1065.15 Overview of procedures for laboratory and field testing.§ 1065.15 Overview of procedures for laboratory and field testing.
This section outlines the procedures to test engines that are subject to emission standards.
(a) In the standard-setting part, we set brake-specific emission standards in g/(kW · hr) (or g/(hp · hr)), for the following constituents:
(1) Total oxides of nitrogen, NOX.
(2) Hydrocarbon, HC, which may be expressed in the following ways:
(i) Total hydrocarbon, THC.
(ii) Nonmethane hydrocarbon, NMHC, which results from subtracting methane, CH4, from THC.
(iii) Nonmethane-nonethane hydrocarbon, NMNEHC, which results from subtracting methane, CH4, and ethane, C2H6, from THC.
(iv) Total hydrocarbon-equivalent, THCE, which results from adjusting THC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(v) Nonmethane hydrocarbon-equivalent, NMHCE, which results from adjusting NMHC mathematically to be equivalent on a carbon-mass basis.
(3) Particulate matter, PM.
(4) Carbon monoxide, CO.
(5) Carbon dioxide, CO2.
(6) Methane, CH4.
(7) Nitrous oxide, N2O.
(b) Note that some engines are not subject to standards for all the emission constituents identified in paragraph (a) of this section. Note also that the standard-setting part may include standards for pollutants not listed in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) We generally set brake-specific emission standards over test intervals and/or duty cycles, as follows:
(1) Engine operation. Testing may involve measuring emissions and work in a laboratory-type environment or in the field, as described in paragraph (f) of this section. For most laboratory testing, the engine is operated over one or more duty cycles specified in the standard-setting part. However, laboratory testing may also include non-duty cycle testing (such as simulation of field testing in a laboratory). For field testing, the engine is operated under normal in-use operation. The standard-setting part specifies how test intervals are defined for field testing. Refer to the definitions of “duty cycle” and “test interval” in § 1065.1001. Note that a single duty cycle may have multiple test intervals and require weighting of results from multiple test intervals to calculate a composite brake-specific emissions value to compare to the standard.
(2) Constituent determination. Determine the total mass of each constituent over a test interval by selecting from the following methods:
(i) Continuous sampling. In continuous sampling, measure the constituent's concentration continuously from raw or dilute exhaust. Multiply this concentration by the continuous (raw or dilute) flow rate at the emission sampling location to determine the constituent's flow rate. Sum the constituent's flow rate continuously over the test interval. This sum is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(ii) Batch sampling. In batch sampling, continuously extract and store a sample of raw or dilute exhaust for later measurement. Extract a sample proportional to the raw or dilute exhaust flow rate. You may extract and store a proportional sample of exhaust in an appropriate container, such as a bag, and then measure NOX, HC, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, and CH2O concentrations in the container after the test interval. You may deposit PM from proportionally extracted exhaust onto an appropriate substrate, such as a filter. In this case, divide the PM by the amount of filtered exhaust to calculate the PM concentration. Multiply batch sampled concentrations by the total (raw or dilute) flow from which it was extracted during the test interval. This product is the total mass of the emitted constituent.
(iii) Combined sampling. You may use continuous and batch sampling simultaneously during a test interval, as follows:
(A) You may use continuous sampling for some constituents and batch sampling for others.
(B) You may use continuous and batch sampling for a single constituent, with one being a redundant measurement. See § 1065.201 for more information on redundant measurements.
(3) Work determination. Determine work over a test interval by one of the following methods:
(i) Speed and torque. Synchronously multiply speed and brake torque to calculate instantaneous values for engine brake power. Sum engine brake power over a test interval to determine total work.
(ii) Fuel consumed and brake-specific fuel consumption. Directly measure fuel consumed or calculate it with chemical balances of the fuel, intake air, and exhaust. To calculate fuel consumed by a chemical balance, you must also measure either intake-air flow rate or exhaust flow rate. Divide the fuel consumed during a test interval by the brake-specific fuel consumption to determine work over the test interval. For laboratory testing, calculate the brake-specific fuel consumption using fuel consumed and speed and torque over a test interval. For field testing, refer to the standard-setting part and § 1065.915 for selecting an appropriate value for brake-specific fuel consumption.
(d) Refer to § 1065.650 for calculations to determine brake-specific emissions.
(e) The following figure illustrates the allowed measurement configurations described in this part 1065:
(f) This part 1065 describes how to test engines in a laboratory-type environment or in the field.
(1) This affects test intervals and duty cycles as follows:
(i) For laboratory testing, you generally determine brake-specific emissions for duty-cycle testing by using an engine dynamometer in a laboratory or other environment. This typically consists of one or more test intervals, each defined by a duty cycle, which is a sequence of modes, speeds, and/or torques (or powers) that an engine must follow. If the standard-setting part allows it, you may also simulate field testing with an engine dynamometer in a laboratory or other environment.
(ii) Field testing consists of normal in-use engine operation while an engine is installed in a vehicle, equipment, or vessel rather than following a specific engine duty cycle. The standard-setting part specifies how test intervals are defined for field testing.
(2) The type of testing may also affect what test equipment may be used. You may use “lab-grade” test equipment for any testing. The term “lab-grade” refers to equipment that fully conforms to the applicable specifications of this part. For some testing you may alternatively use “field-grade” equipment. The term “field-grade” refers to equipment that fully conforms to the applicable specifications of subpart J of this part, but does not fully conform to other specifications of this part. You may use “field-grade” equipment for field testing. We also specify in this part and in the standard-setting parts certain cases in which you may use “field-grade” equipment for testing in a laboratory-type environment. (Note: Although “field-grade” equipment is generally more portable than “lab-grade” test equipment, portability is not relevant to whether equipment is considered to be “field-grade” or “lab-grade”.)[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37290, June 30, 2008; 75 FR 23028, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57437, Sept. 15, 2011; 79 FR 23753, Apr. 28, 2014; 81 FR 74162, Oct. 25, 2016]