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Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

Title 7 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 51 → Subpart

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

e-CFR data is current as of November 14, 2019

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → Subpart


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 51—FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)


Subpart—United States Standards for Grades of Oranges (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona)


Contents

General

§51.680   General.

Grades

§51.681   U.S. Fancy.
§51.682   U.S. No. 1.
§51.683   U.S. No. 1 Bright.
§51.684   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.
§51.685   U.S. Combination.
§51.686   U.S. No. 2.
§51.687   U.S. No. 2 Russet.
§51.688   U.S. No. 3.

Tolerances

§51.689   Tolerances.

Sample for Grade or Size Determination

§51.690   Sample for grade or size determination.

Standard Pack

§51.691   Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

Standard Sizing

§51.692   Standard sizing.

Definitions

§51.693   Mature.
§51.694   Similar varietal characteristics.
§51.695   Well colored.
§51.696   Firm.
§51.697   Well formed.
§51.698   Smooth texture.
§51.699   Injury.
§51.700   Discoloration.
§51.701   Fairly smooth texture.
§51.702   Damage.
§51.703   Fairly well colored.
§51.704   Reasonably well colored.
§51.705   Fairly firm.
§51.706   Slightly misshapen.
§51.707   Slightly rough texture.
§51.708   Serious damage.
§51.709   Misshapen.
§51.710   Slightly spongy.
§51.711   Very serious damage.
§51.712   Diameter.
§51.713   Classification of defects.

Metric Conversion Table

§51.714   Metric conversion table.

Source: 34 FR 13909, Aug. 30, 1969; 34 FR 14325, Sept. 12, 1969, unless otherwise noted. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981.

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General

§51.680   General.

The standards in this subpart apply only to the common or sweet orange group and varieties belonging to the Mandarin group except tangerines for which separate U.S. Standards are issued.

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Grades

§51.681   U.S. Fancy.

“U.S. Fancy” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than one-tenth of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.700.)

(2) Firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) Well colored;

(6) Well formed; and,

(7) Smooth texture.

(b) Free from:

(1) Ammoniation;

(2) Bruises;

(3) Buckskin;

(4) Caked melanose;

(5) Creasing;

(6) Cuts not healed;

(7) Decay;

(8) Growth cracks;

(9) Scab;

(10) Skin breakdown;

(11) Sprayburn;

(12) Undeveloped segments; and,

(13) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not injured by:

(1) Green spots;

(2) Oil spots;

(3) Split navels;

(4) Rough, wide or protruding navels;

(5) Scale;

(6) Scars; and,

(7) Thorn scratches.

(d) Not damaged by any other cause.

(e) For tolerances see §51.689.

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§51.682   U.S. No. 1.

“U.S. No. 1” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than one-third of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.700.)

(2) Firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) Well formed;

(6) Fairly smooth texture; and,

(7) Color:

(i) Early and midseason varieties shall be fairly well colored.

(ii) For Valencia and other late varieties, not less than 50 percent, by count, shall be fairly well colored and the remainder reasonably well colored.

(b) Free from:

(1) Bruises;

(2) Cuts not healed;

(3) Caked melanose;

(4) Decay;

(5) Growth cracks;

(6) Sprayburn;

(7) Undeveloped segments; and,

(8) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.689.

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§51.683   U.S. No. 1 Bright.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except that no fruit may have more than one-tenth of its surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration.

(a) For tolerances see §51.689.

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§51.684   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No 1 except that all fruit must show some discoloration. Not less than the number of fruits required in §51.689, Tables I and II, shall have more than one-third of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. The predominating discoloration on these fruits shall be of rust mite type.

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§51.685   U.S. Combination.

“U.S. Combination” consists of a combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 oranges: Provided, That the number of U.S. No. 2 fruits specified in §51.689, Tables I and II, are not exceeded.

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§51.686   U.S. No. 2.

“U.S. No. 2” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than one-half of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.700.)

(2) Fairly firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) Reasonably well colored;

(6) Not more than slightly misshapen, and,

(7) Not more than slightly rough.

(b) Free from:

(1) Bruises;

(2) Cuts not healed;

(3) Decay;

(4) Growth cracks; and,

(5) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not seriously damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.689.

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§51.687   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 2 except that not less than the number of fruits required in §51.689, Tables I and II, shall have more than one-half of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration.

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§51.688   U.S. No. 3.

“U.S. No. 3” consists of oranges which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Mature;

(2) Similar varietal characteristics;

(3) May be misshapen;

(4) May be slightly spongy;

(5) May have rough texture;

(6) Not seriously lumpy or cracked; and,

(7) May be poorly colored.

(i) Not more than 25 percent of the surface may be of a solid dark green color.

(b) Free from:

(1) Cuts not healed;

(2) Decay; and,

(3) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not very seriously damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.689.

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Tolerances

§51.689   Tolerances.

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, based on sample inspection, the number of defective or off-size specimens in the lot, shall be within the limitations specified in Tables I and II. No tolerance shall apply to wormy fruit.

Table I—Shipping Point1

(A) For 1 through 20 Samples

FactorGradesAL2Number of 50-count samples3
1234567891011121314151617181920
   Acceptance number (maximum permitted)4
DecayU.S. Fancy.
   U.S. No. 1.1015112522333533445445555
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   U.S. No. 3.20125225334454555566566777
Very seriousU.S. Fancy.
   damageU.S. No. 1.64691114161820222426283033353739414345
   includingU.S. No. 2.
   decay.U.S. Combination.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
   includingU.S. No. 1.8712172227323641455054596368727681859094
   decay andU.S. No. 2.
   very seriousU.S. No. 3.
   damage.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).2926487091112134155176197218239260281301322343364384405425
Off-size10712172227323641455054596368727681859094
DiscolorationU.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.10712172227323641455054596368727681859094
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance number (minimum required)4
   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.13812182329344045515662687479859197102108
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.                                                            

Table I—Shipping Point1—Continued

(B) For 21 through 40 Samples

FactorGradesAL2Number of 50-count samples3
2122232425262728293031323334353637383940
   Acceptance numbers (maximum permitted)4
DecayU.S. Fancy.
   U.S. No. 1.1556666566777757788858899
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   U.S. No. 3.28858899599101051011115111112125121213
Very seriousU.S. Fancy.
damageU.S. No. 1.64749515354565860626466687072747678808183
includingU.S. No. 2.
decay.U.S. Combination.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
includingU.S. No. 1.898103107111116120124129133137141146150154159163167171176180
decay andU.S. No. 2.
very seriousU.S. No. 3.
damage.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).29446467487508529549570590611631652672693713734754775795816836
Off-size1098103107111116120124129133137141146150154159163167171176180
DiscolorationU.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.1098103107111116120124129133137141146150154159163167171176180
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance number (minimum required)4
   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.1114119125131137143149155161166172178184190196202208214220226
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

1Shipping point, as used in these standards, means the point of origin of the shipment in the production area or at port of loading for ship stores or overseas shipments, or in the case of shipments from outside the continental United States, the port of entry into the United States.

2AL—Absolute limit permitted in individual 33-count sample.

3Sample size—33-count.

4Acceptance number—maximum or minimum number of defective or off-size fruit permitted.

5Preferred number of samples for this acceptance number.

Table II—En Route or at Destination

FactorGradesAL1Number of 50-count samples2
1234567891011121314151617181920
   Acceptance numbers (maximum permitted)
DecayAll.434679101113141516181920212324252627
Very seriousU.S. Fancy.
damageU.S. No. 1.64691114161820222426283033353739414345
other thanU.S. No. 2.
decay.U.S Combination.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
includingU.S. No. 1.8712172227323641455054596368727681859094
very seriousU.S. No. 2.
damageU.S. No. 3.
   other than decay.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).2926487091112134155176197218239260281301322343364384405425
Off-size10712172227323641455054596368727681859094
DiscolorationU.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.10712172227323641455054596368727681859094
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance number (minimum required)3
   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.13812182329344045515662687479859197102108
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

1AL—Absolute limit permitted in individual 50-count sample.

2Sample size-50-count.

3Acceptance number—maximum or minimum number of defective or off-size fruit permitted.

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Sample for Grade or Size Determination

§51.690   Sample for grade or size determination.

Each sample shall consist of 50 oranges. When individual packages contain at least 50 oranges, the sample is drawn from one package; when individual packages contain less than 50 oranges, a sufficient number of adjoining packages are opened to form a 50-count sample. When practicable, at point of packaging, the sample may be obtained from the grading belt or bins after sorting has been completed.

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Standard Pack

§51.691   Standard pack for oranges except Temple variety.

(a) Fruit shall be fairly uniform in size. When packed in approved containers, fruit shall be arranged according to the approved and recognized methods.

(b) “Fairly uniform in size” means that not more than the number of fruit permitted in §51.689, Tables I and II, are outside the ranges of diameters given in Table III:

Table III— 710 Bushel Carton

Pack size/number of oranges Diameter in inches
Minimum Maximum
2431216 5116
323616 4916
363416 4616
403216 4416
4821516 4
5621316 31316
6421116 31016
722916 3816
882816 3416
1132716 3
1382616 21216

(c) In order to allow for variations, other than sizing, incident to proper packing, not more than 5 percent of the packages in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of standard pack.

[66 FR 48788, Sept. 24, 2001]

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Standard Sizing

§51.692   Standard sizing.

(a) Boxes, cartons, bag packs, or bulk loads in which oranges are not packed according to a definite pattern do not meet the requirements of standard pack, but may be certified as meeting the requirements of standard sizing: Provided, that the ranges are fairly uniform in size as defined in §51.691.

(b) In order to allow for variations incident to proper packing, not more than 5 percent of the containers in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of standard sizing.

[34 FR 13909, Aug. 30, 1969; 34 FR 14325, Sept. 12, 1969. Redesignated at 42 FR 32514, June 27, 1977, and further redesignated at 46 FR 63203, Dec. 31, 1981, as amended at 66 FR 48788, Sept. 24, 2001]

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Definitions

§51.693   Mature.

Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and regulations of the State in which the orange is grown; or as the definition of such term may hereafter be amended.

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§51.694   Similar varietal characteristics.

Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and shape.

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§51.695   Well colored.

Well colored means that the fruit is yellow or orange in color with practically no trace of green color.

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§51.696   Firm.

Firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby; as applied to oranges of the Mandarin group (Satsuma, King, Mandarin), means that the fruit is not extremely puffy, although the skin may be slightly loose.

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§51.697   Well formed.

Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety.

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§51.698   Smooth texture.

Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit.

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§51.699   Injury.

Injury means any specific defect described in §51.713, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which slightly detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.700   Discoloration.

Discoloration means russeting of light shade of golden brown caused by rust mite or other means. Lighter shades of discoloration caused by smooth or fairly smooth, superficial scars or other means may be allowed on a greater area, or darker shades may be allowed on a lesser area, provided no discoloration caused by melanose or other means may affect the appearance of the fruit to a greater extent than the shade and amount of discoloration allowed for the grade.

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§51.701   Fairly smooth texture.

Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is not materially rough or coarse and that the skin is not thick for the variety.

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§51.702   Damage.

Damage means any specific defect described in §51.713, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.703   Fairly well colored.

Fairly well colored means that except for a one inch circle in the aggregate of green color, the yellow or orange color predominates over the green color on that part of the fruit which is not discolored.

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§51.704   Reasonably well colored.

Reasonably well colored means that the yellow or orange color predominates over the green color on at least two-thirds of the fruit surface in the aggregate which is not discolored.

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§51.705   Fairly firm.

Fairly firm as applied to common oranges, means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised; as applied to oranges of the Mandarin group (Satsuma, King, Mandarin) means that the fruit is not extremely puffy or the skin extremely loose.

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§51.706   Slightly misshapen.

Slightly misshapen means that the fruit is not of the shape characteristic of the variety but is not appreciably elongated or pointed or otherwise deformed.

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§51.707   Slightly rough texture.

Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially ridged, grooved or wrinkled.

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§51.708   Serious damage.

Serious damage means any specific defect described in §51.713, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which seriously detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.709   Misshapen.

Misshapen means that the fruit is decidedly elongated, pointed or flatsided.

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§51.710   Slightly spongy.

Slightly spongy means that the fruit is puffy or slightly wilted but not flabby.

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§51.711   Very serious damage.

Very serious damage means any specific defect described in §51.713, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which very seriously detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.712   Diameter.

Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end of the fruit.

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§51.713   Classification of defects.

Table IV

FactorInjuryDamageSerious damageVery serious damage
AmmoniationNot occurring as light speck typeScars are cracked or dark and aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter or light colored and aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
BuckskinAggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter on a 200 size orange.Aggregating more than 25 percent of the surfaceAggregating more than 50 percent of the surface.
Caked melanoseAggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
CreasingMaterially weakens the skin, or extends over more than one-third of the surfaceSeriously weakens the skin, or extends over more than one-half of the surfaceVery seriously weakens the skin, or is distributed over practically the entire surface.
Dryness or mushy conditionAffecting all segments more than 14 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruitAffecting all segments more than 12 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruitAffecting all segments more than 34 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruit.
Green spots or oil spotsMore than slightly affecting appearanceAggregating more than a circle 78 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 200 size orange
HailNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 14 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 38 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 12 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 200 size orange.
ScabMaterially detracts from the shape or texture, or aggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeSeriously detracts from the shape or texture, or aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 200 orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
ScaleMore than a few adjacent to the “button” at the stem end, or more than 6 scattered on other portions of the fruitAggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
ScarsDepressed, not smooth, or detracts from appearance more than the amount of discoloration permitted in the gradeDeep, rough or hard aggregating more than a circle 14 inch in diameter; slightly rough with slight depth aggregating more than a circle 78 inch in diameter; smooth or fairly smooth with slight depth aggregation more than a circle 114 inches in diameter. All areas based on a 200 size orangeDeep, rough aggregating more than a circle 12 inch in diameter; slightly rough with slight depth aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter. All areas based on a 200 size orangeDeep, rough or unsightly that appearance is very seriously affected.
Skin breakdownAggregating more than a circle 14 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
SunburnSkin is flattened, dry, darkened or hard, aggregating more than 25 percent of the surfaceAffecting more than 13 of the surface, hard, decidedly one-sided, or light brown and aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 50 percent of the surface.
SprayburnHard, or aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
Split, rough or protruding navelsSplit is unhealed; navel protrudes beyond general contour; opening is so wide, growth so folded and ridged that it detracts noticeably from appearanceSplit is unhealed, or more than 14 inch in length, or more than 3 well healed splits, or navel protrudes beyond the general contour, and opening is so wide, folded or ridged that it detracts materially from appearanceSplit is unhealed, or more than 12 inch in length, or aggregate length of all splits exceed 1 inch, or navel protrudes beyond general contour, and opening is so wide, folded and ridged that it seriously detracts from appearanceSplit is unhealed or fruit is seriously weakened.
Thorn scratchesNot slight, not well healed, or more unsightly than discoloration permitted in the gradeNot well healed, or hard concentrated thorn injury aggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeNot well healed, or hard concentrated thorn injury aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 200 size orangeAggregating more than 5 percent of the surface.

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Metric Conversion Table

§51.714   Metric conversion table.

InchesMillimeters (mm)
14 equals6.4
516 equals7.9
38 equals9.5
12 equals12.7
58 equals15.9
34 equals19.1
78 equals22.2
1 equals25.4
114 equals31.8
2316 equals55.6
2416 equals57.2
2716 equals61.9
2816 equals63.5
2916 equals65.1
21116 equals68.3
21216 equals69.9
21516 equals74.6
3116 equals77.8
3316 equals81.0
3516 equals84.1
3716 equals87.3
3916 equals90.5
31316 equals96.8

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