of catalyst or other components of the acid plant; or
(iv) Blower capacity inadequate to permit the treatment of the full volume of gas which the plant could otherwise accommodate, or in-leakage of air into the flues leading to the plant, to the extent that this inadequacy results in bypassing of gas around the plant.
(2) Notwithstanding any contrary provisions of § 57.304(c) (malfunction demonstration), no excess emissions (as defined in § 57.304(a)) shall be considered to have resulted from a malfunction in the constant control system if the smelter owner has not upgraded serious deficiencies in the constant control system in compliance with the requirements of § 57.302(d)(1), unless the smelter owner demonstrates under § 57.304(c) that compliance with those requirements would not have affected the magnitude of the emission.
(e) Multiple control devices. (1) At any smelter where off-gas streams are treated by various existing control systems (e.g., multiple acid plants or a DMA scrubber and an acid plant), the NSO shall require the use of those systems in the combination that will result in the maximum feasible net SO2 removal.
(2) To the extent that compliance with this requirement is demonstrated by the smelter operator to result in excess emissions during unavoidable start up and shut down of the control systems, those excess emissions shall not constitute violations of the NSO.