Title 40


22.22 Evidence.

§ 22.22 Evidence.

(a) General. (1) The Presiding Officer shall admit all evidence which is not irrelevant, immaterial, unduly repetitious, unreliable, or of little probative value, except that evidence relating to settlement which would be excluded in the federal courts under Rule 408 of the Federal Rules of Evidence (28 U.S.C.) is not admissible. If, however, a party fails to provide any document, exhibit, witness name or summary of expected testimony required to be exchanged under § 22.19 (a), (e) or (f) to all parties at least 15 days before the hearing date, the Presiding Officer shall not admit the document, exhibit or testimony into evidence, unless the non-exchanging party had good cause for failing to exchange the required information and provided the required information to all other parties as soon as it had control of the information, or had good cause for not doing so.

(2) In the presentation, admission, disposition, and use of oral and written evidence, EPA officers, employees and authorized representatives shall preserve the confidentiality of information claimed confidential, whether or not the claim is made by a party to the proceeding, unless disclosure is authorized pursuant to 40 CFR part 2. A business confidentiality claim shall not prevent information from being introduced into evidence, but shall instead require that the information be treated in accordance with 40 CFR part 2, subpart B. The Presiding Officer or the Environmental Appeals Board may consider such evidence in a proceeding closed to the public, and which may be before some, but not all, parties, as necessary. Such proceeding shall be closed only to the extent necessary to comply with 40 CFR part 2, subpart B, for information claimed confidential. Any affected person may move for an order protecting the information claimed confidential.

(b) Examination of witnesses. Witnesses shall be examined orally, under oath or affirmation, except as otherwise provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section or by the Presiding Officer. Parties shall have the right to cross-examine a witness who appears at the hearing provided that such cross-examination is not unduly repetitious.

(c) Written testimony. The Presiding Officer may admit and insert into the record as evidence, in lieu of oral testimony, written testimony prepared by a witness. The admissibility of any part of the testimony shall be subject to the same rules as if the testimony were produced under oral examination. Before any such testimony is read or admitted into evidence, the party who has called the witness shall deliver a copy of the testimony to the Presiding Officer, the reporter, and opposing counsel. The witness presenting the testimony shall swear to or affirm the testimony and shall be subject to appropriate oral cross-examination.

(d) Admission of affidavits where the witness is unavailable. The Presiding Officer may admit into evidence affidavits of witnesses who are unavailable. The term “unavailable” shall have the meaning accorded to it by Rule 804(a) of the Federal Rules of Evidence.

(e) Exhibits. Where practicable, an original and one copy of each exhibit shall be filed with the Presiding Officer for the record and a copy shall be furnished to each party. A true copy of any exhibit may be substituted for the original.

(f) Official notice. Official notice may be taken of any matter which can be judicially noticed in the Federal courts and of other facts within the specialized knowledge and experience of the Agency. Opposing parties shall be given adequate opportunity to show that such facts are erroneously noticed.