1054.230 How do I select emission families§ 1054.230 How do I select emission families?
(a) For purposes of certification, divide your product line into families of engines that are expected to have similar emission characteristics throughout their useful life as described in this section. Your emission family is limited to a single model year. For evaporative emissions, group engines into emission families as described in 40 CFR 1060.230.
(b) Group engines into the same emission family for exhaust emissions if they are the same in all the following aspects:
(1) The combustion cycle and fuel. See paragraph (g) of this section for special provisions that apply for dual-fuel engines.
(2) The cooling system (liquid-cooled vs. air-cooled).
(3) Valve configuration (for example, side-valve vs. overhead valve).
(4) Method of air aspiration (for example, turbocharged vs. naturally aspirated).
(5) The number, location, volume, and composition of catalytic converters.
(6) The number and arrangement of cylinders (such as in-line or vee configuration) and approximate total displacement.
(7) Engine class, as defined in § 1054.801.
(8) Method of control for engine operation, other than governing (mechanical or electronic).
(9) The numerical level of the applicable emission standards. For example, an engine family may not include engines certified to different family emission limits, though you may change family emission limits without recertifying as specified in § 1054.225.
(10) Useful life.
(c) You may subdivide a group that is identical under paragraph (b) of this section into different emission families if you show the expected emission characteristics are different during the useful life.
(d) You may group engines that are not identical with respect to the things listed in paragraph (b) of this section into the same emission family, as follows:
(1) In unusual circumstances, you may group such engines into the same emission family if you show that their emission characteristics during the useful life will be similar.
(2) If you are a small-volume engine manufacturer, you may group any nonhandheld engines with the same useful life that are subject to the same emission standards into a single emission family.
(3) The provisions of this paragraph (d) do not exempt any engines from meeting all the applicable standards and requirements in subpart B of this part.
(e) Select test engines from the emission family as described in 40 CFR 1065.401.
(f) You may combine engines from different classes into a single emission family under paragraph (d)(1) of this section if you certify the emission family to the more stringent set of standards from the two classes in that model year.
(g) You may certify dual-fuel or flexible-fuel engines in a single engine family. You may include dedicated-fuel versions of this same engine model in the same engine family, as long as they are identical to the engine configuration with respect to that fuel type for the dual-fuel or flexible-fuel version of the engine. For example, if you produce an engine that can alternately run on gasoline and natural gas, you can include the gasoline-only and natural gas-only versions of the engine in the same engine family as the dual-fuel engine if engine operation on each fuel type is identical with or without installation of components for operating on the other fuel.[73 FR 59259, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 75 FR 23025, Apr. 30, 2010]