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Title 49 Part 238 → Subpart E

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter II → Part 238 → Subpart E

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 238 → Subpart E

e-CFR data is current as of February 26, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter IIPart 238 → Subpart E


Title 49: Transportation
PART 238—PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS


Subpart E—Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment


Contents
§238.401   Scope.
§238.403   Crash energy management.
§238.405   Longitudinal static compressive strength.
§238.407   Anti-climbing mechanism.
§238.409   Forward end structures of power car cabs.
§238.411   Rear end structures of power car cabs.
§238.413   End structures of trailer cars.
§238.415   Rollover strength.
§238.417   Side loads.
§238.419   Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.
§238.421   Glazing.
§238.423   Fuel tanks.
§238.425   Electrical system.
§238.427   Suspension system.
§238.428   Overheat sensors.
§238.429   Safety appliances.
§238.431   Brake system.
§238.433   Draft system.
§238.435   Interior fittings and surfaces.
§238.437   [Reserved]
§238.439   Doors.
§238.441   Emergency roof access.
§238.443   Headlights.
§238.445   Automated monitoring.
§238.447   Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.
Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 238—Power Car Cab Forward End Structure Conceptual Implementation
Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 238—Power Car Cab Rear End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E
Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 238—Trailer Car End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E
Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 238—Trailer Car In-Board Vestibule End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E

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§238.401   Scope.

This subpart contains specific requirements for railroad passenger equipment operating at speeds exceeding 125 mph but not exceeding 160 mph. The requirements of this subpart apply beginning on September 9, 1999. As stated in §238.433(b), all such passenger equipment remains subject to the requirements concerning couplers and uncoupling devices contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in FRA regulations at part 231 and §232.2 of this chapter.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.403   Crash energy management.

(a) Each power car and trailer car shall be designed with a crash energy management system to dissipate kinetic energy during a collision. The crash energy management system shall provide a controlled deformation and collapse of designated sections within the unoccupied volumes to absorb collision energy and to reduce the decelerations on passengers and crewmembers resulting from dynamic forces transmitted to occupied volumes.

(b) The design of each unit shall consist of an occupied volume located between two normally unoccupied volumes. Where practical, sections within the unoccupied volumes shall be designed to be structurally weaker than the occupied volume. During a collision, the designated sections within the unoccupied volumes shall start to deform and eventually collapse in a controlled fashion to dissipate energy before any structural damage occurs to the occupied volume.

(c) At a minimum, each Tier II passenger train shall be designed to meet the following requirements:

(1) Thirteen megajoules (MJ) shall be absorbed at each end of the train through the controlled crushing of unoccupied volumes, and of this amount a minimum of 5 MJ shall be absorbed ahead of the operator's cab in each power car;

(2) A minimum of an additional 3 MJ shall be absorbed by the power car structure between the operator's cab and the first trailer car; and

(3) The end of the first trailer car adjacent to each power car shall absorb a minimum of 5 MJ through controlled crushing.

(d) For a 30-mph collision of a Tier II passenger train on tangent, level track with an identical stationary train:

(1) When seated anywhere in a trailer car, the velocity at which a 50th-percentile adult male contacts the seat back ahead of him shall not exceed 25 mph; and

(2) The deceleration of the occupied volumes of each trailer car shall not exceed 8g. For the purpose of demonstrating compliance with this paragraph, deceleration measurements may be processed through a low-pass filter having a bandwidth of 50 Hz.

(e) Compliance with paragraphs (a) through (d) of this section shall be demonstrated by analysis using a dynamic collision computer model. For the purpose of demonstrating compliance, the following assumptions shall be made:

(1) The train remains upright, in line, and with all wheels on the track throughout the collision; and

(2) Resistance to structural crushing follows the force-versus-displacement relationship determined during the structural analysis required as part of the design of the train.

(f) Passenger seating shall not be permitted in the leading unit of a Tier II passenger train.

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§238.405   Longitudinal static compressive strength.

(a) To form an effective crash refuge for crewmembers occupying the cab of a power car, the underframe of the cab of a power car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 2,100,000 pounds without permanent deformation to the cab, unless equivalent protection to crewmembers is provided under an alternate design approach, validated through analysis and testing, and approved by FRA under the provisions of §238.21.

(b) The underframe of the occupied volume of each trailer car shall resist a minimum longitudinal static compressive force of 800,000 pounds without permanent deformation to the car. To demonstrate compliance with this requirement, the 800,000-pound load shall be applied to the underframe of the occupied volume as it would be transmitted to the underframe by the full structure of the vehicle.

(c) Unoccupied volumes of a power car or a trailer car designed to crush as part of the crash energy management design are not subject to the requirements of this section.

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§238.407   Anti-climbing mechanism.

(a) Each power car shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its forward end capable of resisting an ultimate upward or downward static vertical force of 200,000 pounds. A power car constructed with a crash energy management design is permitted to crush in a controlled manner before the anti-climbing mechanism fully engages.

(b) Interior train coupling points between units, including between units of articulated cars or other permanently joined units of cars, shall have an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting an upward or downward vertical force of 100,000 pounds without yielding.

(c) The forward coupler of a power car shall be attached to the car body to resist a vertical downward force of 100,000 pounds for any horizontal position of the coupler without yielding.

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§238.409   Forward end structures of power car cabs.

This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 1 to this subpart.)

(a) Center collision post. The forward end structure shall have a full-height center collision post, or its structural equivalent, capable of withstanding the following:

(1) A shear load of 500,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint;

(2) A shear load of 150,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(3) A horizontal, longitudinal force of 300,000 pounds, applied at a point on level with the bottom of the windshield, without exceeding its ultimate strength.

(b) Side collision posts. The forward end structure shall have two side collision posts, or their structural equivalent, located at approximately the one-third points laterally, each capable of withstanding the following:

(1) A shear load of 500,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(2) A horizontal, longitudinal force of 300,000 pounds, applied at a point on level with the bottom of the windshield, without exceeding its ultimate strength.

(c) Corner posts. The forward end structure shall have two full-height corner posts, or their structural equivalent, each capable of withstanding the following:

(1) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 300,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint;

(2) A horizontal, lateral force of 100,000 pounds applied at a point 30 inches up from the underframe attachment, without exceeding the yield or the critical buckling stress; and

(3) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 80,000 pounds at its joint with the roof, without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

(d) Skin. The skin covering the forward-facing end of each power car shall be:

(1) Equivalent to a 12 -inch steel plate with a 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch yield strength—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength is maintained;

(2) Securely attached to the end structure; and

(3) Sealed to prevent the entry of fluids into the occupied cab area of the equipment. As used in paragraph (d), the term “skin” does not include forward-facing windows and doors.

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§238.411   Rear end structures of power car cabs.

The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 2 to this subpart.)

(a) Corner posts. The rear end structure shall have two full-height corner posts, or their structural equivalent, each capable of withstanding the following:

(1) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 300,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(2) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 80,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

(b) Collision posts. The rear end structure shall have two full-height collision posts, or their structural equivalent, each capable of withstanding the following:

(1) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 500,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(2) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 75,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19991, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.413   End structures of trailer cars.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural equivalent. (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 3 to this subpart.)

(1) Corner posts. Two full-height corner posts, each capable of withstanding the following:

(i) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 150,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint;

(ii) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral force of 30,000 pounds applied at a point 18 inches up from the underframe attachment without exceeding the yield or the critical buckling stress; and

(iii) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 20,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

(2) Collision posts. Two full-height collision posts each capable of withstanding the following:

(i) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 300,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(ii) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 60,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

(b) If the trailer car is designed with an end vestibule, the end structure inboard of the vestibule shall have two full-height corner posts, or their structural equivalent, each capable of withstanding the following (A conceptual implementation of this end structure is provided in Figure 4 to this subpart):

(1) A horizontal, longitudinal shear load of 200,000 pounds at its joint with the underframe without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint;

(2) A horizontal, lateral force of 30,000 pounds applied at a point 18 inches up from the underframe attachment without exceeding the yield or the critical buckling stress;

(3) A horizontal, longitudinal force of 50,000 pounds applied at a point 18 inches up from the underframe attachment without exceeding the yield or the critical buckling stress; and

(4) A horizontal, longitudinal or lateral shear load of 20,000 pounds at its joint with the roof without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint.

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§238.415   Rollover strength.

(a) Each passenger car and power car shall be designed to rest on its side and be uniformly supported at the top (“roof rail”) and the bottom chords (“side sill”) of the side frame. The allowable stress in the structural members of the occupied volumes for this condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical buckling stress, whichever is less. Minor localized deformations to the outer side skin of the passenger car or power car is allowed provided such deformations in no way intrude upon the occupied volume of each car.

(b) Each passenger car and power car shall also be designed to rest on its roof so that any damage in occupied areas is limited to roof sheathing and framing. The allowable stress in the structural members of the occupied volumes for this condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical buckling stress, whichever is less. Deformation to the roof sheathing and framing is allowed to the extent necessary to permit the vehicle to be supported directly on the top chords of the side frames and end frames.

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§238.417   Side loads.

(a) Each passenger car body structure shall be designed to resist an inward transverse load of 80,000 pounds of force applied to the side sill and 10,000 pounds of force applied to the belt rail (horizontal members at the bottom of the window opening in the side frame).

(b) These loads shall be considered to be applied separately over the full vertical dimension of the specified member for any distance of 8 feet in the direction of the length of the car.

(c) The allowable stress shall be the lesser of the yield stress, except as otherwise allowed by this paragraph, or the critical buckling stress. In calculating the stress to show compliance with this requirement, local yielding of the side skin adjacent to the side sill and belt rail, and local yielding of the side sill bend radii at the crossbearer and floor-beam connections is allowed. For purposes of this paragraph, local yielding is allowed provided the resulting deformations in no way intrude upon the occupied volume of the car.

(d) The connections of the side frame to the roof and underframe shall support the loads specified in this section.

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§238.419   Truck-to-car-body and truck component attachment.

(a) The ultimate strength of the truck-to-car-body attachment for each unit in a train shall be sufficient to resist without failure the following individually applied loads: a vertical force equivalent to 2g acting on the mass of the truck; and a force of 250,000 pounds acting in any horizontal direction on the truck, along with the resulting vertical reaction to this load.

(b) Each component of a truck (which include axles, wheels, bearings, the truck-mounted brake system, suspension system components, and any other components attached to the truck by design) shall remain attached to the truck when a force equivalent to 2g acting on the mass of the component is exerted in any direction on that component.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19992, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.421   Glazing.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, each exterior window on a passenger car and a power car cab shall comply with the requirements contained in part 223 of this chapter.

(b) Particular end-facing exterior glazing requirements. Each end-facing exterior window in a passenger car and a power car cab shall also, in the orientation in which it is installed in the car:

(1) Resist the impact of a 12-pound solid steel sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at which the car will operate (ii) at an impact angle no less severe than horizontal to the car, with no penetration or spall. An impact angle that is perpendicular (90 degrees) to the window's surface shall be considered the most severe impact angle for purposes of this requirement; and

(2) Demonstrate anti-spalling performance by the use of a 0.001-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles after any impact test; and

(3) Be permanently marked, prior to installation, in such a manner that the marking is clearly visible after the material has been installed. The marking shall include:

(i) The words “FRA TYPE IHP” to indicate that the material has successfully passed the testing requirements specified in this paragraph;

(ii) The name of the manufacturer; and

(iii) The type or brand identification of the material.

(c) Passenger equipment ordered prior to May 12, 1999. Each exterior window in passenger equipment ordered prior to May 12, 1999, may comply with the following glazing requirements in lieu of the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section:

(1) Each end-facing exterior window shall, in the orientation in which it is installed in the vehicle, resist the impact of a 12-pound solid steel sphere traveling (i) at the maximum speed at which the vehicle will operate (ii) at an impact angle no less severe than horizontal to the vehicle, with no penetration or spall. An impact angle that is perpendicular to the window's surface shall be considered the most severe impact angle for purposes of this requirement.

(2) Each side-facing exterior window shall resist the impact of a:

(i) 12-pound solid steel sphere at 15 mph, at an angle of 90 degrees to the window's surface, with no penetration or spall; and

(ii) A granite ballast stone weighing a minimum of 0.5 pounds, traveling at 75 mph and impacting at a 90-degree angle to the window's surface, with no penetration or spall.

(3) All exterior windows shall:

(i) Resist a single impact of a 9-mm, 147-grain bullet traveling at an impact velocity of 900 feet per second, with no bullet penetration or spall; and

(ii) Demonstrate anti-spalling performance by the use of a 0.002-inch thick aluminum witness plate, placed 12 inches from the window's surface during all impact tests. The witness plate shall contain no marks from spalled glazing particles after any impact test; and

(iii) Be permanently marked, prior to installation, in such a manner that the marking is clearly visible after the material has been installed. The marking shall include:

(A) The words “FRA TYPE IH” for end-facing glazing or “FRA TYPE IIH” for side-facing glazing, to indicate that the material has successfully passed the testing requirements of this section;

(B) The name of the manufacturer; and

(C) The type or brand identification of the material.

(d) Glazing securement. Each exterior window on a passenger car and a power car cab shall remain in place when subjected to:

(1) The forces due to air pressure differences caused when two trains pass at the minimum separation for two adjacent tracks, while traveling in opposite directions, each train traveling at the maximum authorized speed; and

(2) The impact forces that the glazed window is required to resist as specified in this section.

(e) Stenciling. Each car that is fully equipped with glazing materials that meet the requirements of this section shall be stenciled on an interior wall as follows: “Fully Equipped with FRA Part 238 Glazing” or similar words conveying that meaning, in letters at least 38 of an inch high.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19992, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.423   Fuel tanks.

(a) External fuel tanks. Each type of external fuel tank must be approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety upon a showing that the fuel tank provides a level of safety at least equivalent to a fuel tank that complies with the external fuel tank requirements in §238.223(a).

(b) Internal fuel tanks. Internal fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements specified in §238.223(b).

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§238.425   Electrical system.

(a) Circuit protection. (1) The main propulsion power line shall be protected with a lightning arrestor, automatic circuit breaker, and overload relay. The lightning arrestor shall be run by the most direct path possible to ground with a connection to ground of not less than No. 6 AWG. These overload protection devices shall be housed in an enclosure designed specifically for that purpose with the arc chute vented directly to outside air.

(2) Head end power, including trainline power distribution, shall be provided with both overload and ground fault protection.

(3) Circuits used for purposes other than propelling the equipment shall be connected to their power source through circuit breakers or equivalent current-limiting devices.

(4) Each auxiliary circuit shall be provided with a circuit breaker located as near as practical to the point of connection to the source of power for that circuit; however, such protection may be omitted from circuits controlling safety-critical devices.

(b) Main battery system. (1) The main batteries shall be isolated from the cab and passenger seating areas by a non-combustible barrier.

(2) Battery chargers shall be designed to protect against overcharging.

(3) Battery circuits shall include an emergency battery cut-off switch to completely disconnect the energy stored in the batteries from the load.

(4) If batteries are of the type to potentially vent explosive gases, the batteries shall be adequately ventilated to prevent accumulation of explosive concentrations of these gases.

(c) Power dissipation resistors. (1) Power dissipating resistors shall be adequately ventilated to prevent overheating under worst-case operating conditions.

(2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed with sufficient isolation to prevent combustion between resistor elements and combustible material.

(3) Power dissipation resistor circuits shall incorporate warning or protective devices for low ventilation air flow, over-temperature, and short circuit failures.

(4) Resistor elements shall be electrically insulated from resistor frames, and the frames shall be electrically insulated from the supports that hold them.

(d) Electromagnetic interference and compatibility. (1) The operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility can be achieved through equipment design or changes to the operating environment.

(2) The electronic equipment shall not produce electrical noise that interferes with trainline control and communications or with wayside signaling systems.

(3) To contain electromagnetic interference emissions, suppression of transients shall be at the source wherever possible.

(4) Electrical and electronic systems of equipment shall be capable of operation in the presence of external electromagnetic noise sources.

(5) All electronic equipment shall be self-protected from damage or improper operation, or both, due to high voltage transients and long-term over-voltage or under-voltage conditions.

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§238.427   Suspension system.

(a) General requirements. (1) Suspension systems shall be designed to reasonably prevent wheel climb, wheel unloading, rail rollover, rail shift, and a vehicle from overturning to ensure safe, stable performance and ride quality. These requirements shall be met:

(i) In all operating environments, and under all track conditions and loading conditions as determined by the operating railroad; and

(ii) At all track speeds and over all track qualities consistent with the Track Safety Standards in part 213 of this chapter, up to the maximum operating speed and maximum cant deficiency of the equipment.

(2) All passenger equipment shall meet the safety performance standards for suspension systems contained in part 213 of this chapter, or alternative standards providing at least equivalent safety if approved by FRA under the provisions of §238.21. In particular—

(i) Pre-revenue service qualification. All passenger equipment shall demonstrate safe operation during pre-revenue service qualification in accordance with §213.345 of this chapter and is subject to the requirements of §213.329 of this chapter.

(ii) Revenue service operation. All passenger equipment in service is subject to the requirements of §§213.329 and 213.333 of this chapter.

(b) Carbody acceleration. A passenger car shall not operate under conditions that result in a steady-state lateral acceleration greater than 0.15g, as measured parallel to the car floor inside the passenger compartment. Additional carbody acceleration limits are specified in §213.333 of this chapter.

(c) Truck (hunting) acceleration. Each truck shall be equipped with a permanently installed lateral accelerometer mounted on the truck frame. If truck hunting is detected, the train monitoring system shall provide an alarm to the locomotive engineer, and the train shall be slowed to a speed at least 5 mph less than the speed at which the truck hunting stopped. Truck hunting is defined in §213.333 of this chapter.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19992, Apr. 23, 2002; 78 FR 16126, Mar. 13, 2013]

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§238.428   Overheat sensors.

Overheat sensors for each wheelset journal bearing shall be provided. The sensors may be placed either onboard the equipment or at reasonable intervals along the railroad's right-of-way.

[78 FR 16126, Mar. 13, 2013]

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§238.429   Safety appliances.

(a) Couplers. (1) The leading and the trailing ends of a semi-permanently coupled trainset shall each be equipped with an automatic coupler that couples on impact and uncouples by either activation of a traditional uncoupling lever or some other type of uncoupling mechanism that does not require a person to go between the equipment units.

(2) The automatic coupler and uncoupling device on the leading and trailing ends of a semi-permanently coupled trainset may be stored within a removable shrouded housing.

(3) If the units in a train are not semi-permanently coupled, both ends of each unit shall be equipped with an automatic coupler that couples on impact and uncouples by either activation of a traditional uncoupling lever or some other type of uncoupling mechanism that does not require a person to go between the equipment units.

(b) Hand brakes. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, Tier II trains shall be equipped with a parking or hand brake that can be applied and released manually and that is capable of holding the train on a 3-percent grade.

(c) Safety appliance mechanical strength and fasteners. (1) All handrails, handholds, and sill steps shall be made of 1-inch diameter steel pipe, 58 -inch thickness steel, or a material of equal or greater mechanical strength.

(2) All safety appliances shall be securely fastened to the car body structure with mechanical fasteners that have mechanical strength greater than or equal to that of a 12 -inch diameter SAE grade steel bolt mechanical fastener.

(i) Safety appliance mechanical fasteners shall have mechanical strength and fatigue resistance equal to or greater than a 12 -inch diameter SAE steel bolt.

(ii) Mechanical fasteners shall be installed with a positive means to prevent unauthorized removal. Self-locking threaded fasteners do not meet this requirement.

(iii) Mechanical fasteners shall be installed to facilitate inspection.

(d) Handrails and handholds. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section:

(1) Handrails shall be provided for passengers on both sides of all steps used to board or depart the train.

(2) Exits on a power vehicle shall be equipped with handrails and handholds so that crewmembers can get on and off the vehicle safely.

(3) Throughout their entire length, handrails and handholds shall be a color that contrasts with the color of the vehicle body to which they are fastened.

(4) The maximum distance above the top of the rail to the bottom of vertical handrails and handholds shall be 51 inches, and the minimum distance shall be 21 inches.

(5) Vertical handrails and handholds shall be installed to continue to a point at least equal to the height of the top edge of the control cab door.

(6) The minimum hand clearance distance between a vertical handrail or handhold and the vehicle body shall be 212 inches for the entire length.

(7) All vertical handrails and handholds shall be securely fastened to the vehicle body.

(8) If the length of the handrail exceeds 60 inches, it shall be securely fastened to the power vehicle body with two fasteners at each end.

(e) Sill steps. Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this section, each power vehicle shall be equipped with a sill step below each exterior door as follows:

(1) The sill step shall have a minimum cross-sectional area of 12 by 3 inches;

(2) The sill step shall be made of steel or a material of equal or greater strength and fatigue resistance;

(3) The minimum tread length of the sill step shall be 10 inches;

(4) The minimum clear depth of the sill step shall be 8 inches;

(5) The outside edge of the tread of the sill step shall be flush with the side of the car body structure;

(6) Sill steps shall not have a vertical rise between treads exceeding 18 inches;

(7) The lowest sill step tread shall be not more than 24, preferably not more than 22, inches above the top of the track rail;

(8) Sill steps shall be a color that contrasts with the color of the power vehicle body to which they are fastened;

(9) Sill steps shall be securely fastened;

(10) At least 50 percent of the tread surface area of each sill step shall be open space; and

(11) The portion of the tread surface area of each sill step which is not open space and is normally contacted by the foot shall be treated with an anti-skid material.

(f) Exceptions. (1) If the units of the equipment are semi-permanently coupled, with uncoupling done only at maintenance facilities, the equipment units that are not required by paragraph (a) of this section to be equipped with automatic couplers need not be equipped with sill steps or end or side handholds that would normally be used to safely perform coupling and uncoupling operations.

(2) If the units of the equipment are not semi-permanently coupled, the units shall be equipped with hand brakes, sill steps, end handholds, and side handholds that meet the requirements contained in §231.14 of this chapter.

(3) If two trainsets are coupled to form a single train that is not semi-permanently coupled (i.e., that is coupled by an automatic coupler), the automatically coupled ends shall be equipped with an end handhold that is located and installed so that an individual can safely couple and uncouple the trainsets. The end handhold shall be not more than 16 inches from each side of the car and shall extend the remaining length of the end of the car. (If the equipment is designed with a tapered nose, the side of the car shall be determined based on the outer dimension of the tapered nose where the end handhold is attached.) The end handhold shall also meet the mechanical strength and design requirements contained in paragraphs (c), (d)(3), and (d)(6) of this section. If the trainsets are semi-permanently coupled, this safety appliance is not required.

(g) Optional safety appliances. Safety appliances installed at the option of the railroad shall be firmly attached with mechanical fasteners and shall meet the design and installation requirements provided in this section.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19992, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.431   Brake system.

(a) A passenger train's brake system shall be capable of stopping the train from its maximum operating speed within the signal spacing existing on the track over which the train is operating under worst-case adhesion conditions.

(b) The brake system shall be designed to allow an inspector to determine that the brake system is functioning properly without having to place himself or herself in a dangerous position on, under, or between the equipment.

(c) Passenger equipment shall be provided with an emergency brake application feature that produces an irretrievable stop, using a brake rate consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and brake system thermal capacity. An emergency brake application shall be available at any time, and shall be initiated by an unintentional parting of the train. A means to initiate an emergency brake application shall be provided at two locations in each unit of the train; however, where a unit of the train is 45 feet or less in length a means to initiate an emergency brake application need only be provided at one location in the unit.

(d) The brake system shall be designed to prevent thermal damage to wheels and brake discs. The operating railroad shall demonstrate through analysis and testing that no thermal damage results to the wheels or brake discs under conditions resulting in maximum braking effort being exerted on the wheels or discs.

(e) The following requirements apply to blended braking systems:

(1) Loss of power or failure of the dynamic brake does not result in exceeding the allowable stopping distance;

(2) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all operating conditions;

(3) The operational status of the electric portion of the brake system shall be displayed for the train operator in the control cab; and

(4) The operating railroad shall demonstrate through analysis and testing the maximum operating speed for safe operation of the train using only the friction brake portion of the blended brake with no thermal damage to wheels or discs.

(f) The brake system design shall allow a disabled train's pneumatic brakes to be controlled by a conventional locomotive, during a rescue operation, through brake pipe control alone.

(g) An independent failure-detection system shall compare brake commands with brake system output to determine if a failure has occurred. The failure detection system shall report brake system failures to the automated train monitoring system.

(h) Passenger equipment shall be equipped with an adhesion control system designed to automatically adjust the braking force on each wheel to prevent sliding during braking. In the event of a failure of this system to prevent wheel slide within preset parameters, a wheel slide alarm that is visual or audible, or both, shall alert the train operator in the cab of the controlling power car to wheel-slide conditions on any axle of the train.

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§238.433   Draft system.

(a) Leading and trailing automatic couplers of trains shall be compatible with standard AAR couplers with no special adapters used.

(b) All passenger equipment continues to be subject to the requirements concerning couplers and uncoupling devices contained in Federal Statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in FRA regulations at part 231 and §232.2 of this chapter.

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§238.435   Interior fittings and surfaces.

(a) Each seat back and seat attachment in a passenger car shall be designed to withstand, with deflection but without total failure, the load associated with the impact into the seat back of an unrestrained 95th-percentile adult male initially seated behind the seat back, when the floor to which the seat is attached decelerates with a triangular crash pulse having a peak of 8g and a duration of 250 milliseconds.

(b) Each seat back in a passenger car shall include shock-absorbent material to cushion the impact of occupants with the seat ahead of them.

(c) The ultimate strength of each seat attachment to a passenger car body shall be sufficient to withstand the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the seat plus the mass of a seat occupant who is a 95th-percentile adult male:

(1) Lateral: 4g; and

(2) Vertical: 4g.

(d)(1) Other interior fittings shall be attached to the passenger car body with sufficient strength to withstand the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the fitting:

(i) Longitudinal: 8g;

(ii) Lateral: 4g; and

(iii) Vertical: 4g.

(2) Fittings that can be expected to be impacted by a person during a collision, such as tables between facing seats, shall be designed for the mass of the fitting plus the mass of the number of occupants who are 95th-percentile adult males that could be expected to strike the fitting, when the floor of the passenger car decelerates with a triangular crash pulse having a peak of 8g and a duration of 250 milliseconds.

(e) The ultimate strength of the interior fittings and equipment in power car control cabs shall be sufficient to resist without failure loads due to the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the fitting or equipment:

(1) Longitudinal: 12g;

(2) Lateral: 4g; and

(3) Vertical: 4g.

(f) To the extent possible, interior fittings, except seats, shall be recessed or flush-mounted. Corners and sharp edges shall be avoided or otherwise padded.

(g) Energy-absorbent material shall be used to pad surfaces likely to be impacted by occupants during collisions or derailments.

(h) Luggage stowage compartments shall be enclosed, and have an ultimate strength sufficient to resist loads due to the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the luggage that the compartments are designed to accommodate:

(1) Longitudinal: 8g;

(2) Lateral: 4g; and

(3) Vertical: 4g.

(i) If, for purposes of showing compliance with the requirements of this section, the strength of a seat attachment is to be demonstrated through sled testing, the seat structure and seat attachment to the sled that are used in such testing must be representative of the actual seat structure in, and seat attachment to, the rail vehicle subject to the requirements of this section. If the attachment strength of any other interior fitting is to be demonstrated through sled testing, for purposes of showing compliance with the requirements of this section, such testing shall be conducted in a similar manner.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19992, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.437   [Reserved]

§238.439   Doors.

In addition to the requirements of §238.112—

(a) The status of each powered, exterior side door in a passenger car shall be displayed to the crew in the operating cab. If door interlocks are used, the sensors used to detect train motion shall be nominally set to operate at 3 mph.

(b) Each powered, exterior side door in a passenger car shall be connected to an emergency back-up power system.

(c) For a passenger car ordered prior to January 28, 2014, and placed in service prior to January 29, 2018, a passenger compartment end door (other than a door providing access to the exterior of the trainset) shall be equipped with a kick-out panel, pop-out window, or other similar means of egress in the event the door will not open, or shall be so designed as to pose a negligible probability of becoming inoperable in the event of car body distortion following a collision or derailment.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19993, Apr. 23, 2002; 78 FR 71815, Nov. 29, 2013]

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§238.441   Emergency roof access.

(a) Existing passenger cars and power cars. Each passenger car and power car ordered prior to April 1, 2009 and placed in service for the first time prior to April 1, 2011, shall have a minimum of one roof hatch emergency access location with a minimum opening of 26 inches by 24 inches, or at least one structural weak point in the roof providing a minimum opening of the same dimensions, to provide access for properly equipped emergency response personnel. Each emergency roof access location shall be conspicuously marked, and legible and understandable operating instructions shall be posted at or near each such location. On or after January 28, 2015, such markings shall also conform with the requirements specified in §238.125.

(b) New passenger cars. Each passenger car ordered on or after April 1, 2009 or placed in service for the first time on or after April 1, 2011, shall comply with the emergency roof access requirements specified in §238.123.

(c) New power cars. Each power car ordered on or after April 1, 2009, or placed in service for the first time on or after April 1, 2011, shall have a minimum of one emergency roof access location, with a minimum opening of 26 inches longitudinally by 24 inches laterally, and comply with the emergency roof access requirements specified in §§238.123(b), (d), and (e).

[73 FR 6412, Feb. 1, 2008, as amended at 78 FR 71815, Nov. 29, 2013]

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§238.443   Headlights.

(a) Each power car shall be equipped with at least two headlights. Each headlight shall produce no less than 200,000 candela. One headlight shall be arranged to illuminate a person standing between the rails 800 feet ahead of the power car under clear weather conditions. The other headlight shall be arranged to illuminate a person standing between the rails 1,500 feet ahead of the power car under clear weather conditions.

(b) A power car with a headlight not in compliance with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this section shall be moved in accordance with the following:

(1) If one of the headlights is defective, the defect shall be considered a non-running gear defect subject to the provisions contained in §238.17 of this part.

(2) If both headlights are defective, the power car shall be inspected and tagged in accordance with the requirements contained in §238.17(c) relating to non-running gear defects. The power car may continue to be used in passenger service only to the nearest forward location where the repairs necessary to bring the power car into compliance can be made or to the power car's next calendar day mechanical inspection, whichever occurs first.

[67 FR 19993, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.445   Automated monitoring.

(a) Each passenger train shall be equipped to monitor the performance of the following systems or components:

(1) Reception of cab signals and train control signals;

(2) Truck hunting;

(3) Dynamic brake status;

(4) Friction brake status;

(5) Fire detection systems;

(6) Head end power status;

(7) Alerter or deadman control;

(8) Horn and bell;

(9) Wheel slide;

(10) Tilt system, if so equipped; and

(11) On-board bearing-temperature sensors, if so equipped.

(b) When any such system or component is operating outside of its predetermined safety parameters:

(1) The train operator shall be alerted; and

(2) Immediate corrective action shall be taken, if the system or component defect impairs the train operator's ability to safely operate the train. Immediate corrective action includes limiting the speed of the train.

(c) The monitoring system shall be designed with an automatic self-test feature that notifies the train operator that the monitoring capability is functioning correctly and alerts the train operator when a system failure occurs.

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§238.447   Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

(a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the chance of human error, and be comfortably within view and within easy reach when the operator is seated in the normal train control position.

(b) The train operator's control panel buttons, switches, levers, knobs, and the like shall be distinguishable by sight and by touch.

(c) An alerter shall be provided in the power car cab. If not acknowledged, the alerter shall cause a brake application to stop the train.

(d) Power car cab information displays shall be designed with the following characteristics:

(1) Simplicity and standardization shall be the driving criteria for design of formats for the display of information in the cab;

(2) Essential, safety-critical information shall be displayed as a default condition;

(3) Operator selection shall be required to display other than default information;

(4) Cab or train control signals shall be displayed for the operator; and

(5) Displays shall be readable from the operators's normal position under all lighting conditions.

(e) The power car cab shall be designed so at to permit the crew to have an effective field of view in the forward direction, as well as to the right and left of the direction of travel to observe objects approaching the train from either side. Field-of-view obstructions due to required structural members shall be minimized.

(f) Each seat provided for an employee regularly assigned to occupy a power car cab and any floor-mounted seat in the cab shall be:

(1) Secured to the car body with an attachment having an ultimate strength capable of withstanding the loads due to the following individually applied accelerations acting on the combined mass of the seat and the mass of a seat occupant who is a 95th-percentile adult male:

(i) Longitudinal: 12g;

(ii) Lateral: 4g; and

(iii) Vertical: 4g;

(2) Designed so that all adjustments have the range necessary to accommodate a person ranging from a 5th-percentile adult female to a 95th-percentile adult male, as persons possessing such characteristics are specified, correcting for clothing as appropriate, in any recognized survey after 1958 of weight, height, and other body dimensions of U.S. adults;

(3) Equipped with lumbar support that is adjustable from the seated position;

(4) Equipped with force-assisted, vertical-height adjustment, operated from the seated position;

(5) Equipped with a manually reclining seat back, adjustable from the seated position;

(6) Equipped with an adjustable headrest; and

(7) Equipped with folding, padded armrests.

(g) Sharp edges and corners shall be eliminated from the interior of the power car cab, and interior surfaces of the cab likely to be impacted by an employee during a collision or derailment shall be padded with shock-absorbent material.

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Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 238—Power Car Cab Forward End Structure Conceptual Implementation

Figure 2 to Subpart E of Part 238—Power Car Cab Rear End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E

Figure 3 to Subpart E of Part 238—Trailer Car End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E

Figure 4 to Subpart E of Part 238—Trailer Car In-Board Vestibule End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1—to Subpart E