1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.§ 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.
This section describes how to test locomotives at each notch setting so that emissions can be weighted according to either the line-haul duty cycle or the switch duty cycle. The locomotive test cycle consists of a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in Table 1 to this section. The test modes are steady-state with respect to operator demand, which is the notch setting for the locomotive. Engine speeds and loads are not necessarily steady-state.
(a) Follow the provisions of 40 CFR part 1065, subpart F for general pre-test procedures (including engine and sampling system pre-conditioning which is included as engine warm-up). You may operate the engine in any way you choose to warm it up prior to beginning the sample preconditioning specified in 40 CFR part 1065.
(b) Begin the test by operating the locomotive over the pre-test portion of the cycle specified in Table 1 to this section. For locomotives not equipped with catalysts, you may begin the test as soon as the engine reaches its lowest idle setting. For catalyst-equipped locomotives, you may begin the test in normal idle mode if the engine does not reach its lowest idle setting within 15 minutes. If you do start in normal idle, run the low idle mode after normal idle, then resume the specified mode sequence (without repeating the normal idle mode).
(c) Measure emissions during the rest of the test cycle.
(1) Each test mode begins when the operator demand to the locomotive or engine is set to the applicable notch setting.
(2) Start measuring gaseous emissions, power, and fuel consumption at the start of the test mode A and continue until the completion of test mode 8. You may zero and span analyzers between modes (or take other actions consistent with good engineering judgment).
(i) The sample period over which emissions for the mode are averaged generally begins when the operator demand is changed to start the test mode and ends within 5 seconds of the minimum sampling time for the test mode is reached. However, you need to shift the sampling period to account for sample system residence times. Follow the provisions of 40 CFR 1065.308 and 1065.309 to time align emission and work measurements.
(ii) The sample period is 300 seconds for all test modes except mode 8. The sample period for test mode 8 is 600 seconds.
(3) If gaseous emissions are sampled using a batch-sampling method, begin proportional sampling at the beginning of each sampling period and terminate sampling once the minimum time in each test mode is reached, ±5 seconds.
(4) If applicable, begin the smoke test at the start of the test mode A. Continue collecting smoke data until the completion of test mode 8. You may perform smoke measurements independent of criteria pollutant measurements by repeating the test over the duty cycle. If you choose this option, the minimum time-in-notch is 3.0 minutes for duty cycles in which only smoke is measured. Refer to § 1033.101 to determine applicability of smoke testing and § 1033.525 for details on how to conduct a smoke test.
(5) Begin proportional sampling of PM emissions at the beginning of each sampling period and terminate sampling within ±5 seconds of the specified time in each test mode. If the PM sample is not sufficiently large, take one of the following actions consistent with good engineering judgment:
(i) Extend the sampling period up to a maximum of 15 minutes.
(ii) Group the modes in the same manner as the test intervals of the ramped modal cycle and use three different dilution settings for the groups. Use one setting for both idle modes, one for dynamic brake through Notch 5, and one for Notch 6 through Notch 8. For each group, ensure that the mode with the highest exhaust flow (typically normal idle, Notch 5, and Notch 8) meets the criteria for minimum dilution ratio in 40 CFR part 1065.
(6) Proceed through each test mode in the order specified in Table 1 to this section until the locomotive test cycle is completed.
(7) At the end of each numbered test mode, you may continue to operate sampling and dilution systems to allow corrections for the sampling system's response time.
(8) Following the completion of Mode 8, conduct the post sampling procedures in § 1065.530. Note that cycle validation criteria do not apply to testing of complete locomotives.
Table 1 to § 1033.515 - Locomotive Test Cycle
|Test mode||Notch setting||Time in mode
period for emissions 1
|Pre-test idle||Lowest idle setting||10 to 15 3||Not applicable|
|A||Low idle 2||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|B||Normal idle||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|C||Dynamic brake 2||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|1||Notch 1||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|2||Notch 2||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|3||Notch 3||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|4||Notch 4||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|5||Notch 5||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|6||Notch 6||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|7||Notch 7||5 to 10||300 ±5 seconds|
|8||Notch 8||10 to 15||600 ±5 seconds|
1 The time in each notch and sample averaging period may be extended as needed to allow for collection of a sufficiently large PM sample.
2 Omit if not so equipped.
3 See paragraph (b) of this section for alternate pre-test provisions.
(d) Use one of the following approaches for sampling PM emissions during discrete-mode steady-state testing:
(1) Engines certified to a PM standard/FEL at or above 0.05 g/bhp-hr. Use a separate PM filter sample for each test mode of the locomotive test cycle according to the procedures specified in paragraph (a) through (c) of this section. You may ask to use a shorter sampling period if the total mass expected to be collected would cause unacceptably high pressure drop across the filter before reaching the end of the required sampling time. We will not allow sampling times shorter than 60 seconds. When we conduct locomotive emission tests, we will adhere to the time limits for each of the numbered modes in Table 1 to this section.
(2) Engines certified to a PM standard/FEL below 0.05 g/bhp-hr. (i) You may use separate PM filter samples for each test mode as described in paragraph (d)(1) of this section; however, we recommend that you do not. The low rate of sample filter loading will result in very long sampling times and the large number of filter samples may induce uncertainty stack-up that will lead to unacceptable PM measurement accuracy. Instead, we recommend that you measure PM emissions as specified in paragraph (d)(2)(ii) of this section.
(ii) You may use a single PM filter for sampling PM over all of the test modes of the locomotive test cycle as specified in this paragraph (d)(2). Vary the sample time to be proportional to the applicable line-haul or switch weighting factors specified in § 1033.530 for each mode. The minimum sampling time for each mode is 400 seconds multiplied by the weighting factor. For example, for a mode with a weighting factor of 0.030, the minimum sampling time is 12.0 seconds. PM sampling in each mode must be proportional to engine exhaust flow as specified in 40 CFR part 1065. Begin proportional sampling of PM emissions at the beginning of each test mode as is specified in paragraph (c) of this section. End the sampling period for each test mode so that sampling times are proportional to the weighting factors for the applicable duty cycles. If necessary, you may extend the time limit for each of the test modes beyond the sampling times in Table 1 to this section to increase the sampled mass of PM emissions or to account for proper weighting of the PM emission sample over the entire cycle, using good engineering judgment.
(e) This paragraph (e) describes how to test locomotive engines when not installed in a locomotive. Note that the test procedures for dynamometer engine testing of locomotive engines are intended to produce emission measurements that are the same as emission measurements produced during testing of complete locomotives using the same engine configuration. The following requirements apply for all engine tests:
(1) Specify a second-by-second set of engine speed and load points that are representative of in-use locomotive operation for each of the set-points of the locomotive test cycle described in Table 1 to this section, including transitions from one notch to the next. This is your reference cycle for validating your cycle. You may ignore points between the end of the sampling period for one mode and the point at which you change the notch setting to begin the next mode.
(2) Keep the temperature of the air entering the engine after any charge air cooling to within 5 °C of the typical intake manifold air temperature when the engine is operated in the locomotive under similar ambient conditions.
(3) Proceed as specified in paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section for testing complete locomotives.[73 FR 37197, June 30, 2008, as amended at 73 FR 59190, Oct. 8, 2008; 74 FR 8424, Feb. 24, 2009; 75 FR 22985, Apr. 30, 2010; 81 FR 74006, Oct. 25, 2016]