53.4941(a)-1 Imposition of initial taxes.§ 53.4941(a)-1 Imposition of initial taxes.
(a) Tax on self-dealer - (1) In general. Section 4941(a)(1) of the code imposes an excise tax on each act of self-dealing between a disqualified person (as defined in section 4946(a)) and a private foundation. Except as provided in subparagraph (2) of this paragraph, this tax shall be imposed on a disqualified person even though he had no knowledge at the time of the act that such act constituted self-dealing. Notwithstanding the preceding two sentences, however, a transaction between a disqualified person and a private foundation will not constitute an act of self-dealing if:
(i) The transaction is a purchase or sale of securities by a private foundation through a stockbroker where normal trading procedures on a stock exchange or recognized over-the-counter market are followed;
(ii) Neither the buyer nor the seller of the securities nor the agent of either knows the identity of the other party involved; and
(iii) The sale is made in the ordinary course of business, and does not involve a block of securities larger than the average daily trading volume of that stock over the previous 4 weeks.However, the preceding sentence shall not apply to a transaction involving a dealer who is a disqualified person acting as a principal or to a transaction which is an act of self-dealing pursuant to section 4941(d)(1)(B) and § 53.4941(d)-2 (c)(1). The tax imposed by section 4941(a)(1) is at the rate of 5 percent of the amount involved (as defined in section 4941(e)(2) and § 53.4941(e)-1(b)) with respect to the act of self-dealing for each year or partial year in the taxable period (as defined in section 4941(e)(1)) and shall be paid by any disqualified person (other than a foundation manager acting only in the capacity of a foundation manager) who participates in the act of self-dealing. However, if a foundation manager is also acting as a self-dealer, he may be liable for both the tax imposed by section 4941(a)(1) and the tax imposed by section 4941(a)(2).
(2) Government officials. In the case of a government official (as defined in sec. 4946(a)), the tax shall be imposed upon such government official who participates in an act of self-dealing, only if he knows that such act is an act of self-dealing. See paragraph (b)(3) of this section for a definition of knowing.
(3) Participation. For purposes of this paragraph, a disqualified person shall be treated as participating in an act of self-dealing in any case in which he engages or takes part in the transaction by himself or with others, or directs any person to do so.
(b) Tax on foundation manager - (1) In general. Section 4941(a)(2) of the code imposes an excise tax on the participation of any foundation manager in an act of self-dealing between a disqualified person and a private foundation. This tax is imposed only in cases in which the following circumstances are present:
(i) A tax is imposed by section 4941(a)(1),
(ii) Such participating foundation manager knows that the act is an act of self-dealing, and
(iii) The participation by the foundation manager is willful and is not due to reasonable cause.The tax imposed by section 4941(a)(2) is at the rate of 2 1/2 percent of the amount involved with respect to the act of self-dealing for each year or partial year in the taxable period and shall be paid by any foundation manager described in subdivisions (ii) and (iii) of this subparagraph.
(2) Participation. The term “participation” shall include silence or inaction on the part of a foundation manager where he is under a duty to speak or act, as well as any affirmative action by such manager. However, a foundation manager will not be considered to have participated in an act of self-dealing where he has opposed such act in a manner consistent with the fulfillment of his responsibilities to the private foundation.
(3) Knowing. For purposes of section 4941, a person shall be considered to have participated in a transaction “knowing” that it is an act of self-dealing only if:
(i) He has actual knowledge of sufficient facts so that, based solely upon such facts, such transaction would be an act of self-dealing,
(ii) He is aware that such an act under these circumstances may violate the provisions of Federal tax law governing self-dealing, and
(iii) He negligently fails to make reasonable attempts to ascertain whether the transaction is an act of self-dealing, or he is in fact aware that it is such an act.For purposes of this part and Chapter 42, the term “knowing” does not mean “having reason to know”. However, evidence tending to show that a person has reason to know of a particular fact or particular rule is relevant in determining whether he had actual knowledge of such fact or rule. Thus, for example, evidence tending to show that a person has reason to know of sufficient facts so that, based solely upon such facts, a transaction would be an act of self-dealing is relevant in determining whether he has actual knowledge of such facts.
(4) Willful. Participation by a foundation manager shall be deemed willful if it is voluntary, conscious, and intentional. No motive to avoid the restrictions of the law or the incurrence of any tax is necessary to make the participation willful. However, participation by a foundation manager is not willful if he does not know that the transaction in which he is participating is an act of self-dealing.
(5) Due to reasonable cause. A foundation manager's participation is due to reasonable cause if he has exercised his responsibility on behalf of the foundation with ordinary business care and prudence.
(6) Advice of counsel. If a person, after full disclosure of the factual situation to legal counsel (including house counsel), relies on the advice of such counsel expressed in a reasoned written legal opinion that an act is not an act of self-dealing under section 4941, although such act is subsequently held to be an act of self-dealing, the person's participation in such act will ordinarily not be considered “knowing” or “willful” and will ordinarily be considered “due to reasonable cause” within the meaning of section 4941(a)(2). For purposes of this subparagraph, a written legal opinion will be considered “reasoned” even if it reaches a conclusion which is subsequently determined to be incorrect so long as such opinion addresses itself to the facts and applicable law. However, a written legal opinion will not be considered “reasoned” if it does nothing more than recite the facts and express a conclusion. However, the absence of advice of counsel with respect to an act shall not, by itself, give rise to any inference that a person participated in such act knowingly, willfully, or without reasonable cause.
(c) Burden of proof. For provisions relating to the burden of proof in cases involving the issue whether a foundation manager or a government official has knowingly participated in an act of self-dealing, see section 7454(b).[T.D. 7270, 38 FR 9493, Apr. 17, 1973, as amended by T.D. 7299, 38 FR 35304, Dec. 27, 1973]