Title 40

SECTION 1054.801

1054.801 What definitions apply to this part

§ 1054.801 What definitions apply to this part?

The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:

Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.

Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, thermal reactor, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment.

Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume.

Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.

Applicable emission standard or applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine (or equipment) is subject. Additionally, if an engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified to another standard or FEL, applicable emission standard means the FEL or other standard to which the engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified. This definition does not apply to subpart H of this part.

Auxiliary emission control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.

Brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices.

Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.

Carryover means relating to certification based on emission data generated from an earlier model year as described in § 1054.235(d).

Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an emission family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in this part.

Certified emission level means the highest deteriorated emission level in an emission family for a given pollutant from either transient or steady-state testing.

Class I means relating to nonhandheld engines with total displacement below 225 cc. See § 1054.101 for special provisions that apply for engines with total displacement at or below 80 cc.

Class II means relating to nonhandheld engines with total displacement at or above 225 cc.

Class III means relating to handheld engines with total displacement below 20 cc.

Class IV means relating to handheld engines with total displacement at or above 20 cc but below 50 cc.

Class V means relating to handheld engines with total displacement at or above 50 cc.

Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

Cold-weather equipment is limited to the following types of handheld equipment: chainsaws, cut-off saws, clearing saws, brush cutters with engines at or above 40cc, commercial earth and wood drills, and ice augers. This includes earth augers if they are also marketed as ice augers.

Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any part of the engine crankcase's ventilation or lubrication systems. The crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft and other related internal parts.

Critical emission-related component means any of the following components:

(1) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase-ventilation valves, all components related to charge-air compression and cooling, air filters, spark plugs, and all sensors and actuators associated with any of these components.

(2) Any other component whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions.

Date of manufacture has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Days means calendar days unless otherwise specified. For example, when we specify working days we mean calendar days, excluding weekends and U.S. national holidays.

Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6405-J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,Washington, DC 20460.

Deteriorated emission level means the emission level that results from applying the appropriate deterioration factor to the official emission result of the emission-data engine.

Deterioration factor means the relationship between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point (see §§ 1054.240 and 1054.245), expressed in one of the following ways:

(1) For multiplicative deterioration factors, the ratio of emissions at the end of useful life to emissions at the low-hour test point.

(2) For additive deterioration factors, the difference between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point.

Discrete-mode means relating to the discrete-mode type of steady-state test described in § 1054.505.

Displacement has the meaning given in § 1054.140.

Dry weight means the weight of the equipment as sold without fuel, oil, or engine coolant.

Dual-fuel engine means an engine designed for operation on two different fuels but not on a continuous mixture of those fuels.

Emission control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.

Emission-data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.

Emission-data equipment means an engine, piece of equipment, or fuel system component that is tested for certification. This includes units tested to establish deterioration factors.

Emission family has the meaning given in § 1054.230. We may refer to emission families as “engine families” where provisions relate only to exhaust emissions from engines.

Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.

Engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. This includes complete and partially complete engines.

Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an emission family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability.

Engine manufacturer means the manufacturer of the engine. See the definition of “manufacturer” in this section.

Equipment means any mechanical device commonly known as equipment, including vehicles. If the equipment has an installed engine, the term equipment includes the installed engine and fuel system components.

Equipment manufacturer means a manufacturer of nonroad equipment. All nonroad equipment manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single nonroad equipment manufacturer. (Note: In § 1054.626, the term “equipment manufacturer” has a narrower meaning that applies only to that section.).

Evaporative means relating to fuel emissions controlled by 40 CFR part 1060. This generally includes emissions that result from permeation of fuel through the fuel-system materials or from ventilation of the fuel system.

Excluded means relating to an engine that either:

(1) Has been determined not to be a nonroad engine, as specified in 40 CFR 1068.30; or

(2) Is a nonroad engine that, according to § 1054.5, is not subject to this part 1054.

Exempted has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.

Family emission limit (FEL) means an emission level declared by the manufacturer to serve in place of an otherwise applicable emission standard under the ABT program in subpart H of this part. The family emission limit must be expressed to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard it replaces. The family emission limit serves as the emission standard for the engine family (exhaust) or emission family (evaporative) with respect to all required testing.

Flexible-fuel engine means an engine designed for operation on any mixture of two or more different fuels.

Fuel line means hose or tubing designed to contain liquid fuel (including molded hose or tubing). This does not include any of the following:

(1) Fuel tank vent lines.

(2) Segments of hose or tubing whose external surface is normally exposed to liquid fuel inside the fuel tank.

(3) Hose or tubing designed to return unused fuel from the carburetor to the fuel tank for handheld engines.

(4) Primer bulbs that contain liquid fuel only for priming the engine before starting.

Fuel system means all components involved in transporting, metering, and mixing the fuel from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber(s), including the fuel tank, fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and all fuel-system vents.

Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as low-temperature or all-season gasoline.

Good engineering judgment has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. See 40 CFR 1068.5 for the administrative process we use to evaluate good engineering judgment.

Handheld means relating to equipment that meets any of the following criteria:

(1) It is carried by the operator throughout the performance of its intended function.

(2) It is designed to operate multi-positionally, such as upside down or sideways, to complete its intended function.

(3) It has a combined engine and equipment dry weight under 16.0 kilograms, has no more than two wheels, and at least one of the following attributes is also present:

(i) The operator provides support or carries the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function. Carry means to completely bear the weight of the equipment, including the engine. Support means to hold a piece of equipment in position to prevent it from falling, slipping, or sinking, without carrying it.

(ii) The operator provides support or attitudinal control for the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function. Attitudinal control involves regulating the horizontal or vertical position of the equipment.

(4) It is an auger with a combined engine and equipment dry weight under 22.0 kilograms.

(5) It is used in a recreational application with a combined total vehicle dry weight under 20.0 kilograms. Note that snowmobiles, offroad motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles are regulated under 40 CFR part 1051 and marine vessels are regulated under 40 CFR part 1045.

(6) It is a hand-supported jackhammer or rammer/compactor. This does not include equipment that can remain upright without operator support, such as a plate compactor.

Hydrocarbon (HC) means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each fuel type, as described in subpart B of this part.

Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.

Integrated equipment manufacturer means an equipment manufacturer that also manufactures the engines for its equipment. Equipment manufacturers that manufacture the engines for some but not all of their equipment are considered to be integrated manufacturers for that equipment using the manufacturer's own engines.

Intermediate-speed equipment means nonhandheld equipment in which the installed engine is intended for operation at speeds substantially below 3600 rpm.

Low-hour means relating to an engine that is considered to have stabilized emissions and represents the undeteriorated emission level. A low-hour engine typically operates no more than a few hours beyond the minimum stabilization period. However, a low-hour engine could have more hours as long as emissions remain stable. In the absence of other information, a low-hour engine with a useful life of 300 hours or less would generally have operated no more than 15 hours and a low-hour engine with a longer useful life would generally have operated no more than 24 hours.

Manufacture means the physical and engineering process of designing, constructing, and assembling an engine or piece of equipment.

Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)). In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine, vehicle, vessel, or piece of equipment for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new nonroad engine or piece of equipment into U.S. commerce. This includes importers who import engines, equipment, or vehicles for resale, but not dealers. All manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single manufacturer.

Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:

(1) Propulsion marine engine means a marine engine that moves a vessel through the water or directs the vessel's movement.

(2) Auxiliary marine engine means a marine engine not used for propulsion. This includes a portable auxiliary marine engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel.

Marine generator engine means an auxiliary marine engine used primarily to operate an electrical generator or alternator to produce electric power.

Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.

Maximum engine power has the meaning given in § 1054.140.

Maximum test torque has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Model year has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1060 for equipment and means one of the following things for engines:

(1) For freshly manufactured engines (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (1)), model year means your annual new model production period. This must include January 1 of the calendar year for which the model year is named. It may not begin before January 2 of the previous calendar year and it must end by December 31 of the named calendar year. For seasonal production periods not including January 1, model year means the calendar year in which the production occurs, unless you choose to certify the applicable emission family with the following model year. For example, if your production period is June 1, 2010 through November 30, 2010, your model year would be 2010 unless you choose to certify the emission family for model year 2011.

(2) For an engine that is converted to a nonroad engine after being placed into service as a stationary engine, or being certified and placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced. For a motor vehicle engine that is converted to be a nonroad engine without having been certified, model year means the calendar year in which the engine becomes a new nonroad engine. (See definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (2).)

(3) For a nonroad engine excluded under § 1054.5 that is later converted to operate in an application that is not excluded, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (3)).

(4) For engines that are not freshly manufactured but are installed in new nonroad equipment, model year means the calendar year in which the engine is installed in the new nonroad equipment (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (4)).

(5) For imported engines:

(i) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(i) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year has the meaning given in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.

(ii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(ii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is assembled in its final certified configuration.

(iii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(iii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is assembled in its imported configuration, unless specified otherwise in this part or in 40 CFR part 1068.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703(a).

New nonroad engine means any of the following things:

(1) A freshly manufactured nonroad engine for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. This kind of engine might commonly be thought of as “brand new.” In the case of this paragraph (1), the engine is new from the time it is produced until the ultimate purchaser receives the title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) An engine originally manufactured as a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine that is later used or intended to be used in a piece of nonroad equipment. In this case, the engine is no longer a motor vehicle or stationary engine and becomes a “new nonroad engine.” The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service. This paragraph (2) applies if a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine is installed in nonroad equipment, or if a motor vehicle or a piece of stationary equipment is modified (or moved) to become nonroad equipment.

(3) A nonroad engine that has been previously placed into service in an application we exclude under § 1054.5, when that engine is installed in a piece of equipment that is covered by this part 1054. The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service covered by this part 1054. For example, this would apply to a marine-propulsion engine that is no longer used in a marine vessel but is instead installed in a piece of nonroad equipment subject to the provisions of this part.

(4) An engine not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition that is intended to be installed in new nonroad equipment. This generally includes installation of used engines in new equipment. The engine is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the equipment or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(5) An imported nonroad engine, subject to the following provisions:

(i) An imported nonroad engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part that meets the criteria of one or more of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, where the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate, is new as defined by those applicable paragraphs.

(ii) An imported engine that will be covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part, where someone other than the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate (such as when the engine is modified after its initial assembly), is a new nonroad engine when it is imported. It is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the engine or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(iii) An imported nonroad engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation is new. This addresses uncertified engines and equipment initially placed into service that someone seeks to import into the United States. Importation of this kind of engine (or equipment containing such an engine) is generally prohibited by 40 CFR part 1068. However, the importation of such an engine is not prohibited if the engine has a model year before 1997, since it is not subject to standards.

New nonroad equipment means either of the following things:

(1) A nonroad piece of equipment for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. The product is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives this title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) A nonroad piece of equipment with an engine that becomes new while installed in the equipment. For example a complete piece of equipment that was imported without being covered by a certificate of conformity would be new nonroad equipment because the engine would be considered to be new at the time of importation.

Noncompliant engine or noncompliant equipment means an engine or equipment that was originally covered by a certificate of conformity but is not in the certified configuration or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of the certificate.

Nonconforming engine or nonconforming equipment means an engine or equipment not covered by a certificate of conformity that would otherwise be subject to emission standards.

Nonhandheld means relating to an engine (or equipment) subject to the standards of this part that is not a handheld engine (or equipment).

Nonintegrated equipment manufacturer means an equipment manufacturer that is not an integrated equipment manufacturer. Equipment manufacturers that manufacture the engines for some but not all of their equipment are considered to be nonintegrated manufacturers for that equipment using a different engine manufacturer's engines.

Nonmethane hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the difference between the emitted mass of total hydrocarbons and the emitted mass of methane.

Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines or equipment that includes nonroad engines.

Nonroad engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.

Official emission result means the measured emission rate for an emission-data engine on a given duty cycle before the application of any deterioration factor.

Overhead valve means relating to a four-stroke spark-ignition engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located above the combustion chamber within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as “valve-in-head” engines.

Owners manual means a document or collection of documents prepared by the engine manufacturer for the owner or operator to describe appropriate engine maintenance, applicable warranties, and any other information related to operating or keeping the engine. The owners manual is typically provided to the ultimate purchaser at the time of sale. The owners manual may be in paper or electronic format.

Oxides of nitrogen has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Percent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Permeation emissions means fuel that escapes from the fuel system by diffusing through the walls of fuel-system components.

Phase 1 means relating to the Phase 1 emission standards described in 40 CFR 90.103.

Phase 2 means relating to the Phase 2 emission standards described in 40 CFR 90.103.

Phase 3 means relating to the Phase 3 exhaust emission standards described in § 1054.105.

Placed into service means put into initial use for its intended purpose.

Pressurized oil system means a system designed to deliver lubricating oil to internal engine components, including a step to circulate oil through a filter.

Ramped-modal means relating to the ramped-modal type of steady-state test described in § 1054.505.

Rated-speed equipment means nonhandheld equipment in which the installed engine is intended for operation at a rated speed that is nominally 3600 rpm or higher.

Recreational application means an application in which a vehicle is ridden primarily for pleasure. Note that engines used in reduced-scale model vehicles that cannot be ridden (such as model airplanes) are excluded from this part under § 1054.5.

Relating to as used in this section means relating to something in a specific, direct manner. This expression is used in this section only to define terms as adjectives and not to broaden the meaning of the terms.

Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to terminate the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.

Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Running loss emissions has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.

Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.

Side valve means relating to a four-stroke spark-ignition engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located to the side of the cylinder, not within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as “L-head” engines.

Small-volume emission family means one of the following:

(1) For requirements related to exhaust emissions for nonhandheld engines and to exhaust and evaporative emissions for handheld engines, small-volume emission family means any emission family whose U.S.-directed production volume in a given model year is projected at the time of certification to be no more than 5,000 engines.

(2) For requirements related to evaporative emissions for nonhandheld equipment, small-volume emission family means any equipment manufacturer's U.S.-directed production volume for identical fuel tank is projected at the time of certification to be no more than 5,000 units. Tanks are generally considered identical if they are produced under a single part number to conform to a single design or blueprint. Tanks should be considered identical if they differ only with respect to production variability, post-production changes (such as different fittings or grommets), supplier, color, or other extraneous design variables.

Small-volume engine manufacturer means one of the following:

(1) For handheld engines, an engine manufacturer that had U.S.-directed production volume of handheld engines of no more than 25,000 handheld engines in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(2) For nonhandheld engines, an engine manufacturer that had U.S.-directed production volume of no more than 10,000 nonhandheld engines in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(3) An engine manufacturer that we designate to be a small-volume engine manufacturer under § 1054.635.

Small-volume equipment manufacturer means one of the following:

(1) For handheld equipment, an equipment manufacturer that had a U.S.-directed production volume of no more than 25,000 pieces of handheld equipment in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(2) For nonhandheld equipment, an equipment manufacturer with annual U.S.-directed production volumes of no more than 5,000 pieces of nonhandheld equipment in 2007, 2008, and 2009. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(3) An equipment manufacturer that we designate to be a small-volume equipment manufacturer under § 1054.635.

Snowthrower engine means an engine used exclusively to power snowthrowers.

Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.

Steady-state means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at a finite set of essentially constant values. Steady-state tests are either discrete-mode tests or ramped-modal tests.

Structurally integrated nylon fuel tank has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.

Subchapter U means the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations including 40 CFR parts 1000 through 1299.

Suspend has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to temporarily discontinue the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.

Test engine means an engine in a test sample.

Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an emission family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production-line testing, or in-use testing.

Tethered gas cap means a gas cap that is loosely but permanently connected to the fuel tank.

Thermal reactor means a hot surface in the engine exhaust system that has the effect of significantly lowering emissions of one or more regulated pollutants. Hot surfaces that have an inconsequential effect on emissions are not thermal reactors.

Total hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as an atomic hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of 1.85:1.

Total hydrocarbon equivalent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.

Ultimate purchaser means, with respect to any new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine for purposes other than resale.

United States has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Upcoming model year for an emission family means the model year after the one currently in production.

U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine or equipment units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.

Useful life means the period during which the engine and equipment are designed to properly function in terms of power output and intended function, without being remanufactured, specified as a number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which a nonroad engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. See, for example, §§ 1054.107, 1054.110, and 1054.112. If an engine has no hour meter, the specified number of hours does not limit the period during which an in-use engine is required to comply with emission standards unless the degree of service accumulation can be verified separately.

Variable-speed engine means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine.

Vessel means marine vessel.

Void has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption both retroactively and prospectively.

Volatile liquid fuel means any fuel other than diesel or biodiesel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid Vapor Pressure higher than 2.0 pounds per square inch.

We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.

Wide-open throttle means maximum throttle opening.

Wintertime engine means an engine used exclusively to power equipment that is used only in wintertime, such as snowthrowers and ice augers.

[73 FR 59259, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23026, Apr. 30, 2010]

1054.801 What definitions apply to this part

§ 1054.801 What definitions apply to this part?

The following definitions apply to this part. The definitions apply to all subparts unless we note otherwise. All undefined terms have the meaning the Clean Air Act gives to them. The definitions follow:

Adjustable parameter means any device, system, or element of design that someone can adjust (including those which are difficult to access) and that, if adjusted, may affect emissions or engine performance during emission testing or normal in-use operation. This includes, but is not limited to, parameters related to injection timing and fueling rate. You may ask us to exclude a parameter that is difficult to access if it cannot be adjusted to affect emissions without significantly degrading engine performance, or if you otherwise show us that it will not be adjusted in a way that affects emissions during in-use operation.

Aftertreatment means relating to a catalytic converter, particulate filter, thermal reactor, or any other system, component, or technology mounted downstream of the exhaust valve (or exhaust port) whose design function is to decrease emissions in the engine exhaust before it is exhausted to the environment. Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR), turbochargers, and oxygen sensors are not aftertreatment.

Alcohol-fueled engine means an engine that is designed to run using an alcohol fuel. For purposes of this definition, alcohol fuels do not include fuels with a nominal alcohol content below 25 percent by volume.

Amphibious vehicle means a vehicle with wheels or tracks that is designed primarily for operation on land and secondarily for operation in water.

Applicable emission standard or applicable standard means an emission standard to which an engine (or equipment) is subject. Additionally, if an engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified to another standard or FEL, applicable emission standard means the FEL or other standard to which the engine (or equipment) has been or is being certified. This definition does not apply to subpart H of this part.

Auxiliary emission control device means any element of design that senses temperature, motive speed, engine RPM, transmission gear, or any other parameter for the purpose of activating, modulating, delaying, or deactivating the operation of any part of the emission control system.

Brake power means the usable power output of the engine, not including power required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices.

Calibration means the set of specifications and tolerances specific to a particular design, version, or application of a component or assembly capable of functionally describing its operation over its working range.

Carryover means relating to certification based on emission data generated from an earlier model year as described in § 1054.235(d).

Certification means relating to the process of obtaining a certificate of conformity for an emission family that complies with the emission standards and requirements in this part.

Certified emission level means the highest deteriorated emission level in an emission family for a given pollutant from either transient or steady-state testing.

Class I means relating to nonhandheld engines with total displacement below 225 cc. See § 1054.101 for special provisions that apply for engines with total displacement at or below 80 cc.

Class II means relating to nonhandheld engines with total displacement at or above 225 cc.

Class III means relating to handheld engines with total displacement below 20 cc.

Class IV means relating to handheld engines with total displacement at or above 20 cc but below 50 cc.

Class V means relating to handheld engines with total displacement at or above 50 cc.

Clean Air Act means the Clean Air Act, as amended, 42 U.S.C. 7401-7671q.

Cold-weather equipment is limited to the following types of handheld equipment: chainsaws, cut-off saws, clearing saws, brush cutters with engines at or above 40cc, commercial earth and wood drills, and ice augers. This includes earth augers if they are also marketed as ice augers.

Crankcase emissions means airborne substances emitted to the atmosphere from any part of the engine crankcase's ventilation or lubrication systems. The crankcase is the housing for the crankshaft and other related internal parts.

Critical emission-related component means any of the following components:

(1) Electronic control units, aftertreatment devices, fuel-metering components, EGR-system components, crankcase-ventilation valves, all components related to charge-air compression and cooling, air filters, spark plugs, and all sensors and actuators associated with any of these components.

(2) Any other component whose primary purpose is to reduce emissions.

Date of manufacture has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Days means calendar days unless otherwise specified. For example, when we specify working days we mean calendar days, excluding weekends and U.S. national holidays.

Designated Compliance Officer means the Manager, Heavy-Duty and Nonroad Engine Group (6405-J), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW., Washington, DC 20460.

Designated Enforcement Officer means the Director, Air Enforcement Division (2242A), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave., NW.,Washington, DC 20460.

Deteriorated emission level means the emission level that results from applying the appropriate deterioration factor to the official emission result of the emission-data engine.

Deterioration factor means the relationship between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point (see §§ 1054.240 and 1054.245), expressed in one of the following ways:

(1) For multiplicative deterioration factors, the ratio of emissions at the end of useful life to emissions at the low-hour test point.

(2) For additive deterioration factors, the difference between emissions at the end of useful life and emissions at the low-hour test point.

Discrete-mode means relating to the discrete-mode type of steady-state test described in § 1054.505.

Displacement has the meaning given in § 1054.140.

Dry weight means the weight of the equipment as sold without fuel, oil, or engine coolant.

Dual-fuel engine means an engine designed for operation on two different fuels but not on a continuous mixture of those fuels.

Emission control system means any device, system, or element of design that controls or reduces the emissions of regulated pollutants from an engine.

Emission-data engine means an engine that is tested for certification. This includes engines tested to establish deterioration factors.

Emission-data equipment means an engine, piece of equipment, or fuel system component that is tested for certification. This includes units tested to establish deterioration factors.

Emission family has the meaning given in § 1054.230. We may refer to emission families as “engine families” where provisions relate only to exhaust emissions from engines.

Emission-related maintenance means maintenance that substantially affects emissions or is likely to substantially affect emission deterioration.

Engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. This includes complete and partially complete engines.

Engine configuration means a unique combination of engine hardware and calibration within an emission family. Engines within a single engine configuration differ only with respect to normal production variability.

Engine manufacturer means the manufacturer of the engine. See the definition of “manufacturer” in this section.

Equipment means any mechanical device commonly known as equipment, including vehicles. If the equipment has an installed engine, the term equipment includes the installed engine and fuel system components.

Equipment manufacturer means a manufacturer of nonroad equipment. All nonroad equipment manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single nonroad equipment manufacturer. (Note: In § 1054.626, the term “equipment manufacturer” has a narrower meaning that applies only to that section.).

Evaporative means relating to fuel emissions controlled by 40 CFR part 1060. This generally includes emissions that result from permeation of fuel through the fuel-system materials or from ventilation of the fuel system.

Excluded means relating to an engine that either:

(1) Has been determined not to be a nonroad engine, as specified in 40 CFR 1068.30; or

(2) Is a nonroad engine that, according to § 1054.5, is not subject to this part 1054.

Exempted has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Exhaust-gas recirculation (EGR) means a technology that reduces emissions by routing exhaust gases that had been exhausted from the combustion chamber(s) back into the engine to be mixed with incoming air before or during combustion. The use of valve timing to increase the amount of residual exhaust gas in the combustion chamber(s) that is mixed with incoming air before or during combustion is not considered exhaust-gas recirculation for the purposes of this part.

Family emission limit (FEL) means an emission level declared by the manufacturer to serve in place of an otherwise applicable emission standard under the ABT program in subpart H of this part. The family emission limit must be expressed to the same number of decimal places as the emission standard it replaces. The family emission limit serves as the emission standard for the engine family (exhaust) or emission family (evaporative) with respect to all required testing.

Flexible-fuel engine means an engine designed for operation on any mixture of two or more different fuels.

Fuel line means hose or tubing designed to contain liquid fuel (including molded hose or tubing). This does not include any of the following:

(1) Fuel tank vent lines.

(2) Segments of hose or tubing whose external surface is normally exposed to liquid fuel inside the fuel tank.

(3) Hose or tubing designed to return unused fuel from the carburetor to the fuel tank for handheld engines.

(4) Primer bulbs that contain liquid fuel only for priming the engine before starting.

Fuel system means all components involved in transporting, metering, and mixing the fuel from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber(s), including the fuel tank, fuel tank cap, fuel pump, fuel filters, fuel lines, carburetor or fuel-injection components, and all fuel-system vents.

Fuel type means a general category of fuels such as gasoline or natural gas. There can be multiple grades within a single fuel type, such as low-temperature or all-season gasoline.

Good engineering judgment has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. See 40 CFR 1068.5 for the administrative process we use to evaluate good engineering judgment.

Handheld means relating to equipment that meets any of the following criteria:

(1) It is carried by the operator throughout the performance of its intended function.

(2) It is designed to operate multi-positionally, such as upside down or sideways, to complete its intended function.

(3) It has a combined engine and equipment dry weight under 16.0 kilograms, has no more than two wheels, and at least one of the following attributes is also present:

(i) The operator provides support or carries the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function. Carry means to completely bear the weight of the equipment, including the engine. Support means to hold a piece of equipment in position to prevent it from falling, slipping, or sinking, without carrying it.

(ii) The operator provides support or attitudinal control for the equipment throughout the performance of its intended function. Attitudinal control involves regulating the horizontal or vertical position of the equipment.

(4) It is an auger with a combined engine and equipment dry weight under 22.0 kilograms.

(5) It is used in a recreational application with a combined total vehicle dry weight under 20.0 kilograms. Note that snowmobiles, offroad motorcycles, and all-terrain vehicles are regulated under 40 CFR part 1051 and marine vessels are regulated under 40 CFR part 1045.

(6) It is a hand-supported jackhammer or rammer/compactor. This does not include equipment that can remain upright without operator support, such as a plate compactor.

Hydrocarbon (HC) means the hydrocarbon group on which the emission standards are based for each fuel type, as described in subpart B of this part.

Identification number means a unique specification (for example, a model number/serial number combination) that allows someone to distinguish a particular engine from other similar engines.

Integrated equipment manufacturer means an equipment manufacturer that also manufactures the engines for its equipment. Equipment manufacturers that manufacture the engines for some but not all of their equipment are considered to be integrated manufacturers for that equipment using the manufacturer's own engines.

Intermediate-speed equipment means nonhandheld equipment in which the installed engine is intended for operation at speeds substantially below 3600 rpm.

Low-hour means relating to an engine that is considered to have stabilized emissions and represents the undeteriorated emission level. A low-hour engine typically operates no more than a few hours beyond the minimum stabilization period. However, a low-hour engine could have more hours as long as emissions remain stable. In the absence of other information, a low-hour engine with a useful life of 300 hours or less would generally have operated no more than 15 hours and a low-hour engine with a longer useful life would generally have operated no more than 24 hours.

Manufacture means the physical and engineering process of designing, constructing, and assembling an engine or piece of equipment.

Manufacturer has the meaning given in section 216(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(1)). In general, this term includes any person who manufactures an engine, vehicle, vessel, or piece of equipment for sale in the United States or otherwise introduces a new nonroad engine or piece of equipment into U.S. commerce. This includes importers who import engines, equipment, or vehicles for resale, but not dealers. All manufacturing entities under the control of the same person are considered to be a single manufacturer.

Marine engine means a nonroad engine that is installed or intended to be installed on a vessel. There are two kinds of marine engines:

(1) Propulsion marine engine means a marine engine that moves a vessel through the water or directs the vessel's movement.

(2) Auxiliary marine engine means a marine engine not used for propulsion. This includes a portable auxiliary marine engine only if its fueling, cooling, or exhaust system is an integral part of the vessel.

Marine generator engine means an auxiliary marine engine used primarily to operate an electrical generator or alternator to produce electric power.

Marine vessel has the meaning given in 1 U.S.C. 3, except that it does not include amphibious vehicles. The definition in 1 U.S.C. 3 very broadly includes every craft capable of being used as a means of transportation on water.

Maximum engine power has the meaning given in § 1054.140.

Maximum test torque has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Model year has the meaning given in 40 CFR part 1060 for equipment and means one of the following things for engines:

(1) For freshly manufactured engines (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (1)), model year means your annual new model production period. This must include January 1 of the calendar year for which the model year is named. It may not begin before January 2 of the previous calendar year and it must end by December 31 of the named calendar year. For seasonal production periods not including January 1, model year means the calendar year in which the production occurs, unless you choose to certify the applicable emission family with the following model year. For example, if your production period is June 1, 2010 through November 30, 2010, your model year would be 2010 unless you choose to certify the emission family for model year 2011.

(2) For an engine that is converted to a nonroad engine after being placed into service as a stationary engine, or being certified and placed into service as a motor vehicle engine, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced. For a motor vehicle engine that is converted to be a nonroad engine without having been certified, model year means the calendar year in which the engine becomes a new nonroad engine. (See definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (2).)

(3) For a nonroad engine excluded under § 1054.5 that is later converted to operate in an application that is not excluded, model year means the calendar year in which the engine was originally produced (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (3)).

(4) For engines that are not freshly manufactured but are installed in new nonroad equipment, model year means the calendar year in which the engine is installed in the new nonroad equipment (see definition of “new nonroad engine,” paragraph (4)).

(5) For imported engines:

(i) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(i) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year has the meaning given in paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition.

(ii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(ii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is assembled in its final certified configuration.

(iii) For imported engines described in paragraph (5)(iii) of the definition of “new nonroad engine,” model year means the calendar year in which the engine is assembled in its imported configuration, unless specified otherwise in this part or in 40 CFR part 1068.

Motor vehicle has the meaning given in 40 CFR 85.1703(a).

New nonroad engine means any of the following things:

(1) A freshly manufactured nonroad engine for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. This kind of engine might commonly be thought of as “brand new.” In the case of this paragraph (1), the engine is new from the time it is produced until the ultimate purchaser receives the title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) An engine originally manufactured as a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine that is later used or intended to be used in a piece of nonroad equipment. In this case, the engine is no longer a motor vehicle or stationary engine and becomes a “new nonroad engine.” The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service. This paragraph (2) applies if a motor vehicle engine or a stationary engine is installed in nonroad equipment, or if a motor vehicle or a piece of stationary equipment is modified (or moved) to become nonroad equipment.

(3) A nonroad engine that has been previously placed into service in an application we exclude under § 1054.5, when that engine is installed in a piece of equipment that is covered by this part 1054. The engine is no longer new when it is placed into nonroad service covered by this part 1054. For example, this would apply to a marine-propulsion engine that is no longer used in a marine vessel but is instead installed in a piece of nonroad equipment subject to the provisions of this part.

(4) An engine not covered by paragraphs (1) through (3) of this definition that is intended to be installed in new nonroad equipment. This generally includes installation of used engines in new equipment. The engine is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the equipment or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(5) An imported nonroad engine, subject to the following provisions:

(i) An imported nonroad engine covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part that meets the criteria of one or more of paragraphs (1) through (4) of this definition, where the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate, is new as defined by those applicable paragraphs.

(ii) An imported engine that will be covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part, where someone other than the original engine manufacturer holds the certificate (such as when the engine is modified after its initial assembly), is a new nonroad engine when it is imported. It is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives a title for the engine or it is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(iii) An imported nonroad engine that is not covered by a certificate of conformity issued under this part at the time of importation is new. This addresses uncertified engines and equipment initially placed into service that someone seeks to import into the United States. Importation of this kind of engine (or equipment containing such an engine) is generally prohibited by 40 CFR part 1068. However, the importation of such an engine is not prohibited if the engine has a model year before 1997, since it is not subject to standards.

New nonroad equipment means either of the following things:

(1) A nonroad piece of equipment for which the ultimate purchaser has never received the equitable or legal title. The product is no longer new when the ultimate purchaser receives this title or the product is placed into service, whichever comes first.

(2) A nonroad piece of equipment with an engine that becomes new while installed in the equipment. For example a complete piece of equipment that was imported without being covered by a certificate of conformity would be new nonroad equipment because the engine would be considered to be new at the time of importation.

Noncompliant engine or noncompliant equipment means an engine or equipment that was originally covered by a certificate of conformity but is not in the certified configuration or otherwise does not comply with the conditions of the certificate.

Nonconforming engine or nonconforming equipment means an engine or equipment not covered by a certificate of conformity that would otherwise be subject to emission standards.

Nonhandheld means relating to an engine (or equipment) subject to the standards of this part that is not a handheld engine (or equipment).

Nonintegrated equipment manufacturer means an equipment manufacturer that is not an integrated equipment manufacturer. Equipment manufacturers that manufacture the engines for some but not all of their equipment are considered to be nonintegrated manufacturers for that equipment using a different engine manufacturer's engines.

Nonmethane hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the difference between the emitted mass of total hydrocarbons and the emitted mass of methane.

Nonroad means relating to nonroad engines or equipment that includes nonroad engines.

Nonroad engine has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means all internal-combustion engines except motor vehicle engines, stationary engines, engines used solely for competition, or engines used in aircraft.

Official emission result means the measured emission rate for an emission-data engine on a given duty cycle before the application of any deterioration factor.

Overhead valve means relating to a four-stroke spark-ignition engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located above the combustion chamber within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as “valve-in-head” engines.

Owners manual means a document or collection of documents prepared by the engine manufacturer for the owner or operator to describe appropriate engine maintenance, applicable warranties, and any other information related to operating or keeping the engine. The owners manual is typically provided to the ultimate purchaser at the time of sale. The owners manual may be in paper or electronic format.

Oxides of nitrogen has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Percent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Permeation emissions means fuel that escapes from the fuel system by diffusing through the walls of fuel-system components.

Phase 1 means relating to the Phase 1 emission standards described in 40 CFR 90.103.

Phase 2 means relating to the Phase 2 emission standards described in 40 CFR 90.103.

Phase 3 means relating to the Phase 3 exhaust emission standards described in § 1054.105.

Placed into service means put into initial use for its intended purpose.

Pressurized oil system means a system designed to deliver lubricating oil to internal engine components, including a step to circulate oil through a filter.

Ramped-modal means relating to the ramped-modal type of steady-state test described in § 1054.505.

Rated-speed equipment means nonhandheld equipment in which the installed engine is intended for operation at a rated speed that is nominally 3600 rpm or higher.

Recreational application means an application in which a vehicle is ridden primarily for pleasure. Note that engines used in reduced-scale model vehicles that cannot be ridden (such as model airplanes) are excluded from this part under § 1054.5.

Relating to as used in this section means relating to something in a specific, direct manner. This expression is used in this section only to define terms as adjectives and not to broaden the meaning of the terms.

Revoke has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to terminate the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.

Round has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001.

Running loss emissions has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.

Scheduled maintenance means adjusting, repairing, removing, disassembling, cleaning, or replacing components or systems periodically to keep a part or system from failing, malfunctioning, or wearing prematurely. It also may mean actions you expect are necessary to correct an overt indication of failure or malfunction for which periodic maintenance is not appropriate.

Side valve means relating to a four-stroke spark-ignition engine in which the intake and exhaust valves are located to the side of the cylinder, not within the cylinder head. Such engines are sometimes referred to as “L-head” engines.

Small-volume emission family means one of the following:

(1) For requirements related to exhaust emissions for nonhandheld engines and to exhaust and evaporative emissions for handheld engines, small-volume emission family means any emission family whose U.S.-directed production volume in a given model year is projected at the time of certification to be no more than 5,000 engines.

(2) For requirements related to evaporative emissions for nonhandheld equipment, small-volume emission family means any equipment manufacturer's U.S.-directed production volume for identical fuel tank is projected at the time of certification to be no more than 5,000 units. Tanks are generally considered identical if they are produced under a single part number to conform to a single design or blueprint. Tanks should be considered identical if they differ only with respect to production variability, post-production changes (such as different fittings or grommets), supplier, color, or other extraneous design variables.

Small-volume engine manufacturer means one of the following:

(1) For handheld engines, an engine manufacturer that had U.S.-directed production volume of handheld engines of no more than 25,000 handheld engines in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(2) For nonhandheld engines, an engine manufacturer that had U.S.-directed production volume of no more than 10,000 nonhandheld engines in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(3) An engine manufacturer that we designate to be a small-volume engine manufacturer under § 1054.635.

Small-volume equipment manufacturer means one of the following:

(1) For handheld equipment, an equipment manufacturer that had a U.S.-directed production volume of no more than 25,000 pieces of handheld equipment in any calendar year. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(2) For nonhandheld equipment, an equipment manufacturer with annual U.S.-directed production volumes of no more than 5,000 pieces of nonhandheld equipment in 2007, 2008, and 2009. For manufacturers owned by a parent company, this production limit applies to the production of the parent company and all its subsidiaries.

(3) An equipment manufacturer that we designate to be a small-volume equipment manufacturer under § 1054.635.

Snowthrower engine means an engine used exclusively to power snowthrowers.

Spark-ignition means relating to a gasoline-fueled engine or any other type of engine with a spark plug (or other sparking device) and with operating characteristics significantly similar to the theoretical Otto combustion cycle. Spark-ignition engines usually use a throttle to regulate intake air flow to control power during normal operation.

Steady-state means relating to emission tests in which engine speed and load are held at a finite set of essentially constant values. Steady-state tests are either discrete-mode tests or ramped-modal tests.

Structurally integrated nylon fuel tank has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1060.801.

Subchapter U means the portion of the Code of Federal Regulations including 40 CFR parts 1000 through 1299.

Suspend has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to temporarily discontinue the certificate or an exemption for an engine family.

Test engine means an engine in a test sample.

Test sample means the collection of engines selected from the population of an emission family for emission testing. This may include testing for certification, production-line testing, or in-use testing.

Tethered gas cap means a gas cap that is loosely but permanently connected to the fuel tank.

Thermal reactor means a hot surface in the engine exhaust system that has the effect of significantly lowering emissions of one or more regulated pollutants. Hot surfaces that have an inconsequential effect on emissions are not thermal reactors.

Total hydrocarbon has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the combined mass of organic compounds measured by the specified procedure for measuring total hydrocarbon, expressed as an atomic hydrocarbon with a hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of 1.85:1.

Total hydrocarbon equivalent has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1065.1001. This generally means the sum of the carbon mass contributions of non-oxygenated hydrocarbons, alcohols and aldehydes, or other organic compounds that are measured separately as contained in a gas sample, expressed as exhaust hydrocarbon from petroleum-fueled engines. The atomic hydrogen-to-carbon ratio of the equivalent hydrocarbon is 1.85:1.

Ultimate purchaser means, with respect to any new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new nonroad equipment or new nonroad engine for purposes other than resale.

United States has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30.

Upcoming model year for an emission family means the model year after the one currently in production.

U.S.-directed production volume means the number of engine or equipment units, subject to the requirements of this part, produced by a manufacturer for which the manufacturer has a reasonable assurance that sale was or will be made to ultimate purchasers in the United States.

Useful life means the period during which the engine and equipment are designed to properly function in terms of power output and intended function, without being remanufactured, specified as a number of hours of operation or calendar years, whichever comes first. It is the period during which a nonroad engine is required to comply with all applicable emission standards. See, for example, §§ 1054.107, 1054.110, and 1054.112. If an engine has no hour meter, the specified number of hours does not limit the period during which an in-use engine is required to comply with emission standards unless the degree of service accumulation can be verified separately.

Variable-speed engine means an engine that is not a constant-speed engine.

Vessel means marine vessel.

Void has the meaning given in 40 CFR 1068.30. In general this means to invalidate a certificate or an exemption both retroactively and prospectively.

Volatile liquid fuel means any fuel other than diesel or biodiesel that is a liquid at atmospheric pressure and has a Reid Vapor Pressure higher than 2.0 pounds per square inch.

We (us, our) means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and any authorized representatives.

Wide-open throttle means maximum throttle opening.

Wintertime engine means an engine used exclusively to power equipment that is used only in wintertime, such as snowthrowers and ice augers.

[73 FR 59259, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23026, Apr. 30, 2010]