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Title 49 Part 238 → Subpart C

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter II → Part 238 → Subpart C

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 238 → Subpart C

e-CFR data is current as of February 20, 2020

Title 49Subtitle BChapter IIPart 238 → Subpart C


Title 49: Transportation
PART 238—PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS


§238.201   Scope/alternative compliance.

(a) Scope. (1) This subpart contains requirements for railroad passenger equipment operating at speeds not exceeding 125 miles per hour. As stated in §238.229, all such passenger equipment remains subject to the safety appliance requirements contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in FRA regulations at part 231 and §232.2 of this chapter. Unless otherwise specified, these requirements only apply to passenger equipment ordered on or after September 8, 2000 or placed in service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002.

(2) The structural standards of this subpart (§238.203—static end strength; §238.205—anti-climbing mechanism; §238.207—link between coupling mechanism and car body; §238.209—forward-facing end structure of locomotives; §238.211—collision posts; §238.213—corner posts; §238.215—rollover strength; §238.217—side structure; §238.219—truck-to-car-body attachment; and §238.223—locomotive fuel tanks) do not apply to passenger equipment if used exclusively on a rail line:

(i) With no public highway-rail grade crossings;

(ii) On which no freight operations occur at any time;

(iii) On which only passenger equipment of compatible design is utilized; and

(iv) On which trains operate at speeds not exceeding 79 mph. Any such passenger equipment remains subject to the requirements of §229.141 of this chapter, as applicable.

(b) Alternative compliance. (1) Passenger equipment of special design shall be deemed to comply with this subpart, other than §238.203, for the service environment the petitioner proposes to operate the equipment in if the Associate Administrator determines under paragraph (c) of this section that the equipment provides at least an equivalent level of safety in such environment for the protection of its occupants from serious injury in the case of a derailment or collision. In making a determination under paragraph (c) the Associate Administrator shall consider, as a whole, all of those elements of casualty prevention or mitigation relevant to the integrity of the equipment that are addressed by the requirements of this subpart.

(2)(i) Tier I passenger trainsets may comply with the alternative crashworthiness and occupant protection requirements in appendix G to this part instead of the requirements in §§238.203, 238.205, 238.207, 238.209(a), 238.211, 238.213, and 238.219.

(ii) To assess compliance with the alternative requirements, the railroad shall submit the following documents to the Associate Administrator, for review:

(A) Test plans, and supporting documentation for all tests intended to demonstrate compliance with the alternative requirements and to validate any computer modeling and analysis used, including notice of such tests, 30 days before commencing the tests; and

(B) A carbody crashworthiness and occupant protection compliance report based on the analysis, calculations, and test data necessary to demonstrate compliance.

(iii) The carbody crashworthiness and occupant protection compliance report shall be deemed acceptable unless the Associate Administrator stays action by written notice to the railroad within 60 days after receipt of the report.

(A) If the Associate Administrator stays action, the railroad shall correct any deficiencies FRA identified and notify FRA it has corrected the deficiencies before placing the subject equipment into service.

(B) FRA may also impose written conditions necessary for safely operating the equipment, for cause stated.

(c)(1) The Associate Administrator may only make a finding of equivalent safety and compliance with this subpart, other than §238.203, based upon a submission of data and analysis sufficient to support that determination. The petition shall include:

(i) The information required by §238.21(c);

(ii) Information, including detailed drawings and materials specifications, sufficient to describe the actual construction of the equipment of special design;

(iii) Engineering analysis sufficient to describe the likely performance of the equipment in derailment and collision scenarios pertinent to the safety requirements for which compliance is required and for which the equipment does not conform to the specific requirements of this subpart; and

(iv) A quantitative risk assessment, incorporating the design information and engineering analysis described in this paragraph, demonstrating that the equipment, as utilized in the service environment for which recognition is sought, presents no greater hazard of serious personal injury than equipment that conforms to the specific requirements of this subpart.

(2) Any petition made under this paragraph is subject to the procedures set forth in §238.21, and will be disposed of in accordance with §238.21(g).

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19990, Apr. 23, 2002; 71 FR 36916, June 28, 2006; 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.203   Static end strength.

(a)(1) Except as further specified in this paragraph (a), paragraph (d) of this section, and §238.201(b)(2), on or after November 8, 1999, all passenger equipment shall resist a minimum static end load of 800,000 pounds applied on the line of draft without permanent deformation of the body structure.

(2) For a passenger car or a locomotive, the static end strength of unoccupied volumes may be less than 800,000 pounds if:

(i) Energy absorbing structures are used as part of a crash energy management design of the passenger car or locomotive, and

(ii) The passenger car or locomotive resists a minimum static end load of 800,000 pounds applied on the line of draft at the ends of its occupied volume without permanent deformation of the body structure.

(3) For a locomotive placed in service prior to November 8, 1999, as an alternative to resisting a minimum static end load of 800,000 pounds applied on the line of draft without permanent deformation of the body structure, the locomotive shall resist a horizontal load of 1,000,000 pounds applied along the longitudinal center line of the locomotive at a point on the buffer beam construction 12 inches above the center line of draft without permanent deformation of the body structure. The application of this load shall not be distributed over an area greater than 6 inches by 24 inches. The alternative specified in this paragraph is not applicable to a cab car or an MU locomotive.

(4) The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to:

(i) A private car; or

(ii) Unoccupied passenger equipment operating at the rear of a passenger train.

(b) Passenger equipment placed in service before November 8, 1999 is presumed to comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section, unless the railroad operating the equipment has knowledge, or FRA makes a showing, that such passenger equipment was not built to the requirements specified in paragraph (a)(1).

(c) When overloaded in compression, the body structure of passenger equipment shall be designed, to the maximum extent possible, to fail by buckling or crushing, or both, of structural members rather than by fracture of structural members or failure of structural connections.

(d) Grandfathering of non-compliant equipment for use on a specified rail line or lines—(1) Grandfathering approval is equipment and line specific. Grandfathering approval of non-compliant equipment under this paragraph is limited to usage of the equipment on a particular rail line or lines. Before grandfathered equipment can be used on another rail line, a railroad must file and secure approval of a grandfathering petition under paragraph (d)(3) of this section.

(2) Temporary usage of non-compliant equipment. Any passenger equipment placed in service on a rail line or lines before November 8, 1999 that does not comply with the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) may continue to be operated on that particular line or (those particular lines) if the operator of the equipment files a petition seeking grandfathering approval under paragraph (d)(3) before November 8, 1999. Such usage may continue while the petition is being processed, but in no event later than May 8, 2000, unless the petition is approved.

(3) Petitions for grandfathering. Petitions for grandfathering shall include:

(i) The name, title, address, and telephone number of the primary person to be contacted with respect to the petition;

(ii) Information, including detailed drawings and material specifications, sufficient to describe the actual construction of the equipment;

(iii) Engineering analysis sufficient to describe the likely performance of the static end strength of the equipment and the likely performance of the equipment in derailment and collision scenarios pertinent to the equipment's static end strength;

(iv) A description of risk mitigation measures that will be employed in connection with the usage of the equipment on a specified rail line or lines to decrease the likelihood of accidents involving the use of the equipment; and

(v) A quantitative risk assessment, incorporating the design information, engineering analysis, and risk mitigation measures described in this paragraph, demonstrating that the use of the equipment, as utilized in the service environment for which recognition is sought, is in the public interest and is consistent with railroad safety.

(e) Service. Each petition shall be submitted to the Associate Administrator for Safety, Federal Railroad Administration, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Mail Stop 25, Washington, DC 20590.

(f) Federal Register notice. FRA will publish a notice in the Federal Register concerning each petition under paragraph (d) of this section.

(g) Comment. Not later than 30 days from the date of publication of the notice in the Federal Register concerning a petition under paragraph (d) of this section, any person may comment on the petition.

(1) Each comment shall set forth specifically the basis upon which it is made, and contain a concise statement of the interest of the commenter in the proceeding.

(2) Each comment shall be submitted to the U.S. Department of Transportation, Docket Operations (M-30), West Building Ground Floor, Room W12B140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, and shall contain the assigned docket number for that proceeding. The form of such submission may be in written or electronic form consistent with the standards and requirements established by the Federal Docket Management System and posted on its web site at http://www.regulations.gov.

(h) Disposition of petitions (1) If the Administrator finds it necessary or desirable, FRA will conduct a hearing on a petition in accordance with the procedures provided in §211.25 of this chapter.

(2) If FRA finds that the petition complies with the requirements of this section and that the proposed usage is in the public interest and consistent with railroad safety, the petition will be granted, normally within 90 days of its receipt. If the petition is neither granted nor denied within 90 days, the petition remains pending for decision. FRA may attach special conditions to the approval of the petition. Following the approval of a petition, FRA may reopen consideration of the petition for cause stated.

(3) If FRA finds that the petition does not comply with the requirements of this section or that the proposed usage is not in the public interest and consistent with railroad safety, the petition will be denied, normally within 90 days of its receipt.

(4) When FRA grants or denies a petition, or reopens consideration of the petition, written notice is sent to the petitioner and other interested parties.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 64 FR 70196, Dec. 16, 1999; 67 FR 19991, Apr. 23, 2002; 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009; 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.205   Anti-climbing mechanism.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, and §238.201(b), all passenger equipment placed in service for the first time on or after September 8, 2000, and prior to March 9, 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting an upward or downward vertical force of 100,000 pounds without failure. All passenger equipment placed in service for the first time on or after March 9, 2010, shall have at both the forward and rear ends an anti-climbing mechanism capable of resisting an upward or downward vertical force of 100,000 pounds without permanent deformation. When coupled together in any combination to join two vehicles, AAR Type H and Type F tight-lock couplers satisfy the requirements of this paragraph (a).

(b) Except for a cab car or an MU locomotive, each locomotive ordered on or after September 8, 2000, or placed in service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, shall have an anti-climbing mechanism at its forward end capable of resisting both an upward and downward vertical force of 200,000 pounds without failure. Locomotives required to be constructed in accordance with subpart D of part 229 of this chapter shall have an anti-climbing mechanism in compliance with §229.206 of this chapter, in lieu of the requirements of this paragraph.

[75 FR 1227, Jan. 8, 2010, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.207   Link between coupling mechanism and carbody.

Except as specified in §238.201(b), all passenger equipment placed in service for the first time on or after September 8, 2000, shall have a coupler carrier at each end designed to resist a vertical downward thrust from the coupler shank of 100,000 pounds for any normal horizontal position of the coupler, without permanent deformation. Passenger equipment connected by articulated joints that complies with the requirements of §238.205(a) also complies with the requirements of this section.

[83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.209   Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

(a) Except as specified in §238.201(b)—

(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of each locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be:

(i) Equivalent to a 12 -inch steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds-per-square-inch—material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength is maintained;

(ii) Designed to inhibit the entry of fluids into the occupied cab area of the equipment; and

(iii) Affixed to the collision posts or other main vertical structural members of the forward end structure so as to add to the strength of the end structure.

(2) As used in this paragraph (a), the term “skin” does not include forward-facing windows and doors.

(b) The forward end structure of a cab car or an MU locomotive may comply with the requirements of appendix F to this part in lieu of the requirements of either §238.211 (Collision posts) or §238.213 (Corner posts), or both, provided that the end structure is designed to protect the occupied volume for its full height, from the underframe to the anti-telescoping plate (if used) or roof rails.

[75 FR 1228, Jan. 8, 2010, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.211   Collision posts.

(a) Except as further specified in this paragraph (a), paragraphs (b) through (d) of this section, §238.201(b), and §238.209(b)—

(1) All passenger equipment placed in service for the first time on or after September 8, 2000, shall have either:

(i) Two full-height collision posts, located at approximately the one-third points laterally, at each end. Each collision post shall have an ultimate longitudinal shear strength of not less than 300,000 pounds at a point even with the top of the underframe member to which it is attached. If reinforcement is used to provide the shear value, the reinforcement shall have full value for a distance of 18 inches up from the underframe connection and then taper to a point approximately 30 inches above the underframe connection; or

(ii) An equivalent end structure that can withstand the sum of forces that each collision post in paragraph (a)(1)(i) of this section is required to withstand. For analysis purposes, the required forces may be assumed to be evenly distributed at the end structure at the underframe joint.

(2) The requirements of this paragraph (a) do not apply to unoccupied passenger equipment operating in a passenger train, or to the rear end of a locomotive if the end is unoccupied by design.

(b) Except for a locomotive that is constructed on or after January 1, 2009, and is subject to the requirements of subpart D of part 229 of this chapter, each locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, ordered on or after September 8, 2000, or placed in service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, shall have at its forward end, in lieu of the structural protection described in paragraph (a) of this section, either:

(1) Two forward collision posts, located at approximately the one-third points laterally, each capable of withstanding:

(i) A 500,000-pound longitudinal force at the point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of the joint; and

(ii) A 200,000-pound longitudinal force exerted 30 inches above the joint of the post to the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength; or

(2) An equivalent end structure that can withstand the sum of the forces that each collision post in paragraph (b)(1) of this section is required to withstand.

(c)(1) Each cab car and MU locomotive ordered on or after May 10, 2010, or placed in service for the first time on or after March 8, 2012, shall have at its forward end, in lieu of the structural protection described in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section, two forward collision posts, located at approximately the one-third points laterally, meeting the requirements set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) and (c)(3) of this section:

(2) Each collision post acting together with its supporting car body structure shall be capable of withstanding the following loads individually applied at any angle within 15 degrees of the longitudinal axis:

(i) A 500,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(ii) A 200,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point 30 inches above the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure; and

(iii) A 60,000-pound horizontal force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure.

(3) Prior to or during structural deformation, each collision post acting together with its supporting car body structure shall be capable of absorbing a minimum of 135,000 foot-pounds of energy (0.18 megajoule) with no more than 10 inches of longitudinal, permanent deformation into the occupied volume, in accordance with the following:

(i) The collision post shall be loaded longitudinally at a height of 30 inches above the top of the underframe;

(ii) The load shall be applied with a fixture, or its equivalent, having a width sufficient to distribute the load directly into the webs of the post, but of no more than 36 inches, and either:

(A) A flat plate with a height of 6 inches; or

(B) A curved surface with a diameter of no more than 48 inches; and

(iii) There shall be no complete separation of the post, its connection to the underframe, its connection to either the roof structure or anti-telescoping plate (if used), or of its supporting car body structure.

(d) The end structure requirements of this section apply only to the ends of a semi-permanently coupled consist of articulated units, provided that:

(1) The railroad submits to FRA under the procedures specified in §238.21 a documented engineering analysis establishing that the articulated connection is capable of preventing disengagement and telescoping to the same extent as equipment satisfying the anti-climbing and collision post requirements contained in this subpart; and

(2) FRA finds the analysis persuasive.

[75 FR 1228, Jan. 8, 2010, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.213   Corner posts.

(a)(1) Except as further specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, §238.201(b), and §238.209(b), each passenger car shall have at each end of the car, placed ahead of the occupied volume, two full-height corner posts, each capable of resisting together with its supporting car body structure:

(i) A 150,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(ii) A 20,000-pound horizontal force applied at the point of attachment to the roof structure, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure; and

(iii) A 30,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure.

(2) For purposes of this paragraph (a), the orientation of the applied horizontal forces shall range from longitudinal inward to lateral inward.

(b)(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each cab car and MU locomotive ordered on or after May 10, 2010, or placed in service for the first time on or after March 8, 2012, shall have at its forward end, in lieu of the structural protection described in paragraph (a) of this section, two corner posts ahead of the occupied volume, meeting all of the requirements set forth in paragraphs (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section:

(2) Each corner post acting together with its supporting car body structure shall be capable of withstanding the following loads individually applied toward the inside of the vehicle at all angles in the range from longitudinal to lateral:

(i) A 300,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(ii) A 100,000-pound horizontal force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure; and

(iii) A 45,000-pound horizontal force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure.

(3) Prior to or during structural deformation, each corner post acting together with its supporting car body structure shall be capable of absorbing a minimum of 120,000 foot-pounds of energy (0.16 megajoule) with no more than 10 inches of longitudinal, permanent deformation into the occupied volume, in accordance with the following:

(i) The corner post shall be loaded longitudinally at a height of 30 inches above the top of the underframe;

(ii) The load shall be applied with a fixture, or its equivalent, having a width sufficient to distribute the load directly into the webs of the post, but of no more than 36 inches and either:

(A) A flat plate with a height of 6 inches; or

(B) A curved surface with a diameter of no more than 48 inches; and

(iii) There shall be no complete separation of the post, its connection to the underframe, its connection to either the roof structure or anti-telescoping plate (if used), or of its supporting car body structure.

(c)(1) Each cab car and MU locomotive ordered on or after May 10, 2010, or placed in service for the first time on or after March 8, 2012, utilizing low-level passenger boarding on the non-operating side of the cab end shall meet the corner post requirements of paragraph (b) of this section for the corner post on the side of the cab containing the control stand. In lieu of the requirements of paragraph (b) of this section, and after FRA review and approval of a plan, including acceptance criteria, to evaluate compliance with this paragraph (c), each such cab car and MU locomotive may have two corner posts on the opposite (non-operating) side of the cab from the control stand meeting all of the requirements set forth in paragraphs (c)(2) through (c)(4) of this section:

(2) One corner post shall be located ahead of the stepwell and, acting together with its supporting car body structure, shall be capable of withstanding the following horizontal loads individually applied toward the inside of the vehicle:

(i) A 150,000-pound longitudinal force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(ii) A 30,000-pound longitudinal force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(iii) A 30,000-pound longitudinal force applied at the point of attachment to the roof structure, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(iv) A 20,000-pound longitudinal force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(v) A 300,000-pound lateral force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(vi) A 100,000-pound lateral force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure; and

(vii) A 45,000-pound lateral force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure.

(3) A second corner post shall be located behind the stepwell and, acting together with its supporting car body structure, shall be capable of withstanding the following horizontal loads individually applied toward the inside of the vehicle:

(i) A 300,000-pound longitudinal force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(ii) A 100,000-pound longitudinal force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(iii) A 45,000-pound longitudinal force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(iv) A 100,000-pound lateral force applied at a point even with the top of the underframe, without exceeding the ultimate strength of either the post or its supporting car body structure;

(v) A 30,000-pound lateral force applied at a point 18 inches above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure; and

(vi) A 20,000-pound lateral force applied at any height along the post above the top of the underframe, without permanent deformation of either the post or its supporting car body structure.

(4) Prior to or during structural deformation, the two posts in combination acting together with their supporting body structure shall be capable of absorbing a minimum of 120,000 foot-pounds of energy (0.16 megajoule) in accordance with the following:

(i) The corner posts shall be loaded longitudinally at a height of 30 inches above the top of the underframe;

(ii) The load shall be applied with a fixture, or its equivalent, having a width sufficient to distribute the load directly into the webs of the post, but of no more than 36 inches and either:

(A) A flat plate with a height of 6 inches; or

(B) A curved surface with a diameter of no more than 48 inches; and

(iii) The corner post located behind the stepwell shall have no more than 10 inches of longitudinal, permanent deformation. There shall be no complete separation of the corner post located behind the stepwell, its connection to the underframe, its connection to either the roof structure or anti-telescoping plate (if used), or of its supporting car body structure. The corner post ahead of the stepwell is permitted to fail. (A graphical description of the forward end of a cab car or an MU locomotive utilizing low-level passenger boarding on the non-operating side of the cab end is provided in Figure 1 to subpart C of this part.)

[75 FR 1229, Jan. 8, 2010, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018; 84 FR 16414, Apr. 19, 2019]

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§238.215   Rollover strength.

(a) Each passenger car shall be designed to rest on its side and be uniformly supported at the top (“roof rail”), the bottom cords (“side sill”) of the side frame, and, if bi-level, the intermediate floor rail. The allowable stress in the structural members of the occupied volumes for this condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical buckling stress, whichever is less. Local yielding to the outer skin of the passenger car is allowed provided that the resulting deformations in no way intrude upon the occupied volume of the car.

(b) Each passenger car shall also be designed to rest on its roof so that any damage in occupied areas is limited to roof sheathing and framing. Other than roof sheathing and framing, the allowable stress in the structural members of the occupied volumes for this condition shall be one-half yield or one-half the critical buckling stress, whichever is less. Deformation to the roof sheathing and framing is allowed to the extent necessary to permit the vehicle to be supported directly on the top chords of the side frames and end frames.

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§238.217   Side structure.

Each passenger car shall comply with the following:

(a) Side posts and corner braces. (1) For modified girder, semi-monocoque, or truss construction, the sum of the section moduli in inches3—about a longitudinal axis, taken at the weakest horizontal section between the side sill and side plate—of all posts and braces on each side of the car located between the body corner posts shall be not less than 0.30 multiplied by the distance in feet between the centers of end panels.

(2) For modified girder or semi-monocoque construction only, the sum of the section moduli in inches3—about a transverse axis, taken at the weakest horizontal section between the side sill and side plate—of all posts, braces and pier panels, to the extent available, on each side of the car located between body corner posts shall be not less than 0.20 multiplied by the distance in feet between the centers of end panels.

(3) The center of an end panel is the point midway between the center of the body corner post and the center of the adjacent side post.

(4) The minimum section moduli or thicknesses specified in paragraph (a) of this section may be adjusted in proportion to the ratio of the yield strength of the material used to that of mild open-hearth steel for a car whose structural members are made of a higher strength steel.

(b) Sheathing. (1) Outside sheathing of mild, open-hearth steel when used flat, without reinforcement (other than side posts) in a side frame of modified girder or semi-monocoque construction shall not be less than 18 inch nominal thickness. Other metals may be used of a thickness in inverse proportion to their yield strengths.

(2) Outside metal sheathing of less than 18 inch thickness may be used only if it is reinforced so as to produce at least an equivalent sectional area at a right angle to reinforcements as that of the flat sheathing specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

(3) When the sheathing used for truss construction serves no load-carrying function, the minimum thickness of that sheathing shall be not less than 40 percent of that specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section.

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§238.219   Truck-to-car-body attachment.

Except as provided in §238.201(b), passenger equipment shall have a truck-to-carbody attachment with an ultimate strength sufficient to resist without failure the following individually applied loads: 2g vertically on the mass of the truck; and 250,000 pounds in any horizontal direction on the truck, along with the resulting vertical reaction to this load. For purposes of this section, the mass of the truck includes axles, wheels, bearings, the truck-mounted brake system, suspension system components, and any other component attached to the truck by design.

[67 FR 19991, Apr. 23, 2002, as amended at 83 FR 59219, Nov. 21, 2018]

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§238.221   Glazing.

(a) Passenger equipment shall comply with the applicable Safety Glazing Standards contained in part 223 of this chapter, if required by that part.

(b) Each exterior window on a locomotive cab and a passenger car shall remain in place when subjected to:

(1) The forces described in part 223 of this chapter; and

(2) The forces due to air pressure differences caused when two trains pass at the minimum separation for two adjacent tracks, while traveling in opposite directions, each train traveling at the maximum authorized speed.

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§238.223   Locomotive fuel tanks.

Locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with either the following or an industry standard providing at least an equivalent level of safety if approved by FRA under §238.21:

(a) External fuel tanks. External locomotive fuel tanks shall comply with the requirements contained in Appendix D to this part.

(b) Internal fuel tanks. (1) Internal locomotive fuel tanks shall be positioned in a manner to reduce the likelihood of accidental penetration from roadway debris or collision.

(2) Internal fuel tank vent systems shall be designed so they do not become a path of fuel loss in any tank orientation due to a locomotive overturning.

(3) Internal fuel tank bulkheads and skin shall, at a minimum, be equivalent to a 5/16-inch thick steel plate with a yield strength of 25,000 pounds per square inch. Material of a higher yield strength may be used to decrease the required thickness of the material provided at least an equivalent level of strength is maintained. Skid plates are not required.

[67 FR 19991, Apr. 23, 2002]

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§238.225   Electrical system.

All passenger equipment shall comply with the following:

(a) Conductors. Conductor sizes shall be selected on the basis of current-carrying capacity, mechanical strength, temperature, flexibility requirements, and maximum allowable voltage drop. Current-carrying capacity shall be derated for grouping and for operating temperature.

(b) Main battery system. (1) The main battery compartment shall be isolated from the cab and passenger seating areas by a non-combustible barrier.

(2) Battery chargers shall be designed to protect against overcharging.

(3) If batteries are of the type to potentially vent explosive gases, the battery compartment shall be adequately ventilated to prevent the accumulation of explosive concentrations of these gases.

(c) Power dissipation resistors. (1) Power dissipating resistors shall be adequately ventilated to prevent overheating under worst-case operating conditions as determined by the railroad.

(2) Power dissipation grids shall be designed and installed with sufficient isolation to prevent combustion.

(3) Resistor elements shall be electrically insulated from resistor frames, and the frames shall be electrically insulated from the supports that hold them.

(d) Electromagnetic interference and compatibility. (1) The operating railroad shall ensure electromagnetic compatibility of the safety-critical equipment systems with their environment. Electromagnetic compatibility may be achieved through equipment design or changes to the operating environment.

(2) The electronic equipment shall not produce electrical noise that affects the safe performance of train line control and communications or wayside signaling systems.

(3) To contain electromagnetic interference emissions, suppression of transients shall be at the source wherever possible.

(4) All electronic equipment shall be self-protected from damage or improper operation, or both, due to high voltage transients and long-term over-voltage or under-voltage conditions. This includes protection from both power frequency and harmonic effects as well as protection from radio frequency signals into the microwave frequency range.

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§238.227   Suspension system.

On or after November 8, 1999—

(a) All passenger equipment shall exhibit freedom from truck hunting at all operating speeds. If truck hunting does occur, a railroad shall immediately take appropriate action to prevent derailment. Truck hunting is defined in §213.333 of this chapter.

(b) Nothing in this section shall affect the requirements of the Track Safety Standards in part 213 of this chapter as they apply to passenger equipment as provided in that part. In particular—

(1) Pre-revenue service qualification. All passenger equipment intended for service at speeds greater than 90 mph or at any curving speed producing more than 5 inches of cant deficiency shall demonstrate safe operation during pre-revenue service qualification in accordance with §213.345 of this chapter and is subject to the requirements of either §213.57 or §213.329 of this chapter, as appropriate.

(2) Revenue service operation. All passenger equipment intended for service at speeds greater than 90 mph or at any curving speed producing more than 5 inches of cant deficiency is subject to the requirements of §213.333 of this chapter and either §213.57 or §213.329 of this chapter, as appropriate.

[78 FR 16125, Mar. 13, 2013]

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§238.229   Safety appliances—general.

(a) Except as provided in this part, all passenger equipment continues to be subject to the safety appliance requirements contained in Federal statute at 49 U.S.C. chapter 203 and in Federal regulations at part 231 of this chapter.

(b) Except as provided in this part, FRA interprets the provisions in part 231 of this chapter that expressly mandate that the manner of application of a safety appliance be a bolt, rivet, or screw to mean that the safety appliance and any related bracket or support used to attach that safety appliance to the equipment shall be so affixed to the equipment. Specifically, FRA prohibits the use of welding as a method of attachment of any such safety appliance or related bracket or support. A “safety appliance bracket or support” means a component or part attached to the equipment for the sole purpose of securing or attaching of the safety appliance. FRA does allow the welded attachment of a brace or stiffener used in connection with a mechanically fastened safety appliance. In order to be considered a “brace” or “stiffener,” the component or part shall not be necessary for the attachment of the safety appliance to the equipment and is used solely to provide extra strength or steadiness to the safety appliance.

(c) Welded safety appliances. (1) Passenger equipment placed in service prior to January 1, 2007, that is equipped with a safety appliance, required by the “manner of application” provisions in part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws), and the safety appliance is mechanically fastened to a bracket or support that is attached to the equipment by welding may continue to be used in service provided all of the requirements in paragraphs (e) through (k) of this section are met. The welded safety appliance bracket or support only needs to receive the initial visual inspection required under paragraph (g)(1) of this section if all of the following conditions are met:

(i) The welded safety appliance bracket or support meets all of the conditions contained in §238.230(b)(1) for being considered part of the car body;

(ii) The weld on the safety appliance bracket or support does not contain any defect as defined in paragraph (d) of this section; and

(iii) The railroad submits a written list to FRA identifying each piece of passenger equipment equipped with a welded safety appliance bracket or support as described in paragraph (c)(1)(i) and (c)(1)(ii) of this section and provides a description of the specific safety appliance bracket or support.

(2) Passenger equipment placed in service prior to January 1, 2007, that is equipped with a safety appliance that is directly attached to the equipment by welding (i.e., no mechanical fastening of any kind) shall be considered defective and immediately handled for repair pursuant to the requirements contained in §238.17(e) unless the railroad meets the following:

(i) The railroad submits a written list to FRA that identifies each piece of passenger equipment equipped with a welded safety appliance as described in paragraph (c)(2) of this section and provides a description of the specific safety appliance; and

(ii) The involved safety appliance(s) on such equipment are inspected and handled pursuant to the requirements contained in paragraphs (g) through (k) of this section.

(d) Defective welded safety appliance or welded safety appliance bracket or support. Passenger equipment with a welded safety appliance or a welded safety appliance bracket or support will be considered defective and shall be handled in accordance with §238.17(e) if any part or portion of the weld contains a defect. Any repairs made to such equipment shall be in accordance with the inspection plan required in paragraph (g) of this section and the remedial actions identified in paragraph (j) of this section. A defect for the purposes of this section means a crack or fracture of any visibly discernible length or width. When appropriate, civil penalties for improperly using or hauling a piece of equipment with a defective welded safety appliance or safety appliance bracket or support addressed in this section will be assessed as an improperly applied safety appliance pursuant to the penalty schedule on FRA's website at www.fra.dot.gov under the appropriate defect code contained therein.

(e) Identification of equipment. The railroad shall submit a written list to FRA that identifies each piece of passenger equipment equipped with a welded safety appliance bracket or support by January 1, 2007. Passenger equipment placed in service prior to January 1, 2007, but not discovered until after January 1, 2007, shall be immediately added to the railroad's written list and shall be immediately inspected in accordance with paragraph (g) through (k) of this section. The written list submitted by the railroad shall contain the following:

(1) The equipment number;

(2) The equipment type;

(3) The safety appliance bracket(s) or support(s) affected;

(4) Any equipment and any specific safety appliance bracket(s) or supports(s) on the equipment that will not be subject to the inspection plan required in paragraph (g) of this section;

(5) A detailed explanation for any such exclusion recommended in paragraph (e)(4) of this section;

(f) FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety reserves the right to disapprove any exclusion recommended by the railroad in paragraphs (c)(2)(i) and (d)(4) of this section and will provide written notification to the railroad of any such determination.

(g) Inspection plans. The railroad shall adopt and comply with and submit to FRA upon request a written safety appliance inspection plan. At a minimum, the plan shall include the following:

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (c)(1) of this section, an initial visual inspection (within 1 year of date of publication) and periodic re-inspections (at intervals not to exceed 6 years) of each welded safety appliance bracket or support identified in paragraph (e) of this section. If significant disassembly of a car is necessary to visually inspect the involved safety appliance bracket or support, the initial visual inspection may be conducted at the equipment's first periodic brake equipment maintenance interval pursuant to §238.309 occurring after January 1, 2007.

(2) Identify the personnel that will conduct the initial and periodic inspections and any training those individuals are required to receive in accordance with the criteria contained in paragraph (h) of this section.

(3) Identify the specific procedures and criteria for conducting the initial and periodic safety appliance inspections in accordance with the requirements and criteria contained in paragraph (i) of this section.

(4) Identify when and what type of potential repairs or potential remedial action will be required for any defective welded safety appliance bracket or support discovered during the initial or periodic safety appliance inspection in accordance with paragraph (j) of this section.

(5) Identify the records that will be maintained that are related to the initial and periodic safety appliance inspections in accordance with the requirements contained in paragraph (k) of this section.

(h) Inspection personnel. The initial and periodic safety appliance inspections shall be performed by individuals properly trained and qualified to identify defective weld conditions. At a minimum, these personnel include the following:

(1) A qualified maintenance person (QMP) with at least 4 hours of training specific to the identification of weld defects and the railroad's weld inspection procedures;

(2) A current certified welding inspector (CWI) pursuant to American Welding Society Standard—AWS QC-1, Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Inspectors (1996) or its current revised equivalent;

(3) A person possessing a current Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) certification pursuant to the Canadian Standards Association Standard W59 (2003) or its current revised equivalent;

(4) A person possessing a current level II or level III visual inspector certification from the American Society for Non-destructive Testing pursuant to Recommended Practice SNT-TC-1A—Personnel Qualification and Certification in Nondestructive Testing (2001) or its current revised equivalent; or

(5) A person possessing a current certification under any other nationally or internationally recognized welding qualification standard that is equivalent to those identified in paragraphs (h)(2) through (h)(4) of this section.

(i) Inspection procedures. The initial and periodic safety appliance inspections shall be conducted in accordance with the procedures and criteria established in the railroad's inspection plan. At a minimum, these procedures and criteria shall include:

(1) A complete visual inspection of the entire welded surface of any safety appliance bracket or support identified in paragraph (e) of this section.

(2) The visual inspection shall occur after the complete removal of any dirt, grease, rust, or any other foreign matter from the welded portion of the involved safety appliance bracket or support. Removal of paint is not required.

(3) The railroad shall disassemble any equipment necessary to permit full visual inspection of the involved weld.

(4) Any materials necessary to conduct a complete inspection must be made available to the inspection personnel throughout the inspection process. These include but are not limited to such items as mirrors, magnifying glasses, or other location specific inspection aids. Remote viewing aids possessing equivalent sensitivity are permissible for restricted areas.

(5) Any weld found with a defect as defined in paragraph (d) of this section during the initial or periodic safety appliance inspection shall be inspected by either a certified weld inspector identified in paragraphs (h)(2) through (h)(5) of this section or a welding or materials engineer possessing a professional engineer's license for a final determination. No car with a defect in the weld of a safety appliance or its attachment may continue in use until a final determination as to the existence of a defect is made by the personnel identified in this paragraph.

(6) A weld finally determined to contain a defect shall be handled for repair in accordance with §238.17(e) and repaired in accordance with the remedial action criteria contained in paragraph (j) of this section.

(j) Remedial action. Unless a defect in a weld is known to have been caused by crash damage, the railroad shall conduct a failure and engineering analysis of any weld identified in paragraph (e) of this section determined to have a break or crack either during the initial or periodic safety appliance inspection or while otherwise in service to determine if the break or crack is the result of crash damage, improper construction, or inadequate design. Based on the results of the analysis, the repair of the involved safety appliance bracket or support shall be handled as follows:

(1) A defect in a weld due to crash damage (i.e., impact of the safety appliance by an outside force during service or an accident) or improper construction (i.e., the weld did not conform to the engineered design) shall be reattached by either mechanically fastening the safety appliance or the safety appliance bracket or support to the equipment or welding the safety appliance bracket or support to the equipment in a manner that is at least as strong as the original design or at least twice the strength of a bolted mechanical attachment, whichever is greater. If welding is used to repair the damaged appliance, bracket, or support the following requirements shall be met:

(i) The repair shall be conducted in accordance with the welding procedures contained in APTA Standard SS-C&S-020-03—Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair (September 2003); or an alternative procedure approved by FRA pursuant to §238.21. The Director of the Federal Register approves incorporation by reference of the APTA Standard SS-C&S-020-03 (September 2003), “Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair,” in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated standard from the American Public Transportation Association, 1666 K Street, Washington, DC 20006. You may inspect a copy of the incorporated standard at the Federal Railroad Administration, Docket Clerk, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html;

(ii) A qualified individual under paragraph (h) of this section shall inspect the weld to ensure it is free of any cracks or fractures prior to the equipment being placed in-service;

(iii) The welded safety appliance bracket or support shall receive a periodic safety appliance inspection pursuant to the requirements contained in paragraphs (g) through (i) of this section; and

(iv) A record of the welded repair pursuant to the requirements of paragraph (k) of this section shall be maintained by the railroad.

(2) A defect in the weld that is due to inadequate design (i.e., unanticipated stresses or loads during service) shall be handled in accordance with the following:

(i) The railroad must immediately notify FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety in writing of its discovery of a defective weld that is due to inadequate design;

(ii) The involved safety appliance or the safety appliance bracket or support shall be reattached to the equipment by mechanically fastening the safety appliance or the safety appliance bracket or support to the equipment unless such mechanical fastening is impractical due to the design of the equipment;

(iii) The railroad shall develop and comply with a written plan submitted to and approved by FRA's Associate Administrator for Safety detailing a schedule for all passenger equipment in that series of cars with a similar welded safety appliance bracket or support to have the involved safety appliance or the safety appliance bracket or support mechanically fastened to the equipment; and

(iv) If a railroad determines that the design of the equipment makes it impractical to mechanically fasten the safety appliance or the safety appliance bracket or support to the equipment, then the railroad shall submit a request to FRA for special approval of alternative compliance pursuant to §238.21. Such a request shall explain the necessity for any relief sought and shall contain appropriate data and analysis supporting its determination that any alternative method of attachment provides at least an equivalent level of safety.

(k) Records. Railroads shall maintain written or electronic records of the inspection and repair of the welded safety appliance brackets or supports on any equipment identified in paragraph (e) of this section. The records shall be made available to FRA upon request. At a minimum, these records shall include all of the following:

(1) Training or certification records for any person performing any of the inspections or repairs required in this section.

(2) The date, time, location, and identification of the person performing the initial and periodic safety appliance inspections for each piece of equipment identified in paragraph (e) of this section. This includes the identification of the person making any final determination as to the existence of a defect under paragraph (i)(5) of this section.

(3) A record of all passenger equipment found with a safety appliance weldment that is defective either during the initial or periodic safety appliance inspection or while the equipment is in-service. This record shall also identify the cause of the crack or fracture.

(4) The date, time, location, identification of the person making the repair, and the nature of the repair to any welded safety appliance bracket or support identified in paragraph (e) of this section.

[71 FR 61858, Oct. 19, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009; 84 FR 23736, May 23, 2019]

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§238.230   Safety appliances—new equipment.

(a) Applicability. This section applies to passenger equipment placed in service on or after January 1, 2007.

(b) Welded safety sppliances. Except as provided in this section, all passenger equipment placed into service on or after January 1, 2007, that is equipped with a safety appliance, required by the “manner of application” provisions in part 231 of this chapter to be attached by a mechanical fastener (i.e., bolts, rivets, or screws), shall have the safety appliance and any bracket or support necessary to attach the safety appliance to the piece of equipment mechanically fastened to the piece of equipment.

(1) Safety appliance brackets or supports considered part of the car body. Safety appliance brackets or supports will be considered part of the car body and will not be required to be mechanically fastened to the piece of passenger equipment if all of the following are met:

(i) The bracket or support is welded to a surface of the equipment's body that is at a minimum 3/16-inch sheet steel or structurally reinforced to provide the equivalent strength and rigidity of 3/16-inch sheet steel;

(ii) The area of the weld is sufficient to ensure a minimum weld strength, based on yield, of three times the strength of the number of SAE grade 2, 12 inch diameter bolts that would be required for each attachment;

(iii) Except for any access required for attachment of the safety appliance, the weld is continuous around the perimeter of the surface of the bracket or support;

(iv) The attachment is made with fillet welds at least 3/16-inch in size;

(v) The weld is designed for infinite fatigue life in the application that it will be placed;

(vi) The weld is performed in accordance with the welding process and the quality control procedures contained in the current American Welding Society (AWS) Standard, the Canadian Welding Bureau (CWB) Standard, or an equivalent nationally or internationally recognized welding standard;

(vii) The weld is performed by an individual possessing the qualifications to be certified under the current AWS Standard, CWB Standard, or any equivalent nationally or internationally recognized welding qualification standard;

(viii) The weld is inspected by an individual qualified to determine that all of the conditions identified in paragraph (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section are met prior to the equipment being placed in service; and

(ix) A written or electronic record of the inspection required in paragraph (b)(1)(viii) of this section shall be retained by the railroad operating the equipment and shall be provided to FRA upon request. At a minimum, this record shall include the date, time, location, identification of the person performing the inspection, and the qualifications of the person performing the inspection.

(2) Directly welded safety appliances. Passenger equipment that is equipped with a safety appliance that is directly attached to the equipment by welding (i.e., no mechanical fastening of any kind) may be placed in service only if the railroad meets the following:

(i) The railroad submits a written list to FRA that identifies each piece of new passenger equipment equipped with a welded safety appliance as described in paragraph (b)(2) of this section and provides a description of the specific safety appliance;

(ii) The railroad provides a detailed basis as to why the design of the vehicle or placement of the safety appliance requires that the safety appliance be directly welded to the equipment; and

(iii) The involved safety appliance(s) on such equipment are inspected and handled pursuant to the requirements contained in §238.229(g) through (k).

(3) Other welded safety appliances and safety appliance brackets and supports. Except for safety appliance brackets and supports identified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, safety appliance brackets and supports on passenger equipment shall not be welded to the car body unless the design of the equipment makes it impractical to mechanically fasten the safety appliance and it is impossible to meet the conditions for considering the bracket or support part of the car body contained in paragraph (b)(1) of this section. Prior to placing a piece of passenger equipment in service with a welded safety appliance bracket or support as described in this paragraph, the railroad shall submit documentation to FRA, for FRA's review and approval, containing all of the following information:

(i) Identification of the equipment by number, type, series, operating railroad, and other pertinent data;

(ii) Identification of the safety appliance bracket(s) or support(s) not mechanically fastened to the equipment and not considered part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section;

(iii) A detailed analysis describing the necessity to attach the safety appliance bracket or support to the equipment by a means other than mechanical fastening;

(iv) A detailed analysis describing the inability to make the bracket or support part of the car body as provided for in paragraph (b)(1) of this section; and

(v) A copy and description of the consensus or other appropriate industry standard used to ensure the effectiveness and strength of the attachment;

(c) Inspection and repair. Passenger equipment with a welded safety appliance or a welded safety appliance bracket or support will be considered defective and shall be handled in accordance with §238.17(e) if any part or portion of the weld is defective as defined in §238.229(d). When appropriate, civil penalties for improperly using or hauling a piece of equipment with a defective welded safety appliance or safety appliance bracket or support addressed in this section will be assessed pursuant to the penalty schedule on FRA's website at www.fra.dot.gov under the appropriate defect code contained therein.

(1) Any safety appliance bracket or support approved by FRA pursuant to paragraph (b)(3) of this section shall be inspected and handled in accordance with the requirements contained in §238.229(g) through (k).

(2) Any repair to a safety appliance bracket or support considered to be part of the car body under paragraph (b)(1) of this section shall be conducted in accordance with APTA Standard SS-C&S-020-03—Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair (September 2003), or an alternative procedure approved by FRA pursuant to §238.21, and shall ensure that the repair meets the requirements contained in paragraphs (b)(1)(i) through (b)(1)(vii) of this section. The Director of the Federal Register approves incorporation by reference of the APTA Standard SS-C&S-020-03 (September 2003), “Standard for Passenger Rail Vehicle Structural Repair,” in this section in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain a copy of the incorporated standard from the American Public Transportation Association, 1666 K Street, Washington, DC 20006. You may inspect a copy of the incorporated standard at the Federal Railroad Administration, Docket Clerk, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590 or at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

(d) Passenger cars of special construction. A railroad or a railroad's recognized representative may submit a request for special approval of alternative compliance pursuant to §238.21 relating to the safety appliance arrangements on any passenger car considered a car of special construction under §231.18 of this chapter. Any such petition shall be in the form of an industry-wide standard and at a minimum shall:

(1) Identify the type(s) of car to which the standard would be applicable;

(2) As nearly as possible, based upon the design of the equipment, ensure that the standard provides for the same complement of handholds, sill steps, ladders, hand or parking brakes, running boards, and other safety appliances as are required for a piece of equipment of the nearest approximate type already identified in part 231 of this chapter;

(3) Comply with all statutory requirements relating to safety appliances contained at 49 U.S.C. 20301 and 20302;

(4) Specifically address the number, dimension, location, and manner of application of each safety appliance contained in the standard;

(5) Provide specific analysis regarding why and how the standard was developed and specifically discuss the need or benefit of the safety appliance arrangement contained in the standard;

(6) Include drawings, sketches, or other visual aids that provide detailed information relating to the design, location, placement, and attachment of the safety appliances; and

(7) Demonstrate the ergonomic suitability of the proposed arrangements in normal use.

(e) Civil penalties. Any industry standard approved pursuant to §238.21 will be enforced against any person who violates any provision of the approved standard or causes the violation of any such provision. Civil penalties will be assessed under part 231 of this chapter by using the applicable defect code contained on FRA's website at www.fra.dot.gov.

[71 FR 61860, Oct. 19, 2006, as amended at 74 FR 25174, May 27, 2009; 84 FR 23736, May 23, 2019]

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§238.231   Brake system.

Except as otherwise provided in this section, on or after September 9, 1999 the following requirements apply to all passenger equipment and passenger trains.

(a) A passenger train's primary brake system shall be capable of stopping the train with a service application from its maximum authorized operating speed within the signal spacing existing on the track over which the train is operating.

(b) Where practicable, the design of passenger equipment ordered on or after September 8, 2000, or placed in service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, shall not require an inspector to place himself or herself on, under, or between components of the equipment to observe brake actuation or release. Passenger equipment not designed in this manner shall be equipped and handled in accordance with one of the following:

(1) Equipped with piston travel indicators as defined in §238.5 or devices of similar design and inspected pursuant to the requirements contained in §238.313 (j); or

(2) Equipped with brake indicators as defined in §238.5, designed so that the pressure sensor is placed in a location so that nothing may interfere with the air flow to brake cylinder and inspected pursuant to the requirements contained in §238.313 (j).

(c) Passenger equipment shall be provided with an emergency brake application feature that produces an irretrievable stop, using a brake rate consistent with prevailing adhesion, passenger safety, and brake system thermal capacity. An emergency brake application shall be available at any time, and shall be initiated by an unintentional parting of the train.

(d) A passenger train brake system shall respond as intended to signals from a train brake control line or lines. Control lines shall be designed so that failure or breakage of a control line will cause the brakes to apply or will result in a default to control lines that meet this requirement.

(e) Introduction of alcohol or other chemicals into the air brake system of passenger equipment is prohibited.

(f) The operating railroad shall require that the design and operation of the brake system results in wheels that are free of condemnable cracks.

(g) Disc brakes shall be designed and operated to produce a surface temperature no greater than the safe operating temperature recommended by the disc manufacturer and verified by testing or previous service.

(h) Hand brakes and parking brakes. (1) Except for a locomotive that is ordered before September 8, 2000 or placed in service for the first time before Sepbember 9, 2002, and except for MU locomotives, all locomotives shall be equipped with a hand or parking brake that can:

(i) Be applied or activated by hand;

(ii) Be released by hand; and

(iii) Hold the loaded unit on the maximum grade anticipated by the operating railroad.

(2) Except for a private car and locomotives addressed in paragraph (h)(1) of this section, all other passenger equipment, including MU locomotives, shall be equipped with a hand brake that meets the requirements for hand brakes contained in part 231 of this chapter and that can:

(i) Be applied or activated by hand;

(ii) Be released by hand; and

(iii) Hold the loaded unit on the maximum grade anticipated by the operating railroad.

(3) Except for MU locomotives, on locomotives so equipped, the hand or parking brake as well as its parts and connections shall be inspected, and necessary repairs made, as often as service requires but no less frequently than every 368 days. The date of the last inspection shall be either entered on Form FRA F 6180-49A, suitably stenciled or tagged on the equipment, or maintained electronically provided FRA has access to the record upon request.

(4) A train's air brake shall not be depended upon to hold unattended equipment (including a locomotive, a car, or a train whether or not locomotive is attached). For purposes of this section, “unattended equipment” means equipment left standing and unmanned in such a manner that the brake system of the equipment cannot be readily controlled by a qualified person. Unattended equipment shall be secured in accordance with the following requirements:

(i) A sufficient number of hand or parking brakes shall be applied to hold the equipment. Railroads shall develop and implement a process or procedure to verify that the applied hand or parking brakes will sufficiently hold the equipment with the air brakes released;

(ii) Except for equipment connected to a source of compressed air (e.g., locomotive or ground air source), prior to leaving equipment unattended, the brake pipe shall be reduced to zero at a rate that is no less than a service rate reduction;

(iii) At a minimum, the hand or parking brake shall be fully applied on at least one locomotive or vehicle in an unattended locomotive consist or train;

(iv) A railroad shall develop, adopt, and comply with procedures for securing any unattended locomotive required to have a hand or parking brake applied when the locomotive is not equipped with an operative hand or parking brake;

(v) A railroad shall adopt and comply with instructions to address throttle position, status of the reverser lever, position of the generator field switch, status of the independent brakes, position of the isolation switch, and position of the automatic brake valve, or the functional equivalent of these items, on all unattended locomotives. The procedures and instruction shall take into account weather conditions as they relate to throttle position and reverser handle; and

(vi) Any hand or parking brakes applied to hold unattended equipment shall not be released until it is known that the air brake system is properly charged.

(i) Passenger cars shall be equipped with a means to apply the emergency brake that is accessible to passengers and located in the vestibule or passenger compartment. The emergency brake shall be clearly identified and marked.

(j) Locomotives ordered after September 8, 2000, or placed in service for the first time after September 9, 2002, that are equipped with blended brakes shall be designed so that:

(1) The blending of friction and dynamic brake to obtain the correct retarding force is automatic;

(2) Loss of power or failure of the dynamic brake does not result in exceeding the allowable stopping distance;

(3) The friction brake alone is adequate to safely stop the train under all operating conditions; and

(4) Operation of the friction brake alone does not result in thermal damage to wheels or disc rotor surface temperatures exceeding the manufacturer's recommendation.

(k) For new designs of braking systems, the design process shall include computer modeling or dynamometer simulation of train braking that shows compliance with paragraphs (f) and (g) of this section over the range of equipment operating speeds. A new simulation is required prior to implementing a change in operating parameters.

(l) Locomotives ordered on or after September 8, 2000 or placed in service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, shall be equipped with effective air coolers or dryers that provide air to the main reservoir with a dew point at least 10 degrees F. below ambient temperature.

(m) When a passenger train is operated in either direct or graduated release—

(1) All the cars in the train consist shall be set up in the same operating mode or

(2) Up to two cars may be operated in direct release mode when the rest of the cars in the train are operated in graduated release mode, provided that the cars operated in direct release mode are hauled at the rear of the train consist.

(n) Before adjusting piston travel or working on brake rigging, the cutout cock in the brake pipe branch must be closed and the air reservoirs must be voided of all compressed air. When cutout cocks are provided in brake cylinder pipes, these cutout cocks may be closed, and air reservoirs need not be voided of all compressed air.

(o) All passenger trains to which this part applies shall comply with the requirements covering the use of two-way end-of-train devices contained in part 232 of this chapter.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 65 FR 41307, July 3, 2000; 71 FR 61861, Oct. 19, 2006]

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§238.233   Interior fittings and surfaces.

(a) Each seat in a passenger car shall—

(1) Be securely fastened to the car body so as to withstand an individually applied acceleration of 4g acting in the lateral direction and 4g acting in the upward vertical direction on the deadweight of the seat or seats, if held in tandem; and

(2) Have an attachment to the car body of an ultimate strength capable of resisting simultaneously:

(i) The longitudinal inertial force of 8g acting on the mass of the seat; and

(ii) The load associated with the impact into the seatback of an unrestrained 95th-percentile adult male initially seated behind the seat, when the floor to which the seat is attached decelerates with a triangular crash pulse having a peak of 8g and a duration of 250 milliseconds.

(b) Overhead storage racks in a passenger car shall provide longitudinal and lateral restraint for stowed articles. Overhead storage racks shall be attached to the car body with sufficient strength to resist loads due to the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the luggage stowed as determined by the railroad:

(1) Longitudinal: 8g;

(2) Vertical: 4g; and

(3) Lateral: 4g.

(c) Other interior fittings within a passenger car shall be attached to the car body with sufficient strength to withstand the following individually applied accelerations acting on the mass of the fitting:

(1) Longitudinal: 8g;

(2) Vertical: 4g; and

(3) Lateral: 4g.

(d) To the extent possible, all interior fittings in a passenger car, except seats, shall be recessed or flush-mounted.

(e) Sharp edges and corners in a locomotive cab and a passenger car shall be either avoided or padded to mitigate the consequences of an impact with such surfaces.

(f) Locomotives required to be constructed in accordance with subpart D of part 229 of this chapter shall have cab seat attachment in compliance with §229.206 of this chapter, in lieu of the following requirements of this paragraph. Each seat provided for a crewmember regularly assigned to occupy the cab of a locomotive and each floor-mounted seat in the cab shall be secured to the car body with an attachment having an ultimate strength capable of withstanding the loads due to the following individually applied accelerations acting on the combined mass of the seat and a 95th-percentile adult male occupying it:

(1) Longitudinal: 8g;

(2) Lateral: 4g; and

(3) Vertical: 4g.

(g) If, for purposes of showing compliance with the requirements of this section, the strength of a seat attachment is to be demonstrated through sled testing, the seat structure and seat attachment to the sled that is used in such testing must be representative of the actual seat structure in, and seat attachment to, the rail vehicle subject to the requirements of this section. If the attachment strength of any other interior fitting is to be demonstrated through sled testing, for purposes of showing compliance with the requirements of this section, such testing shall be conducted in a similar manner.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 71 FR 36917, June 28, 2006]

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§238.235   [Reserved]

§238.237   Automated monitoring.

(a) Except as further specified in this paragraph, on or after November 8, 1999 a working alerter or deadman control shall be provided in the controlling locomotive of each passenger train operating in other than cab signal, automatic train control, or automatic train stop territory. If the controlling locomotive is ordered on or after September 8, 2000, or placed into service for the first time on or after September 9, 2002, a working alerter shall be provided.

(b) Alerter or deadman control timing shall be set by the operating railroad taking into consideration maximum train speed and capabilities of the signal system. The railroad shall document the basis for setting alerter or deadman control timing and make this documentation available to FRA upon request.

(c) If the train operator does not respond to the alerter or maintain proper contact with the deadman control, it shall initiate a penalty brake application.

(d) The following procedures apply if the alerter or deadman control fails en route and causes the locomotive to be in non-compliance with paragraph (a):

(1)(i) A second person qualified on the signal system and trained to apply the emergency brake shall be stationed in the locomotive cab; or

(ii) The engineer shall be in constant communication with a second crewmember until the train reaches the next terminal.

(2)(i) A tag shall be prominently displayed in the locomotive cab to indicate that the alerter or deadman control is defective, until such device is repaired; and

(ii) When the train reaches its next terminal or the locomotive undergoes its next calendar day inspection, whichever occurs first, the alerter or deadman control shall be repaired or the locomotive shall be removed as the controlling locomotive in the train.

[64 FR 25660, May 12, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 19991, Apr. 23, 2002]

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Figure 1 to Subpart C of Part 238

eCFR graphic er08ja10.004.gif

View or download PDF

[75 FR 1230, Jan. 8, 2010]

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