1065.130 Engine exhaust.§ 1065.130 Engine exhaust.
(a) General. Use the exhaust system installed with the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes any applicable aftertreatment devices. We refer to exhaust piping as an exhaust stack; this is equivalent to a tailpipe for vehicle configurations.
(b) Aftertreatment configuration. If you do not use the exhaust system installed with the engine, configure any aftertreatment devices as follows:
(1) Position any aftertreatment device so its distance from the nearest exhaust manifold flange or turbocharger outlet is within the range specified by the engine manufacturer in the application for certification. If this distance is not specified, position aftertreatment devices to represent typical in-use vehicle configurations.
(2) You may use exhaust tubing that is not from the in-use exhaust system upstream of any aftertreatment device that is of diameter(s) typical of in-use configurations. If you use exhaust tubing that is not from the in-use exhaust system upstream of any aftertreatment device, position each aftertreatment device according to paragraph (b)(1) of this section.
(c) Sampling system connections. Connect an engine's exhaust system to any raw sampling location or dilution stage, as follows:
(1) Minimize laboratory exhaust tubing lengths and use a total length of laboratory tubing of no more than 10 m or 50 outside diameters, whichever is greater. The start of laboratory exhaust tubing should be specified as the exit of the exhaust manifold, turbocharger outlet, last aftertreatment device, or the in-use exhaust system, whichever is furthest downstream. The end of laboratory exhaust tubing should be specified as the sample point, or first point of dilution. If laboratory exhaust tubing consists of several different outside tubing diameters, count the number of diameters of length of each individual diameter, then sum all the diameters to determine the total length of exhaust tubing in diameters. Use the mean outside diameter of any converging or diverging sections of tubing. Use outside hydraulic diameters of any noncircular sections. For multiple stack configurations where all the exhaust stacks are combined, the start of the laboratory exhaust tubing may be taken at the last joint of where all the stacks are combined.
(2) You may install short sections of flexible laboratory exhaust tubing at any location in the engine or laboratory exhaust systems. You may use up to a combined total of 2 m or 10 outside diameters of flexible exhaust tubing.
(3) Insulate any laboratory exhaust tubing downstream of the first 25 outside diameters of length.
(4) Use laboratory exhaust tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with exhaust constituents. Stainless steel is an acceptable material.
(5) We recommend that you use laboratory exhaust tubing that has either a wall thickness of less than 2 mm or is air gap-insulated to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the exhaust.
(6) We recommend that you connect multiple exhaust stacks from a single engine into one stack upstream of any emission sampling. For raw or dilute partial-flow emission sampling, to ensure mixing of the multiple exhaust streams before emission sampling, we recommend a minimum Reynolds number, Re #, of 4000 for the combined exhaust stream, where Re # is based on the inside diameter of the combined flow at the first sampling point. You may configure the exhaust system with turbulence generators, such as orifice plates or fins, to achieve good mixing; inclusion of turbulence generators may be required for Re # less than 4000 to ensure good mixing. Re # is defined in § 1065.640. For dilute full-flow (CVS) emission sampling, you may configure the exhaust system without regard to mixing in the laboratory section of the raw exhaust. For example you may size the laboratory section to reduce its pressure drop even if the Re #, in the laboratory section of the raw exhaust is less than 4000.
(d) In-line instruments. You may insert instruments into the laboratory exhaust tubing, such as an in-line smoke meter. If you do this, you may leave a length of up to 5 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated on each side of each instrument, but you must leave a length of no more than 25 outside diameters of laboratory exhaust tubing uninsulated in total, including any lengths adjacent to in-line instruments.
(e) Leaks. Minimize leaks sufficiently to ensure your ability to demonstrate compliance with the applicable standards. We recommend performing a chemical balance of fuel, intake air, and exhaust according to § 1065.655 to verify exhaust system integrity.
(f) Grounding. Electrically ground the entire exhaust system.
(g) Forced cooldown. You may install a forced cooldown system for an exhaust aftertreatment device according to § 1065.530(a)(1)(i).
(h) Exhaust restriction. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction(s) you specify for a particular engine. Measure and set exhaust restriction(s) at the location(s) and at the engine speed and torque values specified by the manufacturer. Also, for variable-restriction aftertreatment devices, measure and set exhaust restriction(s) at the aftertreatment condition (degreening/aging and regeneration/loading level) specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not specify a location, measure this pressure downstream of any turbocharger. If the manufacturer does not specify speed and torque points, measure pressure while the engine produces maximum power. Use an exhaust-restriction setpoint that represents a typical in-use value, if available. If a typical in-use value for exhaust restriction is not available, set the exhaust restriction at (80 to 100)% of the maximum exhaust restriction specified by the manufacturer, or if the maximum is 5 kPa or less, the set point must be no less than 1.0 kPa from the maximum. For example, if the maximum back pressure is 4.5 kPa, do not use an exhaust restriction set point that is less than 3.5 kPa.
(i) Open crankcase emissions. If the standard-setting part requires measuring open crankcase emissions, you may either measure open crankcase emissions separately using a method that we approve in advance, or route open crankcase emissions directly into the exhaust system for emission measurement. If the engine is not already configured to route open crankcase emissions for emission measurement, route open crankcase emissions as follows:
(1) Use laboratory tubing materials that are smooth-walled, electrically conductive, and not reactive with crankcase emissions. Stainless steel is an acceptable material. Minimize tube lengths. We also recommend using heated or thin-walled or air gap-insulated tubing to minimize temperature differences between the wall and the crankcase emission constituents.
(2) Minimize the number of bends in the laboratory crankcase tubing and maximize the radius of any unavoidable bend.
(3) Use laboratory crankcase exhaust tubing that meets the engine manufacturer's specifications for crankcase back pressure.
(4) Connect the crankcase exhaust tubing into the raw exhaust downstream of any aftertreatment system, downstream of any installed exhaust restriction, and sufficiently upstream of any sample probes to ensure complete mixing with the engine's exhaust before sampling. Extend the crankcase exhaust tube into the free stream of exhaust to avoid boundary-layer effects and to promote mixing. You may orient the crankcase exhaust tube's outlet in any direction relative to the raw exhaust flow.[73 FR 37293, June 30, 2008, as amended at 79 FR 23754, Apr. 28, 2014]