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Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

Title 7 → Subtitle B → Chapter I → Subchapter C → Part 51 → Subpart

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 7 Part 51 → Subpart

e-CFR data is current as of November 15, 2019

Title 7Subtitle BChapter ISubchapter CPart 51 → Subpart


Title 7: Agriculture
PART 51—FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS)


Subpart—United States Standards for Grades of Grapefruit (Texas and States Other Than Florida, California, and Arizona)

Grades

§51.620   U.S. Fancy.

“U.S. Fancy” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than one-tenth of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.638.)

(2) Firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) Smooth texture;

(6) Well formed; and,

(7) Well colored.

(b) Free from:

(1) Ammoniation;

(2) Bruises;

(3) Buckskin;

(4) Cuts not healed;

(5) Skin breakdown;

(6) Decay;

(7) Growth cracks;

(8) Scab;

(9) Sprayburn; and,

(10) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not injured by:

(1) Green spots;

(2) Oil spots;

(3) Scale;

(4) Scars; and,

(5) Thorn scratches.

(d) Not damaged by any other cause.

(e) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.621   U.S. No. 1.

“U.S. No. 1” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirement:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than one-half of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.638.)

(2) Firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) Fairly well colored;

(6) Fairly smooth texture; and,

(7) Fairly well formed.

(b) Free from:

(1) Bruises;

(2) Cuts not healed;

(3) Caked melanose;

(4) Growth cracks;

(5) Sprayburn;

(6) Decay; and,

(7) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.622   U.S. No. 1 Bright.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except that no fruit may have more than one-tenth of its surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration.

(a) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.623   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 1 except that all fruit must show some discoloration. Not less than the number of fruits required in §51.628, Tables I and II, shall have more than one-half of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration. The predominating discoloration on these fruits shall be of rust mite type.

(a) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.624   U.S. Combination.

“U.S. Combination” consists of a combination of U.S. No. 1 and U.S. No. 2 grapefruit: Provided, That the number of U.S. No. 2 fruits specified in §51.628, Tables I and II, are not exceeded.

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§51.625   U.S. No. 2.

“U.S. No. 2” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Discoloration:

(i) Not more than two-thirds of the surface, in the aggregate, may be affected by discoloration. (See §51.638.)

(2) Fairly firm;

(3) Mature;

(4) Similar varietal characteristics;

(5) May be slightly colored;

(6) Not more than slightly misshapen; and,

(7) Not more than slightly rough texture.

(b) Free from:

(1) Bruises;

(2) Cuts not healed;

(3) Growth cracks;

(4) Decay; and,

(5) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not seriously damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.626   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

The requirements for this grade are the same as for U.S. No. 2 except that not less than the number of fruits required in §51.628, Tables I and II, shall have more than two-thirds of their surface, in the aggregate, affected by discoloration.

(a) For tolerances see §51.628.

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§51.627   U.S. No. 3.

“U.S. No. 3” consists of grapefruit which meet the following requirements:

(a) Basic requirements:

(1) Mature;

(2) Similar varietal characteristics;

(3) May be misshapen;

(4) May be slightly spongy;

(5) May have rough texture;

(6) Not seriously lumpy or cracked; and,

(7) May be poorly colored.

(i) Not more than 25 percent of the surface may be of a solid dark green color.

(b) Free from:

(1) Cuts not healed;

(2) Decay; and,

(3) Wormy fruit.

(c) Not very seriously damaged by any other cause.

(d) For tolerances see §51.628.

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Tolerances

§51.628   Tolerances.

In order to allow for variations incident to proper grading and handling in each of the foregoing grades, based on sample inspection, the number of defective or off-size specimens in the individual sample, and the number of defective or off-size specimens in the lot, shall be within the limitations specified in Tables I and II. No tolerance shall apply to wormy fruit.

Table I—Shipping Point1

(A) For 1 through 20 Samples

FactorGradesAL2Number of 33-count samples3
1234567891011121314151617181920
   Acceptance numbers (maximum permitted)4
DecayU.S. Fancy.
   U.S. No. 1.100015122225222333533444
   U.S. Combination.
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. No. 3.10151122223333344454555555
Very seriousU.S. Fancy.
   damageU.S. No. 1.4357810111314161718202123242527283032
   includingU.S. Combination.
   decay.U.S. No. 2.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
   includingU.S. No. 1.559121619222528313437404446495255586164
   decay andU.S. No. 2.
   very seriousU.S. No. 3.
   damage.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).21183347627690104119133147161174188202216230244257271285
Off-size759121619222528313437404446495255586164
Discoloration.U.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.759121619222528313437404446495255586164
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance numbers (minimum required)4
   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.02481114182125283236394347505357616468
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

Table I—Shipping Point1 (Continued)

(B) For 21 through 40 Samples

FactorGradesAL2Number of 33-count samples3
2122232425262728293031323334353637383940
   Acceptance numbers (maximum permitted)4
DecayU.S. Fancy.
   U.S. No. 1.144544455555355566666366
   U.S. Combination.
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. No. 3.156665667775778888589999
Very seriousU.S. Fancy.
   damageU.S. No. 1.43234353638394042434445474849515253545657
   includingU.S. Combination.
   decay.U.S. No. 2.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
   includingU.S. No. 1.5677073767982848790939699102105107110113116119122
   decay andU.S. No. 2.
   very seriousU.S. No. 3.
   damage.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).21298312326339353367380394408421435449462476489503517530544557
Off-size7677073767982848790939699102105107110113116119122
DiscolorationU.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.7677073767982848790939699102105107110113116119122
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance numbers (minimum required)4
   U.S. No. 1 Bronze.07276808488929699103107110114118122126130134137141145
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

1Shipping point, as used in these standards, means the point of origin of the shipment in the production area or at port of loading for ship stores or overseas shipments, or in the case of shipments from outside the continental United States, the port of entry into the United States.

2AL—Absolute limit permitted in individual 33-count sample.

3Same size 33-count.

4Acceptance number—maximum or minimum number of defective or off-size fruit permitted.

5Preferred number of samples for this acceptance number.

Table II—En Route or at Destination

FactorGradesAL1Number of 33-count samples2
1234567891011121314151617181920
   Acceptance numbers (maximum permitted)3
DecayAll.32345678910111213413141516171841819
Very SeriousU.S. Fancy.
   damageU.S. No. 1.4357810111314161718202123242527283031
   other thanU.S. No. 2.
   decay.U.S. Combination.
Total defectsU.S. Fancy.
   includingU.S. No. 1.559121619222528313437404446495255586164
   very seriousU.S. No. 2.
   damage.U.S. No. 3.
   other than decay.
   U.S. Combination (U.S. No. 2's permitted).2118334762769010411913314716117418820221623024425727128
Off-size759121619222528313437404446495255586164
DiscolorationU.S. No. 1.
   U.S. No. 1 Bright.759121619222528313437404446495255586164
   U.S. No. 2.
   U.S. Combination.
   Acceptance numbers (minimum required)3
U.S. No. 1 Bronze.02481114182125283236394347505357616468
   U.S. No. 2 Russet.

1Absolute limit permitted in individual 33-count sample

2Sample size—33-count

3Acceptance number—maximum or minimum number of defective or off-size fruit permitted

4Preferred number of samples for this acceptance number

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Sample for Grade or Size Determination

§51.629   Sample for grade or size determination.

Each sample shall consist of 33 grapefruit. When individual packages contain at least 33 grapefruit, the sample is drawn from one package; when individual packages contain less than 33 grapefruit, a sufficient number of adjoining packages are opened to form a 33-count sample. When practicable, at point of packaging, the sample may be obtained from the grading belt or bins after sorting has been completed.

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Standard Pack

§51.630   Standard Pack.

(a) Fruits shall be fairly uniform in size, unless specified as uniform in size. When packed in approved containers, fruit shall be arranged according to the approved and recognized methods.

(b) “Fairly uniform in size” means that not more than the number of fruit permitted in §51.628, Tables I and II, are outside the ranges of diameters given in Table III.

Table III— 710 Bushel Carton

Pack size/number of grapefruit Diameter in inches
Minimum Maximum
1841516 5916
234516 5
274216 41216
3231516 4816
3631316 4516
4031016 4216
483916 31416
563516 31016

(c) “Uniform in size” means that not more than the number of fruit permitted in §51.628, Tables I and II, vary more than the following amounts:

(1) 32 size and smaller—not more than six-sixteenths inch in diameter; and

(2) 27 size and larger—not more than nine-sixteenths inch in diameter.

(d) In order to allow for variations, other than sizing, incident to proper packing, not more than 5 percent of the packages in any lot may fail to meet the requirements of standard pack.

[66 FR 48788, Sept. 24, 2001]

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Definitions

§51.631   Mature.

Mature shall have the same meaning currently assigned that term in the laws and regulations of the State in which the grapefruit is grown; or as the definition of such term may hereafter be amended.

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§51.632   Similar varietal characteristics.

Similar varietal characteristics means that the fruits in any container are similar in color and shape.

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§51.633   Well colored.

Well colored means that the fruit is yellow in color with practically no trace of green color.

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§51.634   Firm.

Firm means that the fruit is not soft, or noticeably wilted or flabby, and the skin is not spongy or puffy.

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§51.635   Well formed.

Well formed means that the fruit has the shape characteristic of the variety.

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§51.636   Smooth texture.

Smooth texture means that the skin is thin and smooth for the variety and size of the fruit.

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§51.637   Injury.

Injury means any specific defect described in §51.652, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which slightly detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.638   Discoloration.

Discoloration means russeting of light shade of golden brown caused by rust mite or other means. Lighter shades of discoloration caused by smooth or fairly smooth, superficial scars or other means may be allowed on a greater area, or darker shades may be allowed on a lesser area, provided no discoloration caused by speck type melanose or other means may detract from the appearance of the fruit to a greater extent than the shade and amount of discoloration allowed in the grade.

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§51.639   Fairly well colored.

Fairly well colored means that except for a 1-inch circle in the aggregate of green color, the yellow color predominates over the green color on that part of the fruit which is not discolored.

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§51.640   Fairly well formed.

Fairly well formed means that the fruit may not have the shape characteristic of the variety but is not elongated or pointed or otherwise deformed.

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§51.641   Fairly smooth texture.

Fairly smooth texture means that the skin is not materially rough or coarse and that the skin is not thick for the variety.

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§51.642   Damage.

Damage means any specific defect described in §51.652, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which materially detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.643   Fairly firm.

Fairly firm means that the fruit may be slightly soft, but not bruised, and the skin is not spongy or puffy.

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§51.644   Slightly misshapen.

Slightly misshapen means that the fruit is not of the shape characteristic of the variety but is not appreciably elongated or pointed or otherwise deformed.

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§51.645   Slightly rough texture.

Slightly rough texture means that the skin is not smooth or fairly smooth but is not excessively rough or excessively thick, or materially ridged, grooved or wrinkled.

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§51.646   Serious damage.

Serious damage means any specific defect described in §51.652, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which seriously detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.647   Slightly colored.

Slightly colored means that, except for a 2-inch circle in the aggregate of green color, the portion of the fruit surface which is not discolored shows some yellow color.

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§51.648   Misshapen.

Misshapen means that the fruit is decidedly elongated, pointed or flat sided.

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§51.649   Slightly spongy.

Slightly spongy means that the fruit is puffy or slightly wilted but not flabby.

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§51.650   Very serious damage.

Very serious damage means any specific defect described in §51.652, Table IV; or an equally objectionable variation of any one of these defects, any other defect, or any combination of defects, which very seriously detracts from the appearance, or the edible or marketing quality of the fruit.

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§51.651   Diameter.

Diameter means the greatest dimension measured at right angles to a line from stem to blossom end.

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§51.652   Classification of defects.

Table IV

FactorInjuryDamageSerious damageVery serious damage
AmmoniationNot occurring as light speck typeScars are cracked or dark and aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
BuckskinAggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surfaceAggregating more than 50 percent of the surface.
Caked melaneseAggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
Dryness or mushy conditionAffecting all segments more than 14 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruitAffecting all segments more than 12 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruitAffecting all segments more than 34 inch at stem end, or the equivalent of this amount, by volume, when occurring in other portions of the fruit.
Green spots or oil spotsMore than slightly affecting appearanceAggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than a circle 112 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruit
HailNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 23 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 12 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitNot well healed, or aggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruit.
ScabMaterially detracts from the shape or texture, or aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitSeriously detracts from the shape or texture, or aggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
ScaleMore than a few adjacent to the “button” at the stem end, or more than 6 scattered on other portions of the fruitBlotch aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter, or occurring as a ring more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitBlotch aggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter, or occurring as a ring more than a circle 112 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.
Skin breakdownAggregating more than a circle 38 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than a circle 58 inch in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruit.
ScarsDepressed, not smooth, or detracts from appearance more than the amount of discoloration permitted in the grade.Very deep or very rough aggregating more than a circle 12 inch in diameter; deep or rough aggregating more than 1 inch in diameter; slightly rough or of slight depth aggregating more than 10 percent of fruit surface. All areas based on a 70 size grapefruitVery deep or very rough aggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter; deep or rough aggregating more than 5 percent of fruit surface; slight depth or slightly rough aggregating more than 15 percent of fruit surface. All areas based on a 70 size grapefruitVery deep or very rough or unsightly that appearance is very seriously affected.
SprayburnHard or aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface
SunburnSkin is flattened, dry, darkened, or hard, aggregating more than 25 percent of fruit surfaceSkin is hard, fruit is decidedly one-sided, aggregating more than one-third of fruit surfaceAggregating more than 50 percent of fruit surface
SproutingMore than 6 seeds are sprouted, including not more than 1 sprout extending to the rind, remainder average not over 14 inch in lengthMore than 6 seeds are sprouted, including not more than 2 sprouts extending to the rind, remainder average not over 12 inch in lengthMore than 6 seeds are sprouted, including not more than 3 sprouts extending to the rind, remainder average not over 34 inch in length
Thorn scratchesNot well healed, or more unsightly than discoloration permitted in the gradeNot well healed, hard concentrated thorn injury aggregating more than a circle 34 inch in diameter, or slight scratches aggregating more than a circle 1 inch in diameter. All areas based on a 70 size grapefruit.Not well healed, hard concentrated thorn injury aggregating more than a circle 78 inch in diameter, or slight scratches aggregating more than a circle 114 inches in diameter. All areas based on a 70 size grapefruitAggregating more than 25 percent of the surface.

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Metric Conversion Table

§51.653   Metric conversion table.

InchesMillimeters (mm)
14 equals6.4
38 equals9.5
12 equals12.7
916 equals14.3
58 equals15.9
34 equals19.1
78 equals22.2
1 equals25.4
114 equals31.8
112 equals38.1
3 equals76.2
3216 equals79.4
3616 equals85.7
3816 equals88.9
31016 equals92.1
31316 equals96.8
31416 equals98.4
31516 equals100.0
4216 equals104.8
4516 equals109.5
4816 equals114.3
41216 equals120.7
5 equals127.0

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