1065.125 Engine intake air.§ 1065.125 Engine intake air.
(a) Use the intake-air system installed on the engine or one that represents a typical in-use configuration. This includes the charge-air cooling and exhaust gas recirculation systems.
(b) Measure temperature, humidity, and atmospheric pressure near the entrance of the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component. This would generally be near the engine's air filter, or near the inlet to the in-use air intake system for engines that have no air filter. For engines with multiple intakes, make measurements near the entrance of each intake.
(1) Pressure. You may use a single shared atmospheric pressure meter as long as your laboratory equipment for handling intake air maintains ambient pressure at all intakes within ±1 kPa of the shared atmospheric pressure. For engines with multiple intakes with separate atmospheric pressure measurements at each intake, use an average value for verifying compliance to § 1065.520(b)(2).
(2) Humidity. You may use a single shared humidity measurement for intake air as long as your equipment for handling intake air maintains dewpoint at all intakes to within ±0.5 °C of the shared humidity measurement. For engines with multiple intakes with separate humidity measurements at each intake, use a flow-weighted average humidity for NOX corrections. If individual flows of each intake are not measured, use good engineering judgment to estimate a flow-weighted average humidity.
(3) Temperature. Good engineering judgment may require that you shield the temperature sensors or move them upstream of an elbow in the laboratory intake system to prevent measurement errors due to radiant heating from hot engine surfaces or in-use intake system components. You must limit the distance between the temperature sensor and the entrance to the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component to no more than 12 times the outer hydraulic diameter of the entrance to the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component. However, you may exceed this limit if you use good engineering judgment to show that the temperature at the furthest upstream engine or in-use intake system component meets the specification in paragraph (c) of this section. For engines with multiple intakes, use a flow-weighted average value to verify compliance with the specification in paragraph (c) of this section. If individual flows of each intake are not measured, you may use good engineering judgment to estimate a flow-weighted average temperature. You may also verify that each individual intake complies with the specification in paragraph (c) of this section.
(c) Maintain the temperature of intake air to (25 ±5) °C, except as follows:
(1) Follow the standard-setting part if it specifies different temperatures.
(2) For engines above 560 kW, you may use 35 °C as the upper bound of the tolerance. However, your system must be capable of controlling the temperature to the 25 °C setpoint for any steady-state operation at >30% of maximum engine power.
(3) You may ask us to allow you to apply a different setpoint for intake air temperature if it is necessary to remain consistent with the provisions of § 1065.10(c)(1) for testing during which ambient temperature will be outside this range.
(d) Use an intake-air restriction that represents production engines. Make sure the intake-air restriction is between the manufacturer's specified maximum for a clean filter and the manufacturer's specified maximum allowed. Measure the static differential pressure of the restriction at the location and at the speed and torque set points specified by the manufacturer. If the manufacturer does not specify a location, measure this pressure upstream of any turbocharger or exhaust gas recirculation system connection to the intake air system. If the manufacturer does not specify speed and torque points, measure this pressure while the engine outputs maximum power. As the manufacturer, you are liable for emission compliance for all values up to the maximum restriction you specify for a particular engine.
(e) This paragraph (e) includes provisions for simulating charge-air cooling in the laboratory. This approach is described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section. Limits on using this approach are described in paragraphs (e)(2) and (3) of this section.
(1) Use a charge-air cooling system with a total intake-air capacity that represents production engines' in-use installation. Design any laboratory charge-air cooling system to minimize accumulation of condensate. Drain any accumulated condensate. Before starting a duty cycle (or preconditioning for a duty cycle), completely close all drains that would normally be closed during in-use operation. Keep those drains closed during the emission test. Maintain coolant conditions as follows:
(i) Maintain a coolant temperature of at least 20 °C at the inlet to the charge-air cooler throughout testing. We recommend maintaining a coolant temperature of 25 ±5 °C at the inlet of the charge-air cooler.
(ii) At the engine conditions specified by the manufacturer, set the coolant flow rate to achieve an air temperature within ±5 °C of the value specified by the manufacturer after the charge-air cooler's outlet. Measure the air-outlet temperature at the location specified by the manufacturer. Use this coolant flow rate set point throughout testing. If the engine manufacturer does not specify engine conditions or the corresponding charge-air cooler air outlet temperature, set the coolant flow rate at maximum engine power to achieve a charge-air cooler air outlet temperature that represents in-use operation.
(iii) If the engine manufacturer specifies pressure-drop limits across the charge-air cooling system, ensure that the pressure drop across the charge-air cooling system at engine conditions specified by the manufacturer is within the manufacturer's specified limit(s). Measure the pressure drop at the manufacturer's specified locations.
(2) Using a constant flow rate as described in paragraph (e)(1) of this section may result in unrepresentative overcooling of the intake air. The provisions of this paragraph (e)(2) apply instead of the provisions of § 1065.10(c)(1) for this simulation. Our allowance to cool intake air as specified in this paragraph (e) does not affect your liability for field testing or for laboratory testing that is done in a way that better represents in-use operation. Where we determine that this allowance adversely affects your ability to demonstrate that your engines would comply with emission standards under in-use conditions, we may require you to use more sophisticated setpoints and controls of charge-air pressure drop, coolant temperature, and flow rate to achieve more representative results.
(3) This approach does not apply for field testing. You may not correct measured emission levels from field testing to account for any differences caused by the simulated cooling in the laboratory.[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37293, June 30, 2008; 73 FR 59321, Oct. 8, 2008; 75 FR 23029, Apr. 30, 2010; 76 FR 57440, Sept. 15, 2011]