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Title 49 Part 571

Title 49 → Subtitle B → Chapter V → Part 571

Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR

Title 49 Part 571

e-CFR data is current as of August 19, 2019

Title 49Subtitle BChapter V → Part 571


Title 49: Transportation


PART 571—FEDERAL MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY STANDARDS


Contents

Subpart B—Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

§571.101   Standard No. 101; Controls and displays.
§571.102   Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect.
§571.103   Standard No. 103; Windshield defrosting and defogging systems.
§571.104   Standard No. 104; Windshield wiping and washing systems.
§571.105   Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.
§571.106   Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.
§571.107   [Reserved]
§571.108   Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.
§571.109   Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.
§571.110   Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less.
§571.111   Standard No. 111; Rear visibility.
§571.112   [Reserved]
§571.113   Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.
§571.114   Standard No. 114; Theft protection and rollaway prevention.
§571.115   [Reserved]
§571.116   Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.
§571.117   Standard No. 117; Retreaded pneumatic tires.
§571.118   Standard No. 118; Power-operated window, partition, and roof panel systems.
§571.119   Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and motorcycles.
§571.120   Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds).
§571.121   Standard No. 121; Air brake systems.
§571.122   Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.
§571.122a   Standard No. 122; Motorcycle brake systems.
§571.123   Standard No. 123; Motorcycle controls and displays.
§571.124   Standard No. 124; Accelerator control systems.
§571.125   Standard No. 125; Warning devices.
§571.126   Standard No. 126; Electronic stability control systems for light vehicles.
§§571.127-571.128   [Reserved]
§571.129   Standard No. 129; New non-pneumatic tires for passenger cars.
§571.131   Standard No. 131; School bus pedestrian safety devices.
§571.135   Standard No. 135; Light vehicle brake systems.
§571.136   Standard No. 136; Electronic stability control systems for heavy vehicles.
§571.138   Standard No. 138; Tire pressure monitoring systems.
§571.139   Standard No. 139; New pneumatic radial tires for light vehicles.
§571.141   Standard No. 141; Minimum Sound Requirements for Hybrid and Electric Vehicles.
§571.201   Standard No. 201; Occupant protection in interior impact.
§571.202   Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.
§571.202a   Standard No. 202a; Head restraints; Mandatory applicability begins on September 1, 2009.
§571.203   Standard No. 203; Impact protection for the driver from the steering control system.
§571.204   Standard No. 204; Steering control rearward displacement.
§571.205   Standard No. 205, Glazing materials.
§571.205(a)   Glazing equipment manufactured before September 1, 2006 and glazing materials used in vehicles manufactured before November 1, 2006.
§571.206   Standard No. 206; Door locks and door retention components.
§571.207   Standard No. 207; Seating systems.
§571.208   Standard No. 208; Occupant crash protection.
§571.209   Standard No. 209; Seat belt assemblies.
§571.210   Standard No. 210; Seat belt assembly anchorages.
§571.211   [Reserved]
§571.212   Standard No. 212; Windshield mounting.
§571.213   Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.
§571.214   Standard No. 214; Side impact protection.
§571.215   [Reserved]
§571.216   Standard No. 216; Roof crush resistance; Applicable unless a vehicle is certified to §571.216a.
§571.216a   Standard No. 216a; Roof crush resistance; Upgraded standard.
§571.217   Standard No. 217; Bus emergency exits and window retention and release.
§571.218   Standard No. 218; Motorcycle helmets.
§571.219   Standard No. 219; Windshield zone intrusion.
§571.220   Standard No. 220; School bus rollover protection.
§571.221   Standard No. 221; School bus body joint strength.
§571.222   Standard No. 222; School bus passenger seating and crash protection.
§571.223   Standard No. 223; Rear impact guards.
§571.224   Standard No. 224; Rear impact protection.
§571.225   Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.
§571.226   Standard No. 226; Ejection Mitigation.
§571.301   Standard No. 301; Fuel system integrity.
§571.302   Standard No. 302; Flammability of interior materials.
§571.303   Standard No. 303; Fuel system integrity of compressed natural gas vehicles.
§571.304   Standard No. 304; Compressed natural gas fuel container integrity.
§571.305   Standard No. 305; Electric-powered vehicles: electrolyte spillage and electrical shock protection.
§571.401   Standard No. 401; Interior trunk release.
§571.403   Standard No. 403; Platform lift systems for motor vehicles.
§571.404   Standard No. 404; Platform lift installations in motor vehicles.
§571.500   Standard No. 500; Low-speed vehicles.

Authority: 49 U.S.C. 322, 30111, 30115, 30117, and 30166; delegation of authority at 49 CFR 1.95.

Editorial Note: Nomenclature changes to part 571 appear at 69 FR 18803, Apr. 9, 2004.

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Subpart A—General

§571.1   Scope.

This part contains the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards for motor vehicles and motor vehicle equipment established under section 103 of the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 718).

[33 FR 19703, Dec. 25, 1968. Redesignated at 35 FR 5118, Mar. 26, 1970]

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§571.3   Definitions.

(a) Statutory definitions. All terms defined in section 102 of the Act are used in their statutory meaning.

(b) Other definitions. As used in this chapter—

Act means the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 (80 Stat. 718).

Approved, unless used with reference to another person, means approved by the Secretary.

Boat trailer means a trailer designed with cradle-type mountings to transport a boat and configured to permit launching of the boat from the rear of the trailer.

Bus means a motor vehicle with motive power, except a trailer, designed for carrying more than 10 persons.

Curb weight means the weight of a motor vehicle with standard equipment; maximum capacity of engine fuel, oil, and coolant; and, if so equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine.

Designated seating capacity means the number of designated seating positions provided.

Designated seating position means:

(1) For vehicles manufactured prior to September 1, 2011, any plan view location capable of accommodating a person at least as large as a 5th percentile adult female, if the overall seat configuration and design and vehicle design is such that the position is likely to be used as a seating position while the vehicle is in motion, except for auxiliary seating accommodations such as temporary or folding jump seats. Any bench or split-bench seat in a passenger car, truck or multipurpose passenger vehicle with a GVWR less than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds), having greater than 127 centimeters (50 inches) of hip room (measured in accordance with Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J1100a, revised September 1975, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), shall have not less than three designated seating positions, unless the seat design or vehicle design is such that the center position cannot be used for seating. For the sole purpose of determining the classification of any vehicle sold or introduced into interstate commerce for purposes that include carrying students to and from school or related events, any location in such vehicle intended for securement of an occupied wheelchair during vehicle operation shall be regarded as four designated seating positions.

(2) For vehicles manufactured on and after September 1, 2011, designated seating position means a seat location that has a seating surface width, as described in §571.10(c) of this part, of at least 330 mm (13 inches). The number of designated seating positions at a seat location is determined according to the procedure set forth in §571.10(b) of this part. However, for trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, police vehicles as defined in S7 of FMVSS No. 208, firefighting vehicles, ambulances, and motor homes, a seating location that is labeled in accordance with S4.4 of FMVSS No. 207 will not be considered a designated seating position. For the sole purpose of determining the classification of any vehicle sold or introduced into interstate commerce for purposes that include carrying students to and from school or related events, any location in such a vehicle intended for securement of an occupied wheelchair during vehicle operation is regarded as four designated seating positions.

Driver means the occupant of a motor vehicle seated immediately behind the steering control system.

Emergency brake means a mechanism designed to stop a motor vehicle after a failure of the service brake system.

5th percentile adult female means a person possessing the dimensions and weight of the 5th percentile adult female specified for the total age group in “Weight, Height, and Selected Body Dimensions of Adults: United States—1960-1962,” first published as Public Health Service Publication No. 1000 Series 11-No. 8, June 1965 and republished as DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 76-1074 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Firefighting vehicle means a vehicle designed exclusively for the purpose of fighting fires.

Fixed collision barrier means a flat, vertical, unyielding surface with the following characteristics:

(1) The surface is sufficiently large that when struck by a tested vehicle, no portion of the vehicle projects or passes beyond the surface.

(2) The approach is a horizontal surface that is large enough for the vehicle to attain a stable attitude during its approach to the barrier, and that does not restrict vehicle motion during impact.

(3) When struck by a vehicle, the surface and its supporting structure absorb no significant portion of the vehicle's kinetic energy, so that a performance requirement described in terms of impact with a fixed collision barrier must be met no matter how small an amount of energy is absorbed by the barrier.

Forward control means a configuration in which more than half of the engine length is rearward of the foremost point of the windshield base and the steering wheel hub is in the forward quarter of the vehicle length.

Full trailer means a trailer, except a pole trailer, that is equipped with two or more axles that support the entire weight of the trailer.

Gross axle weight rating or GAWR means the value specified by the vehicle manufacturer as the load-carrying capacity of a single axle system, as measured at the tire-ground interfaces.

Gross combination weight rating or GCWR means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a combination vehicle.

Gross vehicle weight rating or GVWR means the value specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single vehicle.

H-Point means the pivot center of the torso and thigh on the three-dimensional device used in defining and measuring vehicle seating accommodation, as defined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J1100, revised February 2001, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Head impact area means all nonglazed surfaces of the interior of a vehicle that are statically contactable by a 6.5-inch diameter spherical head form of a measuring device having a pivot point to “top-of-head” dimension infinitely adjustable from 29 to 33 inches in accordance with the following procedure, or its graphic equivalent:

(a) At each designated seating position, place the pivot point of the measuring device—

(1) For seats that are adjustable fore and aft, at—

(i) The seating reference point; and

(ii) A point 5 inches horizontally forward of the seating reference point and vertically above the seating reference point an amount equal to the rise which results from a 5-inch forward adjustment of the seat or 0.75 inch; and

(2) For seats that are not adjustable fore and aft, at the seating reference point.

(b) With the pivot point to “top-of-head” dimension at each value allowed by the device and the interior dimensions of the vehicle, determine all contact points above the lower windshield glass line and forward of the seating reference point.

(c) With the head form at each contact point, and with the device in a vertical position if no contact points exists for a particular adjusted length, pivot the measuring device forward and downward through all arcs in vertical planes to 90° each side of the vertical longitudinal plane through the seating reference point, until the head form contacts an interior surface or until it is tangent to a horizontal plane 1 inch above the seating reference point, whichever occurs first.

Interior compartment door means any door in the interior of the vehicle installed by the manufacturer as a cover for storage space normally used for personal effects.

Longitudinal or longitudinally means parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle.

Low-speed vehicle (LSV) means a motor vehicle,

(1) That is 4-wheeled,

(2) Whose speed attainable in 1.6 km (1 mile) is more than 32 kilometers per hour (20 miles per hour) and not more than 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour) on a paved level surface, and

(3) Whose GVWR is less than 1,361 kilograms (3,000 pounds).

Motorcycle means a motor vehicle with motive power having a seat or saddle for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground.

Motor-driven cycle means a motorcycle with a motor that produces 5-brake horsepower or less.

Motor home means a multipurpose passenger vehicle with motive power that is designed to provide temporary residential accommodations, as evidenced by the presence of at least four of the following facilities: Cooking; refrigeration or ice box; self-contained toilet; heating and/or air conditioning; a potable water supply system including a faucet and a sink; and a separate 110-125 volt electrical power supply and/or propane.

Multifunction school activity bus (MFSAB) means a school bus whose purposes do not include transporting students to and from home or school bus stops.

Multipurpose passenger vehicle means a motor vehicle with motive power, except a low-speed vehicle or trailer, designed to carry 10 persons or less which is constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation.

Open-body type vehicle means a vehicle having no occupant compartment top or an occupant compartment top that can be installed or removed by the user at his convenience.

Outboard designated seating position means a designated seating position where a longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the outboard side of the seat cushion is less than 12 inches from the innermost point on the inside surface of the vehicle at a height between the design H-point and the shoulder reference point (as shown in fig. 1 of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210) and longitudinally between the front and rear edges of the seat cushion.

Overall vehicle width means the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, and mud flaps, determined with doors and windows closed and the wheels in the straight-ahead position.

Parking brake means a mechanism designed to prevent the movement of a stationary motor vehicle.

Passenger car means a motor vehicle with motive power, except a low-speed vehicle, multipurpose passenger vehicle, motorcycle, or trailer, designed for carrying 10 persons or less.

Pelvic impact area means that area of the door or body side panel adjacent to any outboard designated seating position which is bounded by horizontal planes 7 inches above and 4 inches below the seating reference point and vertical transverse planes 8 inches forward and 2 inches rearward of the seating reference point.

Pole trailer means a motor vehicle without motive power designed to be drawn by another motor vehicle and attached to the towing vehicle by means of a reach or pole, or by being boomed or otherwise secured to the towing vehicle, for transporting long or irregularly shaped loads such as poles, pipes, or structural members capable generally of sustaining themselves as beams between the supporting connections.

Recreation vehicle trailer means a trailer, except a trailer designed primarily to transport cargo, designed to be drawn by a vehicle with motive power by means of a bumper, frame or fifth wheel hitch and designed to provide temporary residential accommodations, as evidenced by the presence of at least four of the following facilities: cooking; refrigeration or ice box; self-contained toilet; heating and/or air conditioning; a potable water supply system including a faucet and a sink; and a separate 110-125 volt electrical power supply and/or propane. “Recreation vehicle trailer” includes trailers used for personal purposes, commonly known as “sport utility RVs” or “toy haulers,” which usually have spacious rather than incidental living quarters and provide a cargo area for smaller items for personal use such as motorcycles, mountain bikes, all terrain vehicles (ATVs), snowmobiles, canoes or other types of recreational gear.

School bus means a bus that is sold, or introduced in interstate commerce, for purposes that include carrying students to and from school or related events, but does not include a bus designed and sold for operation as a common carrier in urban transportation.

Seating reference point (SgRP) means the unique design H-point, as defined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J1100, revised June 1984, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), which:

(1) Establishes the rearmost normal design driving or riding position of each designated seating position, which includes consideration of all modes of adjustment, horizontal, vertical, and tilt, in a vehicle;

(2) Has X, Y, and Z coordinates, as defined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Recommended Practice J1100, revised June 1984, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), established relative to the designed vehicle structure;

(3) Simulates the position of the pivot center of the human torso and thigh; and

(4) Is the reference point employed to position the two-dimensional drafting template with the 95th percentile leg described in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J826, revised May 1987, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), or, if the drafting template with the 95th percentile leg cannot be positioned in the seating position, is located with the seat in its most rearward adjustment position.

Semitrailer means a trailer, except a pole trailer, so constructed that a substantial part of its weight rests upon or is carried by another motor vehicle.

Service brake means the primary mechanism designed to stop a motor vehicle.

Speed attainable in 1 mile means the speed attainable by accelerating at maximum rate from a standing start for 1 mile, on a level surface.

Speed attainable in 2 miles means the speed attainable by accelerating at maximum rate from a standing start for 2 miles, on a level surface.

Torso line means the line connecting the “H” point and the shoulder reference point as defined in Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J787b, revised September 1966, “Motor Vehicle Seat Belt Anchorage” (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Trailer means a motor vehicle with or without motive power, designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by another motor vehicle.

Trailer converter dolly means a trailer chassis equipped with one or more axles, a lower half of a fifth wheel and a drawbar.

Truck means a motor vehicle with motive power, except a trailer, designed primarily for the transportation of property or special purpose equipment.

Truck tractor means a truck designed primarily for drawing other motor vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and the load so drawn.

Unloaded vehicle weight means the weight of a vehicle with maximum capacity of all fluids necessary for operation of the vehicle, but without cargo, occupants, or accessories that are ordinarily removed from the vehicle when they are not in use.

95th percentile adult male means a person possessing the dimensions and weight of the 95th percentile adult male specified “Weight, Height, and Selected Body Dimensions of Adults: United States—1960-1962,” first published as Public Health Service Publication No. 1000 Series 11-No. 8, June 1965 and republished as DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 76-1074 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Vehicle fuel tank capacity means the tank's unusable capacity (i.e., the volume of fuel left at the bottom of the tank when the vehicle's fuel pump can no longer draw fuel from the tank) plus its usable capacity (i.e., the volume of fuel that can be pumped into the tank through the filler pipe with the vehicle on a level surface and with the unusable capacity already in the tank). The term does not include the vapor volume of the tank (i.e., the space above the fuel tank filler neck) nor the volume of the fuel tank filler neck.

[33 FR 19703, Dec. 25, 1968. Redesignated at 35 FR 5118, Mar. 26, 1970]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §571.3, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§571.4   Explanation of usage.

The word any, used in connection with a range of values or set of items in the requirements, conditions, and procedures of the standards or regulations in this chapter, means generally the totality of the items or values, any one of which may be selected by the Administration for testing, except where clearly specified otherwise.

Examples: “The vehicle shall meet the requirements of S4.1 when tested at any point between 18 and 22 inches above the ground.” This means that the vehicle must be capable of meeting the specified requirements at every point between 18 and 22 inches above the ground. The test in question for a given vehicle may call for a single test (a single impact, for example), but the vehicle must meet the requirement at whatever point the Administration selects, within the specified range.

“Each tire shall be capable of meeting the requirements of this standard when mounted on any rim specified by the manufacturer as suitable for use with that tire.” This means that, where the manufacturer specifies more than one rim as suitable for use with a tire, the tire must meet the requirements with whatever rim the Administration selects from the specified group.

“Any one of the items listed below may, at the option of the manufacturer, be substituted for the hardware specified in S4.1.” Here the wording clearly indicates that the selection of items is at the manufacturer's option.

[36 FR 2511, Feb. 5, 1971]

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§571.5   Matter incorporated by reference.

(a) Certain material is incorporated by reference into this part with the approval of the Director of the Federal Register under 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. To enforce any edition other than that specified in this section, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) must publish notice of change in the Federal Register and the material must be available to the public. All approved material is available for inspection at NHTSA, 1200 New Jersey Avenue SE., Washington, DC 20590, and at the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA). For information on the availability of this material at NHTSA, or if you experience difficulty obtaining the standards referenced below, contact NHTSA Office of Technical Information Services, phone number (202) 366-2588. For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call (202) 741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html.

(b) American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC), 1 Davis Dr., P.O. Box 12215, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709. Web site: http://www.aatcc.org.

(1) AATCC Test Method 30-1981, “Fungicides, Evaluation on Textiles: Mildew and Rot Resistance of Textiles,” into §571.209.

(2) AATCC Gray Scale for Evaluating Change in Color into §§571.209; 571.213.

(c) American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 1899 L St., NW., 11th floor, Washington, DC 20036. Telephone: (202) 293-8020; Fax: (202) 293-9287; Web site: http://www.ansi.org. Copies of ANSI/RESNA Standard WC/Vol.1-1998 Section 13 may also be obtained from Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), 1700 North Moore St., Suite 1540, Arlington, VA 22209-1903. Telephone: (703) 524-6686; Web site http://www.resna.org.

(1) ANSI S1.11-2004, “Specification for Octave-Band and Fractional-Octave-Band Analog and Digital Filters,” approved February 19, 2004, into §571.141.

(2) ANSI Z26.1-1977, “Safety Code for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways,” approved January 26, 1977, into §571.205(a).

(3) ANSI Z26.1a-1980, “Safety Code for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land Highways,” approved July 3, 1980, into §571.205(a).

(4) ANSI/SAE Z26.1-1996, “American National Standard for Safety Glazing Materials for Glazing Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle Equipment Operating on Land Highways-Safety Standard,” approved August 11, 1997, into §571.205.

(5) ANSI/RESNA Standard WC/Vol. 1-1998, Section 13, “Wheelchairs: Determination of Coefficient of Friction of Test Surfaces,” into §571.403.

(d) ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959. Telephone: (610) 832-9500; Fax (610) 832-9555; Web site: http://www.astm.org.

(1) 1985 Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 05.04, “Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels, A2. Reference Materials and Blending Accessories, (“ASTM Motor Fuels section”),” A2.3.2, A2.3.3, and A2.7, into §§571.108; 571.205(a).

(2) ASTM B117-64, “Standard Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing,” revised 1964, into §571.125.

(3) ASTM B117-73 (Reapproved 1979), “Standard Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing,” approved March 29, 1973, into §§571.108; 571.209.

(4) ASTM B117-97, “Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus,” approved April 10, 1997, into §571.403.

(5) ASTM B117-03, “Standard Practice for Operating Salt Spray (Fog) Apparatus,” approved October 1, 2003, into §§571.106; 571.111.

(6) ASTM B456-79, “Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Copper Plus Nickel Plus Chromium and Nickel Plus Chromium,” approved January 26, 1979, into §571.209.

(7) ASTM B456-95, “Standard Specification for Electrodeposited Coatings of Copper Plus Nickel Plus Chromium and Nickel Plus Chromium,” approved October 10, 1995, into §571.403.

(8) ASTM C150-56, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” approved 1956, into §571.108.

(9) ASTM C150-77, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement,” approved February 26, 1977, into §571.108.

(10) ASTM D362-84, “Standard Specification for Industrial Grade Toluene,” approved March 30, 1984, into §§571.108; 571.205(a).

(11) ASTM D445-65, “Standard Method of Test for Viscosity of Transparent and Opaque Liquids (Kinematic and Dynamic Viscosities),” approved August 31, 1965, into §571.116.

(12) ASTM D471-98, “Standard Test Method for Rubber Property—Effect of Liquids,” approved November 10, 1998, into §571.106.

(13) ASTM D484-71, “Standard Specification for Hydrocarbon Drycleaning Solvents,” effective September 15, 1971, into §571.301.

(14) ASTM D756-78, “Standard Practice for Determination of Weight and Shape Changes of Plastics under Accelerated Service Conditions,” approved July 28, 1978, into §571.209.

(15) ASTM D1003-92, “Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics,” approved October 15, 1992, into §571.108.

(16) ASTM D1056-07, “Standard Specification for Flexible Cellular Materials—Sponge or Expanded Rubber,” approved March 1, 2007, into §571.213.

(17) ASTM D1121-67, “Standard Method of Test for Reserve Alkalinity of Engine Antifreezes and Antirusts,” accepted June 12, 1967, into §571.116.

(18) ASTM D1123-59, “Standard Method of Test for Water in Concentrated Engine Antifreezes by the Iodine Reagent Method,” revised 1959, into §571.116.

(19) ASTM D1193-70, “Standard Specification for Reagent Water,” effective October 2, 1970, into §571.116.

(20) ASTM D1415-68, “Standard Method of Test for International Hardness of Vulcanized Natural and Synthetic Rubbers,” accepted February 14, 1968, into §571.116.

(21) ASTM D2515-66, “Standard Specification for Kinematic Glass Viscometers,” adopted 1966, into §571.116.

(22) ASTM D4329-99, “Standard Practice for Fluorescent UV Exposure of Plastics,” approved January 10, 1999, into §571.106.

(23) ASTM D4956-90, “Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control,” approved October 26, 1990, into §571.108.

(24) ASTM E1-68, “Standard Specifications for ASTM Thermometers” (including tentative revisions), accepted September 13, 1968, into §571.116.

(25) ASTM E4-79, “Standard Methods of Load Verification of Testing Machines,” approved June 11, 1979, into §571.209.

(26) ASTM E4-03, “Standard Practices for Force Verification of Testing Machines,” approved August 10, 2003, into §571.106.

(27) ASTM E8-89, “Standard Test Methods of Tension Testing of Metallic Materials,” approved May 15, 1989, into §571.221.

(28) ASTM E77-66, “Standard Method for Inspection, Test, and Standardization of Etched-Stem Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers,” revised 1966, into §571.116.

(29) ASTM E274-65T, “Tentative Method of Test for Skid Resistance of Pavements Using a Two-Wheel Trailer,” issued 1965, into §§571.208; 571.301.

(30) ASTM E274-70, “Standard Method of Test for Skid Resistance of Paved Surfaces Using a Full-Scale Tire,” revised July 1974, into §§571.105; 571.122a.

(31) ASTM E298-68, “Standard Methods for Assay of Organic Peroxides,” effective September 13, 1968, into §571.116.

(32) ASTM E308-66, “Standard Practice for Spectrophotometry and Description of Color in CIE 1931 System,” reapproved 1981, into §571.108.

(33) ASTM E1136-93 (Reapproved 2003), “Standard Specification for a Radial Standard Reference Test Tire,” approved March 15, 1993, into §§571.105; 571.121; 571.122; 571.126; 571.135; 571.136; 571.139; 571.500.

(34) ASTM E1337-90 (Reapproved 2008), “Standard Test Method for Determining Longitudinal Peak Braking Coefficient of Paved Surfaces Using a Standard Reference Test Tire,” approved June 1, 2008, into §§571.105; 571.121; 571.122; 571.126; 571.135; 571.136; 571.500.

(35) ASTM F1805-00, “Standard Test Method for Single Wheel Driving Traction in a Straight Line on Snow- and Ice-Covered Surfaces,” approved November 10, 2000, into §571.139.

(36) ASTM G23-81, “Standard Practice for Generating Light-Exposure Apparatus (Carbon-Arc Type) With and Without Water for Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials,” approved March 26, 1981, into §571.209.

(37) ASTM G151-97, “Standard Practice for Exposing Nonmetallic Materials in Accelerated Test Devices that Use Laboratory Light Sources,” approved July 10, 1997, into §571.106.

(38) ASTM G154-00, “Standard Practice for Operating Fluorescent Light Apparatus for UV Exposure of Nonmetallic Materials,” approved February 10, 2000, into §571.106.

(e) Department of Defense, DODSSP Standardization Document Order Desk, 700 Robbins Ave., Philadelphia, PA 19111-5098. Web site: http://dodssp.daps.dla.mil/.

(1) MIL-S-13192, “Military Specification, Shoes, Men's, Dress, Oxford,” October 30, 1976, into §571.214.

(2) MIL-S-13192P, “Military Specification, Shoes, Men's, Dress, Oxford,” 1988, including Amendment 1, October 14, 1994, into §571.208.

(3) MIL-S-21711E, “Military Specification, Shoes, Women's,” 3 December 1982, including Amendment 2, October 14, 1994, into §§571.208; 571.214.

(f) General Services Administration (GSA), Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Telephone: (202) 512-1800; Web site: http://www.gsa.gov.

(1) GSA Federal Specification L-S-300, “Sheeting and Tape, Reflective; Nonexposed Lens, Adhesive Backing,” September 7, 1965, into §571.108.

(2) [Reserved]

(g) Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES), 120 Wall St., 7th Floor, New York, NY 10005-4001. Telephone: (212) 248-5000; Web site: http://www.iesna.org.

(1) IES LM 45, “IES Approved Method for Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service Incandescent Filament Lamps,” approved April 1980, into §571.108.

(2) [Reserved]

(h) International Commission on Illumination (CIE), CIE Central Bureau, Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, Austria. http://www.cie.co.at.

(1) CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram, developed 1931, into §571.108.

(2) [Reserved]

(i) International Organization for Standardization (ISO), 1, ch. de la Voie-Creuse, CP 56, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland. Telephone: + 41 22 749 01 11. Fax: + 41 22 733 34 30. Web site: http://www.iso.org/.

(1) ISO 7117:1995(E), “Motorcycles—Measurement of maximum speed,” Second edition, March 1, 1995, into §571.122.

(2) ISO 10844:1994(E) “Acoustics—Test Surface for Road Vehicle Noise Measurements,” First edition, 1994-09-01, into §571.141.

(3) ISO 10844: 2011(E) “Acoustics—Specification of test tracks for measuring noise emitted by road vehicles and their tyres,” Second edition, 2011-02-01 into §571.141.

(4) ISO 10844: 2014(E) “Acoustics—Specification of test tracks for measuring noise emitted by road vehicles and their tyres,” Third edition, 2014-05-15 into §571.141.

(j) National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control (CDC), National Division for Health Statistics, Division of Data Services, Hyattsville, MD 20782. Telephone: 1 (800) 232-4636. Web site: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs.

(1) DHEW Publication No. (HRA) 76-1074, “Weight, Height, and Selected Body Dimensions of Adults: United States—1960-1962,” first published as Public Health Service Publication No. 1000 Series 11-No. 8, June 1965, into §571.3.

(2) [Reserved]

(k) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590. Web site: http://www.nhtsa.gov.

(1) Drawing Package, “NHTSA Standard Seat Assembly; FMVSS No. 213, No. NHTSA-213-2003,” (consisting of drawings and a bill of materials), June 3, 2003, into §571.213.

(2) Drawing Package, SAS-100-1000, Standard Seat Belt Assembly with Addendum A, Seat Base Weldment (consisting of drawings and a bill of materials), October 23, 1998, into §571.213.

(3) “Parts List; Ejection Mitigation Headform Drawing Package,” December 2010, into §571.226.

(4) “Parts List and Drawings; Ejection Mitigation Headform Drawing Package” December 2010, into §571.226.

(l) SAE International, 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096. Telephone: (724) 776-4841; Web site: http://www.sae.org.

(1) SAE Recommended Practice J100-1995, “Class ‘A’ Vehicle Glazing Shade Bands,” revised June 1995, into §571.205.

(2) SAE Recommended Practice J211a, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” revised December 1971, into §571.222.

(3) SAE Recommended Practice J211, “Instrumentation for Impact Tests,” revised June 1980, into §§571.213; 571.218.

(4) SAE Recommended Practice J211/1, revised March 1995, “Instrumentation for Impact Test—Part 1—Electronic Instrumentation” into §§571.202a; 571.208; 571.218; 571.403.

(5) SAE Recommended Practice J211-1 DEC2003, “Instrumentation for Impact Test—Part 1—Electronic Instrumentation,” revised December 2003, into §§571.206; 571.209.

(6) SAE Recommended Practice J227a, “Electric Vehicle Test Procedure,” revised February 1976, into §§571.105; 571.135.

(7) SAE Standard J527a, “Brazed Double Wall Low Carbon Steel Tubing,” revised May 1967, into §571.116.

(8) SAE Recommended Practice J567b, “Bulb Sockets,” revised April 1964, into §571.108.

(9) SAE Recommended Practice J573d, “Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units,” revised December 1968, into §571.108.

(10) SAE Recommended Practice J575-1983, “Tests for Motor Vehicle Lighting Devices and Components,” revised July 1983, into §571.131.

(11) SAE Recommended Practice J578, “Color Specification,” revised May 1988, into §571.131.

(12) SAE Recommended Practice J578-1995, “Color Specification,” revised June 1995, into §571.403.

(13) SAE Recommended Practice J592 JUN92, “Clearance, Side Marker, and Identification Lamps,” revised June 1992, into §571.121.

(14) SAE Recommended Practice J592e-1972, “Clearance, Side Marker, and Identification Lamps,” revised July 1972, into §571.121.

(15) SAE Recommended Practice J602-1963, “Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units,” reaffirmed August 1963, into §571.108.

(16) SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980, “Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units,” revised October 1980, into §571.108.

(17) SAE Recommended Practice J673a, “Automotive Glazing,” revised August 1967, into §571.205(a).

(18) SAE Recommended Practice J673, “Automotive Safety Glasses,” revised April 1993, into §571.205.

(19) SAE Recommended Practice J726 SEP79, “Air Cleaner Test Code,” revised April 1979, into §571.209.

(20) SAE Recommended Practice J759 JAN95, “Lighting Identification Code,” revised January 1995, into §571.121.

(21) SAE Standard J787b, “Motor Vehicle Seat Belt Anchorage,” revised September 1966, into §571.3.

(22) SAE Recommended Practice J800c, “Motor Vehicle Seat Belt Assembly Installations,” revised November 1973, into §571.209.

(23) SAE Standard J826-1980, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation,” revised April 1980, into §§571.208; 571.214.

(24) SAE Standard J826 MAY87, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation,” revised May 1987, into §§571.3; 571.210.

(25) SAE Standard J826-1992, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation,” revised June 1992, into §571.225.

(26) SAE Standard J826 JUL95, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation,” revised July 1995, into §§571.10; 571.111; 571.202; 571.202a; 571.216a.

(27) SAE Recommended Practice J839b, “Passenger Car Side Door Latch Systems,” revised May 1965, into §571.201.

(28) SAE Recommended Practice J839-1991, “Passenger Car Side Door Latch Systems,” revised June 1991, into §571.206.

(29) SAE Recommended Practice J902, “Passenger Car Windshield Defrosting Systems,” revised August 1964, into §571.103.

(30) SAE Recommended Practice J902a, “Passenger Car Windshield Defrosting Systems,” revised March 1967 (Editorial change June 1967), into §571.103.

(31) SAE Recommended Practice J903a, “Passenger Car Windshield Wiper Systems,” revised May 1966, into §571.104.

(32) SAE Recommended Practice J921, “Instrument Panel Laboratory Impact Test Procedure,” approved June 1965, into §571.201.

(33) SAE Recommended Practice J941, “Passenger Car Driver's Eye Range,” approved November 1965, into §571.104.

(34) SAE Recommended Practice J941b, “Motor Vehicle Driver's Eye Range,” revised February 1969, into §571.108.

(35) SAE Recommended Practice J942, “Passenger Car Windshield Washer Systems,” approved November 1965, into §571.104.

(36) SAE Recommended Practice J944 JUN80, “Steering Control System—Passenger Car—Laboratory Test Procedure,” revised June 1980, into §571.203.

(37) SAE Standard J964 OCT84, “Test Procedure for Determining Reflectivity of Rear View Mirrors,” reaffirmed October 1984, into §571.111.

(38) SAE Recommended Practice J972, “Moving Rigid Barrier Collision Tests,” revised May 2000, into §571.105.

(39) SAE Recommended Practice J977, “Instrumentation for Laboratory Impact Tests,” approved November 1966, into §571.201.

(40) SAE Recommended Practice J1100a, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions,” revised September 1975, into §571.3.

(41) SAE Recommended Practice J1100 JUN84, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions,” revised June 1984, into §§571.3; 571.210.

(42) SAE Recommended Practice J1100-1993, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions,” revised June 1993, into §571.225.

(43) SAE Recommended Practice J1100, “Motor Vehicle Dimensions,” revised February 2001, into §571.3.

(44) SAE Recommended Practice J1133, “School Bus Stop Arm,” revised April 1984, into §571.131.

(45) SAE Standard J1703b, “Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid,” revised July 1970, into §571.116.

(46) SAE Standard J1703 NOV83, “Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid,” revised November 1983, into §571.116.

(47) SAE RM-66-04, “Compatibility Fluid,” Appendix B to SAE Standard J1703 JAN95, “Motor Vehicle Brake Fluid,” revised January 1995, into §§571.106; 571.116.

(48) SAE Recommended Practice J2009, “Discharge Forward Lighting Systems,” revised February 1993, into §571.108.

(49) SAE Standard J2889-1, “Measurement of Minimum Noise Emitted by Road Vehicles,” December 2014 into §571.141.

(50) SAE Aerospace-Automotive Drawing Standards, issued September 1963, into §§571.104; 571.202.

(m) United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE), United Nations, Conference Services Division, Distribution and Sales Section, Office C.115-1, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, Switzerland. Web site: www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html.

(1) UNECE Regulation 17 “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Seats, their Anchorages and Any Head Restraints”: ECE 17 Rev. 1/Add. 16/Rev. 4 (July 31, 2002), into §571.202.

(2) UNECE Regulation 48 “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles With Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signaling Devices,” E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, Rev.1/Add.47/Rev.1/Corr.2 (February 26, 1996), into §571.108.

[77 FR 752, Jan. 6, 2012, as amended at 77 FR 11647, Feb. 27, 2012; 77 FR 51671, Aug. 24, 2012; 78 FR 21852, Apr. 12, 2013; 79 FR 19243, Apr. 7, 2014; 80 FR 36100, June 23, 2015; 81 FR 90514, Dec. 14, 2016]

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§571.7   Applicability.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraphs (c) and (d) of this section, each standard set forth in subpart B of this part applies according to its terms to all motor vehicles or items of motor vehicle equipment the manufacture of which is completed on or after the effective date of the standard.

(b) [Reserved]

(c) Military vehicles. No standard applies to a vehicle or item of equipment manufactured for, and sold directly to, the Armed Forces of the United States in conformity with contractual specifications.

(d) Export. No standard applies to a vehicle or item of equipment in the circumstances provided in section 108(b)(5) of the Act (15 U.S.C. 1397 (b)(5)).

(e) Combining new and used components. When a new cab is used in the assembly of a truck, the truck will be considered newly manufactured for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the application of the requirements of this chapter, and the Act, unless the engine, transmission, and drive axle(s) (as a minimum) of the assembled vehicle are not new, and at least two of these components were taken from the same vehicle.

(f) Combining new and used components in trailer manufacture. When new materials are used in the assembly of a trailer, the trailer will be considered newly manufactured for purposes of paragraph (a) of this section, the application of the requirements of this chapter, and the Act, unless, at a minimum, the trailer running gear assembly (axle(s), wheels, braking and suspension) is not new, and was taken from an existing trailer—

(1) Whose identity is continued in the reassembled vehicle with respect to the Vehicle Identification Number; and

(2) That is owned or leased by the user of the reassembled vehicle.

[33 FR 19703, Dec. 25, 1968. Redesignated at 35 FR 5118, Mar. 26, 1970, and amended at 36 FR 7855, Apr. 27, 1971; 38 FR 12808, May 16, 1973; 40 FR 49341, Oct. 22, 1975; 41 FR 27074, July 1, 1976]

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§571.8   Effective date.

(a) Firefighting vehicles. Notwithstanding the effective date provisions of the motor vehicle safety standards in this part, the effective date of any standard or amendment of a standard issued after September 1, 1971, to which firefighting vehicles must conform shall be, with respect to such vehicles, either 2 years after the date on which such standard or amendment is published in the rules and regulations section of the Federal Register, or the effective date specified in the notice, whichever is later, except as such standard or amendment may otherwise specifically provide with respect to firefighting vehicles.

(b) Vehicles built in two or more stages vehicles and altered vehicles. Unless Congress directs or the agency expressly determines that this paragraph does not apply, the date for manufacturer certification of compliance with any standard, or amendment to a standard, that is issued on or after September 1, 2006 is, insofar as its application to intermediate and final-stage manufacturers and alterers is concerned, one year after the last applicable date for manufacturer certification of compliance. Nothing in this provision shall be construed as prohibiting earlier compliance with the standard or amendment or as precluding NHTSA from extending a compliance effective date for intermediate and final-stage manufacturers and alterers by more than one year.

[70 FR 7435, Feb. 14, 2005]

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§571.9   Separability.

If any standard established in this part or its application to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the remainder of the part and the application of that standard to other persons or circumstances is not affected thereby.

[33 FR 19705, Dec. 25, 1968. Redesignated at 35 FR 5118, Mar. 26, 1970]

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§571.10   Designation of seating positions.

(a) Application. This section applies to passenger cars, trucks, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and buses manufactured on or after September 1, 2010. However, paragraph (b) of this section does not apply to trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 10,000 lbs, school buses, police vehicles as defined in S7 of Standard No. 208 (49 CFR 571.208), firefighting vehicles, ambulances, or motor homes. To determine the number of passenger seating positions in school buses, see S4.1 of Standard No. 222 (49 CFR 571.222).

(b) Number of designated seating positions. The formula for calculating the number of designated seating positions (N) for any seat location with a seating surface width greater than 330 mm (13 inches) is as follows:

(1) For seat locations with a seating surface width, as described in paragraph (c), of less than 1400 mm (55.2 inches): N = The greater of 1 or [seating surface width (in mm)/350] rounded down to the nearest whole number;

(2) For seat locations with a seating surface width, as described in paragraph (c), greater than or equal to 1400 mm (55.2 inches): N = No less than [seating surface width (in mm)/450] rounded down to the nearest whole number.

(c) Seating surface measurement. (1) As used in this section, “seating surface” only includes the seat cushion and soft trim and excludes unpadded trim components such as a decorative seat shield, seat adjusters, or adjuster covers. As used in paragraphs (c)(1)(ii) and (iii) of this section, “outboard” and “inboard” are determined with respect to the measurement zone established in paragraph (c)(1)(i) of this section. As used in this section, “seating surface width” is the maximum horizontal width of a seating surface determined by the following procedure:

(i) Establish a measurement zone bounded by two vertical planes oriented perpendicular to the direction the seat is facing. One is located 150 mm (5.9 inches) behind the front leading surface of the seat and the other is located 250 mm (9.8 inches) behind the front leading surface of the seat. A measurement location within this zone is any vertical plane parallel to the planes establishing the boundary of the zone.

(ii) For each measurement location within the zone, establish vertical reference planes parallel to the direction the seat faces that intersect the most outboard point on each side of the seating surface at that measurement location. If outboard interior trim contacts the top surface of the seat cushion, establish another vertical plane parallel to the direction the seat faces that intersects the most inboard point of contact between outboard interior trim and the top surface of the seat cushion.

(iii) For measurement within the zone, measure horizontally between and perpendicular to the most inboard vertical reference planes established in (ii), as shown in Figure 1 (provided for illustration purposes).

(2) Adjacent seating surfaces are considered to form a single, continuous seating surface whose overall width is measured as specified in (c)(1) of this section, unless

(i) The seating surfaces are separated by:

(A) A fixed trimmed surface whose top surface is unpadded and that has a width not less than 140 mm (5.5 inches), as measured in each transverse vertical plane within that measurement zone, or

(B) A void whose cross section in each transverse vertical plane within that measurement zone is a rectangle that is not less than 140 mm (5.5 inches) wide and not less than 140 mm (5.5 inches) deep. The top edge of the cross section in any such plane is congruent with the transverse horizontal line that intersects the lowest point on the portion of the top profile of the seating surfaces that lie within that plane, or

(ii) Interior trim interrupts the measurement of the nominal hip room between adjacent seating surfaces, measured laterally along the “X” plane through the H-point. For purposes of this paragraph, the H-point is located using the SAE three-dimensional H-point machine per Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Surface Vehicle Standard J826, revised July 1995, “Devices for Use in Defining and Measuring Vehicle Seating Accommodation” (incorporated by reference, see section 571.5) with the legs and leg weights removed, or

(iii) The seating surfaces are adjacent outboard seats, and the lateral distance between any point on the seat cushion of one seat and any point on the seat cushion of the other seat is not less than 140 mm (5.5 inches).

(3) Folding, removable, and adjustable seats are measured in the configuration that results in the single largest maximum seating surface width.

eCFR graphic er15no13.003.gif

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[73 FR 58897, Oct. 8, 2008, as amended at 74 FR 68190, Dec. 23, 2009; 78 FR 68756, Nov. 15, 2013; 79 FR 57830, Sept. 26, 2014]

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Subpart B—Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards

Source: 36 FR 22902, Dec. 2, 1971, unless otherwise noted.

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§571.101   Standard No. 101; Controls and displays.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies performance requirements for location, identification, color, and illumination of motor vehicle controls, telltales and indicators.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to ensure the accessibility, visibility and recognition of motor vehicle controls, telltales and indicators, and to facilitate the proper selection of controls under daylight and nighttime conditions, in order to reduce the safety hazards caused by the diversion of the driver's attention from the driving task, and by mistakes in selecting controls.

S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.

S4. Definitions.

Adjacent, with respect to a control, telltale or indicator, and its identifier means:

(a) The identifier is in close proximity to the control, telltale or indicator; and

(b) No other control, telltale, indicator, identifier or source of illumination appears between the identifier and the telltale, indicator, or control that the identifier identifies.

Common space means an area on which more than one telltale, indicator, identifier, or other message may be displayed, but not simultaneously.

Control means the hand-operated part of a device that enables the driver to change the state or functioning of the vehicle or a vehicle subsystem.

Indicator means a device that shows the magnitude of the physical characteristics that the instrument is designed to sense.

Identifier means a symbol, word, or words used to identify a control, telltale, or indicator.

Multi-function control means a control through which the driver may select, and affect the operation of, more than one vehicle function.

Multi-task display means a display on which more than one message can be shown simultaneously.

Telltale means an optical signal that, when illuminated, indicates the actuation of a device, a correct or improper functioning or condition, or a failure to function.

S5. Requirements. Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus that is fitted with a control, a telltale or an indicator listed in Table 1 or Table 2 must meet the requirements of this standard for the location, identification, color, and illumination of that control, telltale or indicator. However, the requirements for telltales and indicators do not apply to vehicles with GVWRs of 4,536 kg or greater if these specified vehicles are manufactured before September 1, 2013.

S5.1   Location

S5.1.1   The controls listed in Table 1 and in Table 2 must be located so they are operable by the driver under the conditions of S5.6.2.

S5.1.2   The telltales and indicators listed in Table 1 and Table 2 and their identification must be located so that, when activated, they are visible to a driver under the conditions of S5.6.1 and S5.6.2.

S5.1.3   Except as provided in S5.1.4, the identification for controls, telltales and indicators must be placed on or adjacent to the telltale, indicator or control that it identifies.

S5.1.4   The requirement of S5.1.3 does not apply to a multi-function control, provided the multi-function control is associated with a multi-task display that:

(a) Is visible to the driver under the conditions of S5.6.1 and S5.6.2,

(b) Identifies the multi-function control with which it is associated graphically or using words,

(c) For multi-task displays with layers, identifies on the top-most layer each system for which control is possible from the associated multi-function control, including systems not otherwise regulated by this standard. Subfunctions of the available systems need not be shown on the top-most layer of the multi-task display, and

(d) Identifies the controls of Table 1 and Table 2 with the identification specified in those tables or otherwise required by this standard, whenever those are the active functions of the multi-function control. For lower levels of multi-task displays with layers, identification is permitted but not required for systems not otherwise regulated by this standard.

(e) Does not display telltales listed in Table 1 or Table 2.

S5.2   Identification

S5.2.1   Except for the Low Tire Pressure Telltale, each control, telltale and indicator that is listed in column 1 of Table 1 or Table 2 must be identified by the symbol specified for it in column 2 or the word or abbreviation specified for it in column 3 of Table 1 or Table 2. If a symbol is used, each symbol provided pursuant to this paragraph must be substantially similar in form to the symbol as it appears in Table 1 or Table 2. If a symbol is used, each symbol provided pursuant to this paragraph must have the proportional dimensional characteristics of the symbol as it appears in Table 1 or Table 2. The Low Tire Pressure Telltale (either the display identifying which tire has low pressure or the display which does not identify which tire has low pressure) shall be identified by the appropriate symbol designated in column 4, or both the symbol in column 4 and the words in column 3. No identification is required for any horn (i.e., audible warning signal) that is activated by a lanyard or by the driver pressing on the center of the face plane of the steering wheel hub; or for a turn signal control that is operated in a plane essentially parallel to the face plane of the steering wheel in its normal driving position and which is located on the left side of the steering column so that it is the control on that side of the column nearest to the steering wheel face plane. However, if identification is provided for a horn control in the center of the face plane of the steering wheel hub, the identifier must meet Table 2 requirements for the horn.

S5.2.2   Any symbol, word, or abbreviation not shown in Table 1 or Table 2 may be used to identify a control, a telltale or an indicator that is not listed in those tables.

S5.2.3   Supplementary symbols, words, or abbreviations may be used at the manufacturer's discretion in conjunction with any symbol, word, or abbreviation specified in Table 1 or Table 2.

S5.2.4 [Reserved]

S5.2.5   A single symbol, word, or abbreviation may be used to identify any combination of the control, indicator, and telltale for the same function.

S5.2.6   Except as provided in S5.2.7, all identifications of telltales, indicators and controls listed in Table 1 or Table 2 must appear to the driver to be perceptually upright. A rotating control that has an “off” position shall appear to the driver perceptually upright when the rotating control is in the “off” position.

S5.2.7   The identification of the following items need not appear to the driver to be perceptually upright:

(a) A horn control;

(b) Any control, telltale or indicator located on the steering wheel, when the steering wheel is positioned for the motor vehicle to travel in a direction other than straight forward; and

(c) Any rotating control that does not have an “off” position.

S5.2.8   Each control for an automatic vehicle speed system (cruise control) and each control for heating and air conditioning systems must have identification provided for each function of each such system.

S5.2.9   Each control that regulates a system function over a continuous range must have identification provided for the limits of the adjustment range of that function. If color coding is used to identify the limits of the adjustment range of a temperature function, the hot limit must be identified by the color red and the cold limit by the color blue. If the status or limit of a function is shown by a display not adjacent to the control for that function, both the control (unless it is a multi-function control complying with S5.1.4) and the display must be independently identified as to the function of the control, in compliance with S5.2.1, on or adjacent to the control and on or adjacent to the display.

Example 1. A slide lever controls the temperature of the air in the vehicle heating system over a continuous range, from no heat to maximum heat. Since the control regulates a single function over a quantitative range, only the extreme positions require identification.

Example 2. A switch has three positions, for heat, defrost, and air conditioning. Since each position regulates a different function, each position must be identified.

S5.3   Illumination

S5.3.1   Timing of illumination

(a) Except as provided in S5.3.1(c), the identifications of controls for which the word “Yes” is specified in column 5 of Table 1 must be capable of being illuminated whenever the headlamps are activated. This requirement does not apply to a control located on the floor, floor console, steering wheel, steering column, or in the area of windshield header, or to a control for a heating and air-conditioning system that does not direct air upon the windshield.

(b) Except as provided in S5.3.1(c), the indicators and their identifications for which the word “Yes” is specified in column 5 of Table 1 must be illuminated whenever the vehicle's propulsion system and headlamps are activated.

(c) The indicators, their identifications and the identifications of controls need not be illuminated when the headlamps are being flashed or operated as daytime running lamps.

(d) At the manufacturer's option, any control, indicator, or their identifications may be capable of being illuminated at any time.

(e) A telltale must not emit light except when identifying the malfunction or vehicle condition it is designed to indicate, or during a bulb check.

S5.3.2   Brightness of illumination of controls and indicators

S5.3.2.1   Means must be provided for illuminating the indicators, identifications of indicators and identifications of controls listed in Table 1 to make them visible to the driver under daylight and nighttime driving conditions.

S5.3.2.2   The means of providing the visibility required by S5.3.2.1:

(a) Must be adjustable to provide at least two levels of brightness;

(b) At a level of brightness other than the highest level, the identification of controls and indicators must be barely discernible to the driver who has adapted to dark ambient roadway condition;

(c) May be operable manually or automatically; and

(d) May have levels of brightness, other than the two required visible levels of brightness, at which those items and identification are not visible.

(1) If the level of brightness is adjusted by automatic means to a point where those items or their identification are not visible to the driver, means shall be provided to enable the driver to restore visibility.

S5.3.3   Brightness of telltale illumination

(a) Means must be provided for illuminating telltales and their identification sufficiently to make them visible to the driver under daylight and nighttime driving conditions.

(b) The means for providing the required visibility may be adjustable manually or automatically, except that the telltales and identification for brakes, highbeams, turn signals, and safety belts may not be adjustable under any driving condition to a level that is invisible.

S5.3.4   Brightness of interior lamps. (a) Any source of illumination within the passenger compartment which is forward of a transverse vertical plane 110 mm rearward of the manikin “H” point with the driver's seat in its rearmost driving position, which is not used for the controls and displays regulated by this standard, which is not a telltale, and which is capable of being illuminated while the vehicle is in motion, shall have either:

(1) Light intensity which is manually or automatically adjustable to provide at least two levels of brightness;

(2) A single intensity that is barely discernible to a driver who has adapted to dark ambient roadway conditions;or

(3) A means of being turned off.

(b) Paragraph (a) of S5.3.4 does not apply to buses that are normally operated with the passenger compartment illuminated.

S5.3.5   The provisions of S5.3.4 do not apply to buses that are normally operated with the passenger compartment illuminated.

S5.4   Color

S5.4.1   The light of each telltale listed in Table 1 must be of the color specified for that telltale in column 6 of that table.

S5.4.2   Any indicator or telltale not listed in Table 1 and any identification of that indicator or telltale must not be a color that masks the driver's ability to recognize any telltale, control, or indicator listed in Table 1.

S5.4.3   Each identifier used for the identification of a telltale, control or indicator must be in a color that stands out clearly against the background. However, this requirement does not apply to an identifier for a horn control in the center of the face plane of the steering wheel hub. For vehicles with a GVWR of under 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds), the compliance date for this provision is September 1, 2011. For vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds) or over, the compliance date for this provision is September 1, 2013.

S5.5   Common space for displaying multiple messages

S5.5.1   A common space may be used to show messages from any sources, subject to the requirements in S5.5.2 through S5.5.6.

S5.5.2 The telltales for any brake system malfunction required by Table 1 to be red, air bag malfunction, low tire pressure, electronic stability control malfunction (as of September 1, 2011), passenger air bag off, high beam, turn signal, and seat belt must not be shown in the same common space.

S5.5.3   The telltales and indicators that are listed in Table 1 and are shown in the common space must illuminate at the initiation of any underlying condition.

S5.5.4   Except as provided in S5.5.5, when the underlying conditions exist for actuation of two or more telltales, the messages must be either:

(a) Repeated automatically in sequence, or

(b) Indicated by visible means and capable of being selected for viewing by the driver under the conditions of S5.6.2.

S5.5.5 In the case of the telltale for a brake system malfunction, air bag malfunction, side air bag malfunction, low tire pressure, electronic stability control malfunction (as of September 1, 2011), passenger air bag off, high beam, turn signal, or seat belt that is designed to display in a common space, that telltale must displace any other symbol or message in that common space while the underlying condition for the telltale's activation exists.

S5.5.6(a)   Except as provided in S5.5.6(b), messages displayed in a common space may be cancelable automatically or by the driver.

(b) Telltales for high beams, turn signal, low tire pressure, and passenger air bag off, and telltales for which the color red is required in Table 1 must not be cancelable while the underlying condition for their activation exists.

S5.6   Conditions

S5.6.1   The driver has adapted to the ambient light roadway conditions.

S5.6.2   The driver is restrained by the seat belts installed in accordance with 49 CFR 571.208 and adjusted in accordance with the vehicle manufacturer's instructions.

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[70 FR 48305, Aug. 17, 2005, as amended at 71 FR 27971, May 15, 2006; 72 FR 17305, Apr. 6, 2007; 73 FR 54537, Sept. 22, 2008; 74 FR 40764, Aug. 13, 2009; 80 FR 36100, June 23, 2015; 80 FR 54734, Sept. 11, 2015]

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§571.102   Standard No. 102; Transmission shift position sequence, starter interlock, and transmission braking effect.

S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies the requirements for the transmission shift position sequence, a starter interlock, and for a braking effect of automatic transmissions, to reduce the likelihood of shifting errors, to prevent starter engagement by the driver when the transmission is in any drive position, and to provide supplemental braking at speeds below 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour).

S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.

S3. Requirements.

S3.1   Automatic transmissions.

S3.1.1   Location of transmission shift positions on passenger cars. A neutral position shall be located between forward drive and reverse drive positions.

S3.1.1.1   Transmission shift levers. If a steering-column-mounted transmission shift lever is used, movement from neutral position to forward drive position shall be clockwise. If the transmission shift lever sequence includes a park position, it shall be located at the end, adjacent to the reverse drive position.

S3.1.2   Transmission braking effect. In vehicles having more than one forward transmission gear ratio, one forward drive position shall provide a greater degree of engine braking than the highest speed transmission ratio at vehicle speeds below 40 kilometers per hour (25 miles per hour).

S3.1.3   Starter interlock. Except as provided in S3.1.3.1 through S3.1.3.3, the engine starter shall be inoperative when the transmission shift position is in a forward or reverse drive position.

S3.1.3.1   After the driver has activated the vehicle's propulsion system:

(a) The engine may stop and restart automatically when the transmission shift position is in any forward drive gear;

(b) The engine may not automatically stop when the transmission is in reverse gear; and

(c) The engine may automatically restart in reverse gear only if the vehicle satisfies (1) and (2):

(1) When the engine is automatically stopped in a forward drive shift position and the driver selects Reverse, the engine restarts immediately whenever the service brake is applied.

(2) When the engine is automatically stopped in a forward drive shift position and the driver selects Reverse, the engine does not start automatically if the service brake is not applied.

S3.1.3.2 Notwithstanding S3.1.3.1, the engine may stop and start at any time after the driver has activated the vehicle's propulsion system if the vehicle can meet the requirements specified in paragraphs (a) and (b):

(a) For passenger cars, multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR less than or equal to 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds), the vehicle's propulsion system can propel the vehicle in the normal travel mode in all forward and reverse drive gears without the engine operating. For passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks and buses with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kg (10,000 pounds), the vehicle's propulsion system can propel the vehicle in the normal travel mode in Reverse and at least one forward drive gear without the engine operating.

(b) If the engine automatically starts while the vehicle is traveling at a steady speed and steady accelerator control setting, the engine does not cause the vehicle to accelerate.

S3.1.3.3   If the transmission shift position is in Park, automatically stopping or restarting the engine shall not take the transmission out of Park.

S3.1.4   Identification of shift positions and of shift position sequence.

S3.1.4.1   Except as specified in S3.1.4.3, if the transmission shift position sequence includes a park position, identification of shift positions, including the positions in relation to each other and the position selected, shall be displayed in view of the driver whenever any of the following conditions exist:

(a) The ignition is in a position where the transmission can be shifted; or

(b) The transmission is not in park.

S3.1.4.2   Except as specified in S3.1.4.3, if the transmission shift position sequence does not include a park position, identification of shift positions, including the positions in relation to each other and the position selected, shall be displayed in view of the driver whenever the ignition is in a position in which the engine is capable of operation.

S3.1.4.3   Such information need not be displayed when the ignition is in a position that is used only to start the vehicle.

S3.1.4.4   All of the information required to be displayed by S3.1.4.1 or S3.1.4.2 shall be displayed in view of the driver in a single location. At the option of the manufacturer, redundant displays providing some or all of the information may be provided.

S3.2   Manual transmissions. Identification of the shift lever pattern of manual transmissions, except three forward speed manual transmissions having the standard “H” pattern, shall be displayed in view of the driver at all times when a driver is present in the driver's seating position.

[70 FR 38051, July 1, 2005, as amended at 70 FR 75965, Dec. 22, 2005]

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§571.103   Standard No. 103; Windshield defrosting and defogging systems.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for windshield defrosting and defogging systems.

S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.

S3. Definitions. Road load means the power output required to move a given motor vehicle at curb weight plus 180 kilograms on level, clean, dry, smooth portland cement concrete pavement (or other surface with equivalent coefficient of surface friction) at a specified speed through still air at 20 degrees Celsius, and standard barometric pressure (101.3 kilopascals) and includes driveline friction, rolling friction, and air resistance.

S4. Requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, each passenger car shall meet the requirements specified in S4.1, S4.2, and S4.3, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus shall meet the requirements specified in §4.1.

(b) Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus manufactured for sale in the noncontinental United States may, at the option of the manufacturer, have a windshield defogging system which operates either by applying heat to the windshield or by dehumidifying the air inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle, in lieu of meeting the requirements specified by paragraph (a) of this section.

S4.1   Each vehicle shall have a windshield defrosting and defogging system.

S4.2   Each passenger car windshield defrosting and defogging system shall meet the requirements of section 3 of SAE Recommended Practice J902 (1964) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) when tested in accordance with S4.3, except that “the critical area” specified in paragraph 3.1 of SAE Recommended Practice J902 (1964) shall be that established as Area C in accordance with Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 104, “Windshield Wiping and Washing Systems,” and “the entire windshield” specified in paragraph 3.3 of SAE Recommended Practice J902 (1964) shall be that established as Area A in accordance with §571.104.

S4.3   Demonstration procedure. The passenger car windshield defrosting and defogging system shall be tested in accordance with the portions of paragraphs 4.1 through 4.4.7 of SAE Recommended Practice J902 (1964) or SAE Recommended Practice J902a (1967) (both incorporated by reference, see §571.5) applicable to that system, except that—

(a) During the first 5 minutes of the test:

(1) For a passenger car equipped with a heating system other than a heat exchanger type that uses the engine's coolant as a means to supply the heat to the heat exchanger, the warm-up procedure is that specified by the vehicle's manufacturer for cold weather starting, except that connection to a power or heat source external to the vehicle is not permitted.

(2) For all other passenger cars, the warm-up procedure may be that recommended by the vehicle's manufacturer for cold weather starting.

(b) During the last 35 minutes of the test period (or the entire test period if the 5-minute warm-up procedure specified in paragraph (a) of this section is not used),

(1) For a passenger car equipped with a heating system other than a heat exchanger type that uses the engine's coolant as a means to supply the heat to the heat exchanger, the procedure shall be that specified by the vehicle's manufacturer for cold weather starting, except that connection to a power or heat source external to the vehicle is not permitted.

(2) For all other passenger cars, either—

(i) The engine speed shall not exceed 1,500 r.p.m. in neutral gear; or

(ii) The engine speed and load shall not exceed the speed and load at 40 kilometers per hour in the manufacturer's recommended gear with road load;

(c) A room air change of 90 times per hour is not required;

(d) The windshield wipers may be used during the test if they are operated without manual assist;

(e) One or two windows may be open a total of 25 millimeters;

(f) The defroster blower may be turned on at any time; and

(g) The wind velocity is at any level from 0 to 3 kilometers per hour.

(h) The test chamber temperature and the wind velocity shall be measured, after the engine has been started, at the forwardmost point of the vehicle or a point 914 millimeters from the base of the windshield, whichever is farther forward, at a level halfway between the top and bottom of the windshield on the vehicle centerline.

[36 FR 22902, Dec. 2, 1971, as amended at 40 FR 12992, Mar. 24, 1975; 40 FR 32336, Aug. 1, 1975; 50 FR 48775, Nov. 27, 1985; 59 FR 11006, Mar. 9, 1994; 60 FR 13642, Mar. 14, 1995; 77 FR 755, Jan. 6, 2012]

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§571.104   Standard No. 104; Windshield wiping and washing systems.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for windshield wiping and washing systems.

S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.

S3. Definitions. The term seating reference point is substituted for the terms manikin H point, manikin H point with seat in rearmost position and H point wherever any of these terms appear in any SAE Standard or SAE Recommended Practice referred to in this standard.

Daylight opening means the maximum unobstructed opening through the glazing surface, as defined in paragraph 2.3.12 of section E, “Ground Vehicle Practice,” of SAE Aerospace-Automotive Drawing Standards (1963) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Glazing surface reference line means the line resulting from the intersection of the glazing surface and a horizontal plane 635 millimeters above the seating reference point, as shown in Figure 1 of SAE Recommended Practice J903a (1966) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Overall width means the maximum overall body width dimension “W116”, as defined in section E, “Ground Vehicle Practice,” of SAE Aerospace-Automotive Drawing Standards (1963) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Plan view reference line means—

(a) For vehicles with bench-type seats, a line parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline outboard of the steering wheel centerline 0.15 times the difference between one-half of the shoulder room dimension and the steering wheel centerline-to-car-centerline dimension as shown in Figure 2 of SAE Recommended Practice J903a (1966) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5); or

(b) For vehicles with individual-type seats, either—

(i) A line parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline which passes through the center of the driver's designated seating position; or

(ii) A line parallel to the vehicle longitudinal centerline located so that the geometric center of the 95 percent eye range contour is positioned on the longitudinal centerline of the driver's designated seating position.

Shoulder room dimension means the front shoulder room dimension “W3” as defined in section E, “Ground Vehicle Practice,” of SAE Aerospace-Automotive Drawing Standards (1963) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

95 percent eye range contour means the 95th percentile tangential cutoff specified in SAE Recommended Practice J941 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S4. Requirements.

S4.1   Windshield wiping system. Each vehicle shall have a power-driven windshield wiping system that meets the requirements of S4.1.1.

S4.1.1   Frequency.

S4.1.1.1   Each windshield wiping system shall have at least two frequencies or speeds.

S4.1.1.2   One frequency or speed shall be at least 45 cycles per minute regardless of engine load and engine speed.

S4.1.1.3   Regardless of engine speed and engine load, the highest and one lower frequency or speed shall differ by at least 15 cycles per minute. Such lower frequency or speed shall be at least 20 cycles per minute regardless of engine speed and engine load.

S4.1.1.4   Compliance with subparagraphs S4.1.1.2 and S4.1.1.3 may be demonstrated by testing under the conditions specified in sections 4.1.1 and 4.1.2 of SAE Recommended Practice J903a (1966) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S4.1.2   Wiped area. When tested wet in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J903a (1966) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), each passenger car windshield wiping system shall wipe the percentage of Areas A, B, and C of the windshield (established in accordance with S4.1.2.1) that (1) is specified in column 2 of the applicable table following subparagraph S4.1.2.1 and (2) is within the area bounded by a perimeter line on the glazing surface 25 millimeters from the edge of the daylight opening.

S4.1.2.1   Areas A, B, and C shall be established as shown in Figures 1 and 2 of SAE Recommended Practice J903a (1966) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) using the angles specified in Columns 3 through 6 of Table I, II, III, or IV, as applicable.

Table I—Passenger Cars of Less Than 1520 Millimeters in Overall Width

Column 1—AreaColumn 2—Minimum percent to be wipedAngles in degrees
Column 3—LeftColumn 4—RightColumn 5—UpColumn 6—Down
A80164975
B94134643
C9971531

Table II—Passenger Cars of 1520 or More But Less Than 1630 Millimeters in Overall Width

Column 1—AreaColumn 2—Minimum percent to be wipedAngles in degrees
Column 3—LeftColumn 4—RightColumn 5—UpColumn 6—Down
A80175185
B94134943
C9971531

Table III—Passenger Cars of 1630 or More But Less Than 1730 Millimeters in Overall Width

Column 1—AreaColumn 2—Minimum percent to be wipedAngles in degrees
Column 3—LeftColumn 4—RightColumn 5—UpColumn 6—Down
A80175395
B94145153
C9981541

Table IV—Passenger Cars of 1730 or More Millimeters in Overall Width

Column 1—AreaColumn 2—Minimum percent to be wipedAngles in degrees
Column 3—LeftColumn 4—RightColumn 5—UpColumn 6—Down
A801856105
B94145353
C99101551

S4.2   Windshield washing system.

S4.2.1   Each passenger car shall have a windshield washing system that meets the requirements of SAE Recommended Practice J942 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), except that the reference to “the effective wipe pattern defined in SAE J903, paragraph 3.1.2” in paragraph 3.1 of SAE Recommended Practice J942 (1965) shall be deleted and “the areas established in accordance with subparagraph S4.1.2.1 of Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 104” shall be inserted in lieu thereof.

S4.2.2   Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus shall have a windshield washing system that meets the requirements of SAE Recommended Practice J942 (1965) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), except that the reference to “the effective wipe pattern defined in SAE J903, paragraph 3.1.2” in paragraph 3.1 of SAE Recommended Practice J942 (1965) shall be deleted and “the pattern designed by the manufacturer for the windshield wiping system on the exterior surface of the windshield glazing” shall be inserted in lieu thereof.

[36 FR 22902, Dec. 2, 1971, as amended at 58 FR 13023, Mar. 9, 1993; 60 FR 13643, Mar. 14, 1995; 63 FR 51000, Sept. 24, 1998; 77 FR 755, Jan. 6, 2012]

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§571.105   Standard No. 105; Hydraulic and electric brake systems.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for hydraulic and electric service brake systems, and associated parking brake systems.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to insure safe braking performance under normal and emergency conditions.

S3. Application. This standard applies to multi-purpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses with a GVWR greater than 3,500 kilograms (7,716 pounds) that are equipped with hydraulic or electric brake systems.

S4. Definitions.

Antilock brake system or ABS means a portion of a service brake system that automatically controls the degree of rotational wheel slip during braking by:

(1) Sensing the rate of angular rotation of the wheels;

(2) Transmitting signals regarding the rate of wheel angular rotation to one or more controlling devices which interpret those signals and generate responsive controlling output signals; and

(3) Transmitting those controlling signals to one or more modulators which adjust brake actuating forces in response to those signals.

Backup system means a portion of a service brake system, such as a pump, that automatically supplies energy, in the event of a primary brake power source failure.

Brake power assist unit means a device installed in a hydraulic brake system that reduces the operator effort required to actuate the system, and that if inoperative does not prevent the operator from braking the vehicle by a continued application of muscular force on the service brake control.

Brake power unit means a device installed in a brake system that provides the energy required to actuate the brakes, either directly or indirectly through an auxiliary device, with the operator action consisting only of modulating the energy application level.

Directly Controlled Wheel means a wheel for which the degree of rotational wheel slip is sensed, either at that wheel or on the axle shaft for that wheel and corresponding signals are transmitted to one or more modulators that adjust the brake actuating forces at that wheel. Each modulator may also adjust the brake actuating forces at other wheels that are on the same axle or in the same axle set in response to the same signal or signals.

Electric vehicle or EV means a motor vehicle that is powered by an electric motor drawing current from rechargeable storage batteries, fuel cells, or other portable sources of electrical current, and which may include a non-electrical source of power designed to charge batteries and components thereof.

Electrically-actuated service brakes means service brakes that utilize electrical energy to actuate the foundation brakes.

Full brake application means a brake application in which the force on the brake pedal reaches 150 pounds within 0.3 seconds from the point of application of force to the brake control.

Hydraulic brake system means a system that uses hydraulic fluid as a medium for transmitting force from a service brake control to the service brake, and that may incorporate a brake power assist unit, or a brake power unit.

Indirectly Controlled Wheel means a wheel at which the degree of rotational wheel slip is not sensed, but at which the modulator of an antilock braking system adjusts its brake actuating forces in response to signals from one or more sensed wheels.

Initial brake temperature means the average temperature of the service brakes on the hottest axle of the vehicle 0.2 mi before any brake application.

Lightly loaded vehicle weight means:

(a) For vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs. or less, unloaded vehicle weight plus 400 lbs. (including driver and instrumentation);

(b) For vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs., unloaded vehicle weight plus 500 lbs. (including driver and instrumentation).

Maximum drive-through speed means the highest possible constant speed at which the vehicle can be driven through 200 feet of a 500-foot radius curve arc without leaving the 12-foot lane.

Parking mechanism means a component or subsystem of the drive train that locks the drive train when the transmission control is placed in a parking or other gear position and the ignition key is removed.

Peak friction coefficient or PFC means the ratio of the maximum value of braking test wheel longitudinal force to the simultaneous vertical force occurring prior to wheel lockup, as the braking torque is progressively increased.

Pressure component means a brake system component that contains the brake system fluid and controls or senses the fluid pressure.

Regenerative braking system or RBS means an electrical energy system that is installed in an EV for recovering or dissipating kinetic energy, and which uses the propulsion motor(s) as a retarder for partial braking of the EV while returning electrical energy to the propulsion batteries or dissipating electrical energy.

Skid number means the frictional resistance of a pavement measured in accordance with ASTM E274-70 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) at 40 mph, omitting water delivery as specified in paragraphs 7.1 and 7.2 of that method.

Snub means the braking deceleration of a vehicle from a higher reference speed to a lower reference speed that is greater than zero.

Spike stop means a stop resulting from the application of 200 lbs of force on the service brake control in 0.08 s.

Split service brake system means a brake system consisting of two or more subsystems actuated by a single control, designed so that a single failure in any subsystem (such as a leakage-type failure of a pressure component of a hydraulic subsystem except structural failure of a housing that is common to two or more subsystems, or an electrical failure in an electric subsystem) does not impair the operation of any other subsystem.

Stopping distance means the distance traveled by a vehicle from the point of application of force to the brake control to the point at which the vehicle reaches a full stop.

Tandem axle means a group of two or more axles placed in close arrangement one behind the other with the center lines of adjacent axles not more than 72 inches apart.

Variable proportioning brake system means a system that automatically adjusts the braking force at the axles to compensate for vehicle static axle loading and/or dynamic weight transfer between axles during deceleration.

Wheel lockup means 100 percent wheel slip.

S5.   Requirements.

S5.1   Service brake systems. Each vehicle must be equipped with a service brake system acting on all wheels. Wear of the service brake must be compensated for by means of a system of automatic adjustment. Each passenger car and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less must be capable of meeting the requirements of S5.1.1 through S5.1.6 under the conditions prescribed in S6, when tested according to the procedures and in the sequence set forth in S7. Each school bus with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds must be capable of meeting the requirements of S5.1.1 through S5.1.5, and S5.1.7 under the conditions specified in S6, when tested according to the procedures and in the sequence set forth in S7. Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus (other than a school bus) with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds must be capable of meeting the requirements of S5.1.1, S5.1.2, S5.1.3, and S5.1.7 under the conditions specified in S6, when tested according to the procedures and in the sequence set forth in S7. Except as noted in S5.1.1.2 and S5.1.1.4, if a vehicle is incapable of attaining a speed specified in S5.1.1, S5.1.2, S5.1.3, or S5.1.6, its service brakes must be capable of stopping the vehicle from the multiple of 5 mph that is 4 to 8 mph less than the speed attainable in 2 miles, within distances that do not exceed the corresponding distances specified in Table II. If a vehicle is incapable of attaining a speed specified in S5.1.4 in the time or distance interval set forth, it must be tested at the highest speed attainable in the time or distance interval specified.

S5.1.1   Stopping distance. (a) The service brakes shall be capable of stopping each vehicle with a GVWR of less than 8,000 pounds, and each school bus with a GVWR between 8,000 pounds and 10,000 pounds in four effectiveness tests within the distances and from the speeds specified in S5.1.1.1, S5.1.1.2, S5.1.1.3, and S5.1.1.4.

(b) The service brakes shall be capable of stopping each vehicle with a GVWR of between 8,000 pounds and 10,000 pounds, other than a school bus, in three effectiveness tests within the distances and from the speeds specified in S5.1.1.1, S5.1.1.2, and S5.1.1.4.

(c) The service brakes shall be capable of stopping each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds in two effectiveness tests within the distances and from the speeds specified in S5.1.1.2 and S5.1.1.3. Each school bus with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds manufactured after January 12, 1996 and before March 1, 1999 and which is equipped with an antilock brake system may comply with paragraph S5.1.1.2 and S5.5.1 rather than the first effectiveness test, as specified in S5.1.1.1. Each school bus with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds manufactured on or after March 1, 1999 shall be capable of meeting the requirements of S5.1.1 through S5.1.5, under the conditions prescribed in S6, when tested according to the procedures and in the sequence set forth in S7.

S5.1.1.1   In the first (preburnished) effectiveness test, the vehicle shall be capable of stopping from 30 mph and 60 mph within the corresponding distances specified in column I of table II.

S5.1.1.2   In the second effectiveness test, each vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less and each school bus with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds shall be capable of stopping from 30 mph and 60 mph, and each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds (other than a school bus) shall be capable of stopping from 60 mph, within the corresponding distances specified in Column II of Table II. If the speed attainable in 2 miles is not less than 84 mph, a passenger car or other vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less shall also be capable of stopping from 80 mph within the corresponding distances specified in Column II of Table II.

S5.1.1.3 In the third effectiveness test the vehicle shall be capable of stopping at lightly loaded vehicle weight from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in column III of table II.

S5.1.1.4   In the fourth effectiveness test, a vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less shall be capable of stopping from 30 and 60 mph within the corresponding distances specified in column I of table II. If the speed attainable in 2 miles is not less than 84 mph, a passenger car, or other vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs., or less, shall also be capable of stopping from 80 mph within the corresponding distance specified in column I of table II.

If the speed attainable in 2 miles is not less than 99 mph, a passenger car shall, in addition, be capable of stopping from the applicable speed indicated below, within the corresponding distance specified in column I of table II.

Speed attainable in 2 miles (mph)Required to stop from (mph)
Not less than 99 but less than 10495
104 or more100

For an EV, the speed attainable in 2 miles is determined with the propulsion batteries at a state of charge of not less than 95 percent at the beginning of the run.

S5.1.2   Partial failure.

S5.1.2.1   In vehicles manufactured with a split service brake system, in the event of a rupture or leakage type of failure in a single subsystem, other than a structural failure of a housing that is common to two or more subsystems, the remaining portion(s) of the service brake system shall continue to operate and shall be capable of stopping a vehicle from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in column IV of table II.

S5.1.2.2   In vehicles not manufactured with a split service brake system, in the event of any one rupture or leakage type of failure in any component of the service brake system the vehicle shall, by operation of the service brake control, be capable of stopping 10 times consecutively from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in column IV of table II.

S5.1.2.3 For a vehicle manufactured with a service brake system in which the brake signal is transmitted electrically between the brake pedal and some or all of the foundation brakes, regardless of the means of actuation of the foundation brakes, the vehicle shall be capable of stopping from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in Column IV of Table II with any single failure in any circuit that electrically transmits the brake signal, and with all other systems intact.

S5.1.2.4 For an EV manufactured with a service brake system that incorporates RBS, the vehicle shall be capable of stopping from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in Column IV of Table II with any single failure in the RBS, and with all other systems intact.

S5.1.3   Inoperative brake power assist unit or brake power unit. A vehicle equipped with one or more brake power assist units shall meet the requirements of either S5.1.3.1, S5.1.3.2, or S5.1.3.4 (chosen at the option of the manufacturer), and a vehicle equipped with one or more brake power units shall meet the requirements of either S5.1.3.1, S5.1.3.3, or S5.1.3.4 (chosen at the option of the manufacturer).

S5.1.3.1   The service brakes on a vehicle equipped with one or more brake power assist units or brake power units, with one such unit inoperative and depleted of all reserve capability, shall be capable of stopping a vehicle from 60 mph within the corresponding distance specified in column IV of table II.

S5.1.3.2   Brake power assist units. The service brakes on a vehicle equipped with one or more brake power assist units, with one such unit inoperative, shall be capable of stopping a vehicle from 60 mph:

(a) In six consecutive stops at an average deceleration for each stop that is not lower than that specified in column I of table III, when the inoperative unit is not initially depleted of all reserve capability; and

(b) In a final stop, at an average deceleration that is not lower than 7 FPSPS for passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 554 feet) or 6 FPSPS for vehicles other than passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 646 feet), as applicable, when the inoperative unit is depleted of all reserve capacity.

S5.1.3.3   Brake power units. The service brakes of a vehicle equipped with one or more brake power units with an accumulator-type reserve system, with any one failure in any one unit shall be capable of stopping the vehicle from 60 mph—

(a) In 10 consecutive stops at an average deceleration for each stop that is not lower than that specified in column II of table III, when the unit is not initially depleted of all reserve capability; and

(b) In a final stop, at an average deceleration that is not lower than 7 FPSPS for passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 554 feet) or 6 FPSPS for vehicles other than passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 646 feet), as applicable, when the inoperative unit is depleted of all reserve capacity.

S5.1.3.4   Brake power assist and brake power units. The service brakes of a vehicle equipped with one or more brake power assist units or brake power units with a backup system, with one brake power assist unit or brake power unit inoperative and depleted of all reserve capability and with only the backup system operating in the failed subsystem, shall be capable of stopping the vehicle from 60 mph in 15 consecutive stops at an average deceleration for each stop that is not lower than 12 fpsps (equivalent stopping distance 323 feet).

S5.1.3.5 Electric brakes. Each vehicle with electrically-actuated service brakes (brake power unit) shall comply with the requirements of S5.1.3.1 with any single electrical failure in the electrically-actuated service brakes and all other systems intact.

S5.1.4   Fade and recovery. The service brakes shall be capable of stopping each vehicle in two fade and recovery tests as specified below.

S5.1.4.1   The control force used for the baseline check stops or snubs shall be not less than 10 pounds, nor more than 60 pounds, except that the control force for a vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or more may be between 10 pounds and 90 pounds.

S5.1.4.2 (a) Each vehicle with GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less shall be capable of making 5 fade stops (10 fade stops on the second test) from 60 mph at a deceleration not lower than 15 fpsps for each stop, followed by 5 fade stops at the maximum deceleration attainable from 5 to 15 fpsps.

(b) Each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds shall be capable of making 10 fade snubs (20 fade snubs on the second test) from 40 mph to 20 mph at 10 fpsps for each snub.

S5.1.4.3 (a)   Each vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less shall be capable of making five recovery stops from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop, with a control force application that falls within the following maximum and minimum limits:

(1) A maximum for the first four recovery stops of 150 pounds, and for the fifth stop, of 20 pounds more than the average control force for the baseline check; and

(2) A minimum of—

(A) The average control force for the baseline check minus 10 pounds, or

(B) The average control force for the baseline check times 0.60,

whichever is lower (but in no case lower than 5 pounds).

(b) Each vehicle with a GVWR of more than 10,000 pounds shall be capable of making five recovery snubs from 40 mph to 20 mph at 10 fpsps for each snub, with a control force application that falls within the following maximum and minimum limits:

(1) A maximum for the first four recovery snubs of 150 pounds, and for the fifth snub, of 20 pounds more than the average control force for the baseline check (but in no case more than 100 pounds); and

(2) A minimum of—

(A) The average control force for the baseline check minus 10 pounds, or

(B) The average control force for the baseline check times 0.60,

whichever is lower (but in no case lower than 5 pounds).

S5.1.5   Water recovery. The service brakes shall be capable of stopping each vehicle in a water recovery test, as specified below.

S5.1.5.1   The control force used for the baseline check stops or snubs shall be not less than 10 pounds, nor more than 60 pounds, except that the control force for a vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or more may be between 10 and 90 pounds.

S5.1.5.2(a)   After being driven for 2 minutes at a speed of 5 mph in any combination of forward and reverse directions through a trough having a water dept of 6 inches, each vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less shall be capable of making five recovery stops from 30 mph at ten fpsps for each stop with a control force application that falls within the following maximum and minimum limits:

(1) A maximum for the first four recovery stops of 150 pounds, and for the fifth stop, of 45 pounds more than the average control force for the baseline check (but in no case more than 90 pounds, except that the maximum control force for the fifth stop in the case of a vehicle manufactured before September 1, 1976, shall be not more than plus 60 pounds of the average control force for the baseline check (but in no case more than 110 pounds).

(2) A minimum of—

(A) The average control force for the baseline check minus 10 pounds, or

(B) The average control force for the baseline check times 0.60,

whichever is lower (but in no case lower than 5 pounds).

(b) After being driven for 2 minutes at a speed of 5 mph in any combination of forward and reverse directions through a trough having a water depth of 6 inches, each vehicle with a GVWR of more than 10,000 pounds shall be capable of making five recovery stops from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop with a control force application that falls within the following maximum and minimum limits:

(1) A maximum for the first four recovery stops of 150 pounds, and for the fifth stop, of 60 pounds more than the average control force for the baseline check (but in no case more than 110 pounds); and

(2) A minimum of—

(A) The average control force for the baseline check minus 10 pounds, or

(B) The average control force for the baseline check times 0.60,

whichever is lower (but in no case lower than 5 pounds).

S5.1.6   Spike stops. Each vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs. or less shall be capable of making 10 spike stops from 30 mph, followed by 6 effectiveness (check) stops from 60 mph, at least one of which shall be within a corresponding stopping distance specified in column I of table II.

S5.1.7   Stability and control during braking. When stopped four consecutive times under the conditions specified in S6, each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds manufactured on or after July 1, 2005 and each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds manufactured in two or more stages on or after July 1, 2006 shall stop from 30 mph or 75 percent of the maximum drive-through speed, whichever is less, at least three times within the 12-foot lane, without any part of the vehicle leaving the roadway. Stop the vehicle with the vehicle at its lightly loaded vehicle weight, or at the manufacturer's option, at its lightly loaded vehicle weight plus not more than an additional 1000 pounds for a roll bar structure on the vehicle.

S5.2   Parking Brake System. Each vehicle shall be manufactured with a parking brake system of a friction type with a solely mechanical means to retain engagement, which shall under the conditions of S6, when tested according to the procedures specified in S7, meet the requirements specified in S5.2.1, S5.2.2, or S5.2.3 as appropriate, with the system engaged—

(a) In the case of a vehicle with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less, with a force applied to the control not to exceed 125 pounds for a foot-operated system and 90 pounds for a hand-operated system; and

(b) In the case of a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds), with a force applied to the control not to exceed 150 pounds for a foot-operated system and 125 pounds for a hand-operated system.

S5.2.1.   Except as provided in §5.2.2, the parking brake system on a passenger car and on a school bus with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less shall be capable of holding the vehicle stationary (to the limit of traction on the braked wheels) for 5 minutes in both a forward and reverse direction on a 30 percent grade.

S5.2.2   A vehicle of a type described in S5.2.1 at the option of the manufacturer may meet the requirements of S5.2.2.1, S5.2.2.2, and S5.2.2.3 instead of the requirements of S5.2.1 if:

(a) The vehicle has a transmission or transmission control which incorporates a parking mechanism, and

(b) The parking mechanism must be engaged before the ignition key can be removed.

S5.2.2.1   The vehicle's parking brake and parking mechanism, when both are engaged, shall be capable of holding the vehicle stationary (to the limit of traction of the braked wheels) for 5 minutes, in both forward and reverse directions, on a 30 percent grade.

S5.2.2.2   The vehicle's parking brake, with the parking mechanism not engaged, shall be capable of holding the vehicle stationary for 5 minutes, in both forward and reverse directions, on a 20 percent grade.

S5.2.2.3   With the parking mechanism engaged and the parking brake not engaged, the parking mechanism shall not disengage or fracture in a manner permitting vehicle movement, when the vehicle is impacted at each end, on a level surface, by a barrier moving at 212 mph.

S5.2.3   (a) The parking brake system on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck or bus (other than a school bus) with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less shall be capable of holding the vehicle stationary for 5 minutes, in both forward and reverse directions, on a 20 percent grade.

(b) The parking brake system on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus (including a school bus) with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) shall be capable of holding the vehicle stationary for 5 minutes, in both forward and reverse directions, on a 20 percent grade.

S5.3   Brake system indicator lamp. Each vehicle shall have a brake system indicator lamp or lamps, mounted in front of and in clear view of the driver, which meet the requirements of S5.3.1 through S5.3.5. A vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less may have a single common indicator lamp. A vehicle with a GVWR of greater than 10,000 pounds may have an indicator lamp which is common for gross loss of pressure, drop in the level of brake fluid, or application of the parking brake, but shall have a separate indicator lamp for antilock brake system malfunction. However, the options provided in S5.3.1(a) shall not apply to a vehicle manufactured without a split service brake system; such a vehicle shall, to meet the requirements of S5.3.1(a), be equipped with a malfunction indicator that activates under the conditions specified in S5.3.1(a)(4). This warning indicator shall, instead of meeting the requirements of S5.3.2 through S5.3.5, activate (while the vehicle remains capable of meeting the requirements of S5.1.2.2 and the ignition switch is in the “on” position) a continuous or intermittent audible signal and a flashing warning light, displaying the words “STOP-BRAKE FAILURE” in block capital letters not less than one-quarter of an inch in height.

S5.3.1 An indicator lamp shall be activated when the ignition (start) switch is in the “on” (“run”) position and whenever any of the conditions (a) or (b), (c), (d), (e), (f), and (g) occur:

(a) A gross loss of pressure (such as caused by rupture of a brake line but not by a structural failure of a housing that is common to two or more subsystems) due to one of the following conditions (chosen at the option of the manufacturer):

(1) Before or upon application of a differential pressure of not more than 225 lb/in2 between the active and failed brake system measured at a master cylinder outlet or a slave cylinder outlet.

(2) Before or upon application of 50 pounds of control force upon a fully manual service brake.

(3) Before or upon application of 25 pounds of control force upon a service brake with a brake power assist unit.

(4) When the supply pressure in a brake power unit drops to a level not less than one-half of the normal system pressure.

(b) A drop in the level of brake fluid in any master cylinder reservoir compartment to less than the recommended safe level specified by the manufacturer or to one-fourth of the fluid capacity of that reservoir compartment, whichever is greater.

(c) A malfunction that affects the generation or transmission of response or control signals in an antilock brake system, or a total functional electrical failure in a variable proportioning brake system.

(d) Application of the parking brake.

(e) For a vehicle with electrically-actuated service brakes, failure of the source of electric power to the brakes, or diminution of state of charge of the batteries to less than a level specified by the manufacturer for the purpose of warning a driver of degraded brake performance.

(f) For a vehicle with electric transmission of the service brake control signal, failure of a brake control circuit.

(g) For an EV with RBS that is part of the service brake system, failure of the RBS.

S5.3.2 (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all indicator lamps shall be activated as a check of lamp function either when the ignition (start) switch is turned to the “on” (run) position when the engine is not running, or when the ignition (start) switch is in a position between “on” (run) and “start” that is designated by the manufacturer as a check position.

(b) The indicator lamps need not be activated when a starter interlock is in operation.

S5.3.3  (a) Each indicator lamp activated due to a condition specified in S5.3.1 shall remain activated as long as the malfunction exists, whenever the ignition (start) switch is in the “on” (run) position, whether or not the engine is running.

(b) For vehicles manufactured on and after September 1, 1999 with GVWRs greater than 10,000 lbs, each message about the existence of a malfunction, as described in S5.3.1(c), shall be stored in the antilock brake system after the ignition switch is turned to the “off” position and the indicator lamp shall be automatically reactivated when the ignition switch is again turned to the “on” position. The indicator lamp shall also be activated as a check of lamp function whenever the ignition is turned to the “on” (run) position. The indicator lamp shall be deactivated at the end of the check of lamp function unless there is a malfunction or a message about a malfunction that existed when the key switch was last turned to the “off” position.

S5.3.4   When an indicator lamp is activated it may be steady burning or flashing.

S5.3.5 (a) Each indicator lamp shall display word, words or abbreviation, in accordance with the requirements of Standard No. 101 (49 CFR 571.101) and/or this section, which shall have letters not less than 18 -inch high and be legible to the driver in daylight when lighted. Words in addition to those required by Standard No. 101 and/or this section and symbols may be provided for purposes of clarity.

(b) If a single common indicator is used, the lamp shall display the word “Brake”. The letters and background of a single common indicator shall be of contrasting colors, one of which is red.

(c)(1) If separate indicators are used for one or more of the conditions described in S5.3.1(a) through S5.3.1(g) of this standard, the indicator display shall include the word “Brake” and appropriate additional labeling, except as provided in (c)(1) (A) through (D) of this paragraph.

(A) If a separate indicator lamp is provided for gross loss of pressure, the words “Brake Pressure” shall be used for S5.3.1(a).

(B) If a separate indicator lamp is provided for low brake fluid, the words “Brake Fluid” shall be used for S5.3.1(b), except for vehicles using hydraulic system mineral oil.

(C) If a separate indicator lamp is provided for an anti-lock system, the single word “Antilock” or “Anti-lock”, or the abbreviation “ABS”, may be used for S5.3.1(c).

(D) If a separate indicator lamp is provided for application of the parking brake, the single word “Park” may be used for S5.3.1(d).

(E) If a separate indicator is used for the regenerative brake system, the symbol “RBS” may be used. RBS failure may also be indicated by a lamp displaying the symbol “ABS/RBS.”

(2) Except for a separate indicator lamp for an anti-lock system, a regenerative system, or an indicator for both anti-lock and regenerative system, the letters and background of each separate indicator lamp shall be of contrasting colors, one of which is red. The letters and background of a separate lamp for an anti-lock system, a regenerative system, or a lamp displaying both an anti-lock and a regenerative system shall be of contrasting colors, one of which is yellow.

S5.4   Reservoirs.

S5.4.1   Master cylinder reservoirs. A master cylinder shall have a reservoir compartment for each service brake subsystem serviced by the master cylinder. Loss of fluid from one compartment shall not result in a complete loss of brake fluid from another compartment.

S5.4.2   Reservoir capacity. Reservoirs, whether for master cylinders or other type systems, shall have a total minimum capacity equivalent to the fluid displacement resulting when all the wheel cylinders or caliper pistons serviced by the reservoirs move from a new lining, fully retracted position (as adjusted initially to the manufacturer's recommended setting) to a fully worn, fully applied position, as determined in accordance with S7.18(c) of this standard. Reservoirs shall have completely separate compartments for each subsystem except that in reservoir systems utilizing a portion of the reservoir for a common supply to two or more subsystems, individual partial compartments shall each have a minimum volume of fluid equal to at least the volume displaced by the master cylinder piston servicing the subsystem, during a full stroke of the piston. Each brake power unit reservoir servicing only the brake system shall have a minimum capacity equivalent to the fluid displacement required to charge the system piston(s) or accumulator(s) to normal operating pressure plus the displacement resulting when all the wheel cylinders or caliper pistons serviced by the reservoir or accumulator(s) move from a new lining fully retracted position (as adjusted initially to the manufacturer's recommended setting) to a fully worn, fully applied position.

S5.4.3 Reservoir labeling—Each vehicle equipped with hydraulic brakes shall have a brake fluid warning statement that reads as follows, in letters at least one-eighth of an inch high: “WARNING, Clean filler cap before removing. Use only ___ fluid from a sealed container.” (Inserting the recommended type of brake fluid as specified in 49 CFR 571.116, e.g., “DOT 3”). The lettering shall be—

(a) Permanently affixed, engraved, or embossed;

(b) Located so as to be visible by direct view, either on or within 4 inches of the brake fluid reservoir filler plug or cap; and

(c) Of a color that contrasts with its background, if it is not engraved or embossed.

S5.5 Antilock and variable proportioning brake systems.

S5.5.1   Each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, except for any vehicle with a speed attainable in 2 miles of not more than 33 mph, shall be equipped with an antilock brake system that directly controls the wheels of at least one front axle and the wheels of at least one rear axle of the vehicle. On each vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds but not greater than 19,500 pounds and motor homes with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds but not greater than 22,500 pounds manufactured before March 1, 2001, the antilock brake system may also directly control the wheels of the rear drive axle by means of a single sensor in the driveline. Wheels on other axles of the vehicle may be indirectly controlled by the antilock brake system.

S5.5.2 In the event of any failure (structural or functional) in an antilock or variable proportioning brake system, the vehicle shall be capable of meeting the stopping distance requirements specified in S5.1.2 for service brake system partial failure. For an EV that is equipped with both ABS and RBS that is part of the service brake system, the ABS must control the RBS.

S5.6   Brake system integrity. Each vehicle shall be capable of completing all performance requirements of S5 without—

(a) Detachment or fracture of any component of the braking system, such as brake springs and brake shoe or disc pad facing, other than minor cracks that do not impair attachment of the friction facing. All mechanical components of the braking system shall be intact and functional. Friction facing tearout (complete detachment of lining) shall not exceed 10 percent of the lining on any single frictional element.

(b) Any visible brake fluid or lubricant on the friction surface of the brake, or leakage at the master cylinder or brake power unit reservoir cover, seal and filler openings.

S6   Test conditions. The performance requirements of S5 shall be met under the following conditions. Where a range of conditions is specified, the vehicle shall be capable of meeting the requirements at all points within the range. Compliance of vehicles manufactured in two or more stages may, at the option of the final-stage manufacturer, be demonstrated to comply with this standard by adherence to the instructions of the incomplete manufacturer provided with the vehicle in accordance with §568.4(a)(7)(ii) and §568.5 of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

S6.1   Vehicle weight.

S6.1.1   Other than tests specified at lightly loaded vehicle weight in S7.5(a), S7.7, S7.8, and S7.9, the vehicle is loaded to its GVWR such that the weight on each axle as measured at the tire-ground interface is in proportion to its GAWR, except that each fuel tank is filled to any level from 100 percent of capacity (corresponding to full GVWR) to 75 percent. However, if the weight on any axle of a vehicle at lightly loaded vehicle weight exceeds the axle's proportional share of the gross vehicle weight rating, the load required to reach GVWR is placed so that the weight on that axle remains the same as a lightly loaded vehicle weight.

S6.1.2   For applicable tests specified in S7.5(a), S7.7, S7.8, and S7.9, vehicle weight is lightly loaded vehicle weight, with the added weight, except for the roll bar structure allowed for trucks and buses with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, distributed in the front passenger seat area in passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks, and in the area adjacent to the driver's seat in buses.

S6.2 Electric vehicles and electric brakes.

S6.2.1   The state of charge of the propulsion batteries is determined in accordance with SAE Recommended Practice J227a (1976) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). The applicable sections of SAE J227a (1976) are 3.2.1 through 3.2.4, 3.3.1 through 3.3.2.2, 3.4.1 and 3.4.2, 4.2.1, 5.2, 5.2.1, and 5.3.

S6.2.2 At the beginning of the first effectiveness test specified in S7.3, and at the beginning of each burnishing procedure, each EV's propulsion battery is at the maximum state of charge recommended by the manufacturer, as stated in the vehicle operator's manual or on a label that is permanently attached to the vehicle, or, if the manufacturer has made no recommendation, at a state of charge of not less than 95 percent. If a battery is replaced rather than recharged, the replacement battery is to be charged and measured for state of charge in accordance with these procedures. During each burnish procedure, each propulsion battery is restored to the recommended state of charge or a state of charge of not less than 95 percent after each increment of 40 burnish stops until each burnish procedure is complete. The batteries may be charged at a more frequent interval if, during a particular 40-stop increment, the EV is incapable of achieving the initial burnish test speed. During each burnish procedure, the propulsion batteries may be charged by an external means or replaced by batteries that are charged to the state of charge recommended by the manufacturer or a state of charge of not less than 95 percent. For EVs having a manual control for setting the level of regenerative braking, the manual control, at the beginning of each burnish procedure, is set to provide maximum regenerative braking throughout the burnish.

S6.2.3 At the beginning of each performance test in the test sequence (S7,3, S7.5, S7.7 through S7.11, and S7.13 through S7.19 of this standard), unless otherwise specified, each propulsion battery of an EV is at the maximum state of charge recommended by the manufacturer, as stated in the vehicle operator's manual or on a label that is permanently attached to the vehicle, or, if the manufacturer has made no recommendation, at a state of charge of not less than 95 percent. If batteries are replaced rather than recharged, each replacement battery shall be charged and measured for state of charge in accordance with these procedures. No further charging of any propulsion battery occurs during any of the performance tests in the test sequence of this standard. If the propulsion batteries are depleted during a test sequence such that the vehicle reaches automatic shut-down, will not accelerate, or the low state of charge warning lamp is illuminated, the vehicle is to be accelerated to brake test speed by auxiliary means.

S6.2.4 (a) For an EV equipped with RBS, the RBS is considered to be part of the service brake system if it is automatically controlled by an application of the service brake control, if there is no means provided for the driver to disconnect or otherwise deactivate it, and if it is activated in all transmission positions, including neutral. The RBS is operational during all burnishes and all tests, except for the test of a failed RBS.

(b) For an EV equipped with an RBS that is not part of the service brake system, the RBS is operational and set to produce the maximum regenerative braking effect during the burnishes, and is disabled during the test procedures. If the vehicle is equipped with a neutral gear that automatically disables the RBS, the test procedures which are designated to be conducted in gear may be conducted in neutral.

S6.2.5   For tests conducted “in neutral,” the operator of an EV with no “neutral” position (or other means such as a clutch for disconnecting the drive train from the propulsion motor(s)) does not apply any electromotive force to the propulsion motor(s). Any electromotive force that is applied to the propulsion motor(s) automatically remains in effect unless otherwise specified by the test procedure.

S6.2.6   A vehicle equipped with electrically-actuated service brakes also performs the following test series. Conduct 10 stopping tests from a speed of 100 kph or the maximum vehicle speed, whichever is less. At least two of the 10 stopping distances must be less than or equal to 70 meters. The vehicle is loaded to GVWR for these tests and the transmission is in the neutral position when the service brake control is actuated and throughout the remainder of the test. The battery or batteries providing power to those electrically-actuated brakes, at the beginning of each test, shall be in a depleted state of charge for conditions (a), (b), or (c) of this paragraph as appropriate. An auxiliary means may be used to accelerate an EV to test speed.

(a) For an EV equipped with electrically-actuated service brakes deriving power from the propulsion batteries, and with automatic shut-down capability of the propulsion motor(s), the propulsion batteries are at not more than five percent above the EV actual automatic shut-down critical value. The critical value is determined by measuring the state-of-charge of each propulsion battery at the instant that automatic shut-down occurs and averaging the states-of-charge recorded.

(b) For an EV equipped with electrically-actuated service brakes deriving power from the propulsion batteries, and with no automatic shut-down capability of the propulsion motor(s), the propulsion batteries are at an average of not more than five percent above the actual state of charge at which the brake failure warning signal, required by S5.3.1(e) of this standard, is illuminated.

(c) For a vehicle which has an auxiliary battery (or batteries) that provides electrical energy to operate the electrically-actuated service brakes, the auxiliary battery(batteries) is (are) at (at an average of) not more than five percent above the actual state of charge at which the brake failure warning signal, required by S5.3.1(e) of this standard, is illuminated.

S6.3   Tire inflation pressure. Tire inflation pressure is the pressure recommended by the vehicle manufacturer for the GVWR of the vehicle.

S6.4   Transmission selector control. For S7.3, S7.5, S7.8, S7.15, S7.17, S7.11.1.2, S7.11.2.2, S7.11.3.2, and as required for S7.13, the transmission selector control is in neutral for all decelerations. For all other tests during all decelerations, the transmission selector is in the control position, other than overdrive, recommended by the manufacturer for driving on a level surface at the applicable test speed. To avoid engine stall during tests required to be run in gear a manual transmission may be shifted to neutral (or the clutch disengaged) when the vehicle speed decreases to 20 mph.

S6.5   Engine. Engine idle speed and ignition timing settings are according to the manufacturer's recommendations. If the vehicle is equipped with an adjustable engine speed governor, it is adjusted according to the manufacturer's recommendation.

S6.6   Vehicle openings. All vehicle openings (doors, windows, hood, trunk, convertible top, cargo doors, etc.) are closed except as required for instrumentation purposes.

S6.7   Ambient temperature. The ambient temperature is any temperature between 32 °F. and 100 °F.

S6.8   Wind velocity. The wind velocity is zero.

S6.9   Road surface.

S6.9.1   For vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, road tests are conducted on a 12-foot-wide, level roadway, having a skid number of 81. Burnish stops are conducted on any surface. The parking brake test surface is clean, dry, smooth, Portland cement concrete.

S6.9.2(a) For vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, road tests (excluding stability and control during braking tests) are conducted on a 12-foot-wide, level roadway, having a peak friction coefficient of 0.9 when measured using an ASTM E1136-93 (Reapproved 2003) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), standard reference test tire, in accordance with ASTM E1337-90 (Reapproved 2008) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), at a speed of 40 mph, without water delivery. Burnish stops are conducted on any surface. The parking brake test surface is clean, dry, smooth, Portland cement concrete.

S6.9.2(b) For vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, stability and control during braking tests are conducted on a 500-foot-radius curved roadway with a wet level surface having a peak friction coefficient of 0.5 when measured on a straight or curved section of the curved roadway using an ASTM E1136-93 (Reapproved 2003) standard reference tire, in accordance with ASTM E1337-90 (Reapproved 2008) at a speed of 40 mph, with water delivery.

S6.10   Vehicle position and wheel lockup restrictions. The vehicle is aligned in the center of the roadway at the start of each brake application. Stops, other than spike stops, are made without any part of the vehicle leaving the roadway.

S6.10.1   For vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, stops are made with wheel lockup permitted only as follows:

(a) At vehicle speeds above 10 mph, there may be controlled wheel lockup on an antilock-equipped axle, and lockup of not more than one wheel per vehicle, uncontrolled by an antilock system. (Dual wheels on one side of an axle are considered a single wheel.)

(b) At vehicle speeds of 10 mph or less, any wheel may lock up for any duration.

(c) Unlimited wheel lockup is allowed during spike stops (but not spike check stops), partial failure stops, and inoperative brake power or power assist unit stops.

S6.10.2   For vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, stops are made with wheel lockup permitted only as follows:

(a) At vehicle speeds above 20 mph, any wheel on a nonsteerable axle other than the two rearmost nonliftable, nonsteerable axles may lock up for any duration. The wheels on the two rearmost nonliftable, nonsteerable axles may lock up according to (b).

(b) At vehicle speeds above 20 mph, one wheel on any axle or two wheels on any tandem may lock up for any duration.

(c) At vehicle speeds above 20 mph, any wheel not permitted to lock in (a) or (b) may lock up repeatedly, with each lockup occurring for a duration of one second or less.

(d) At vehicle speeds of 20 mph or less, any wheel may lock up for any duration.

(e) Unlimited wheel lockup is allowed during partial failure stops, and inoperative brake power or power assist stops.

S6.11   Thermocouples. The brake temperature is measured by plug-type thermocouples installed in the approximate center of the facing length and width of the most heavily loaded shoe or disc pad, one per brake, as shown in figure 1. A second thermocouple may be installed at the beginning of the test sequence if the lining wear is expected to reach a point causing the first thermocouple to contact the metal rubbing surface of a drum or rotor. For centergrooved shoes or pads, thermocouples are installed within one-eighth of an inch to one-quarter inch of the groove and as close to the center as possible.

S6.12   Initial brake temperature. Unless otherwise specified the brake temperature is 150 °F. to 200 °F.

S6.13   Control forces. Unless otherwise specified, the force applied to a brake control is not less than 15 lb and not more than 150 lb.

S6.14   Special drive conditions. A vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds equipped with an interlocking axle system or a front wheel drive system that is engaged and disengaged by the driver is tested with the system disengaged.

S6.15   Selection of compliance options. Where manufacturer options are specified, the manufacturer shall select the option by the time it certifies the vehicle and may not thereafter select a different option for the vehicle. Each manufacturer shall, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, provide information regarding which of the compliance options it has selected for a particular vehicle or make/model.

S7.   Test procedure and sequence. Each vehicle shall be capable of meeting all the applicable requirements of S5 when tested according to the procedures and sequence set forth below, without replacing any brake system part or making any adjustments to the brake system other than as permitted in the burnish and reburnish procedures and in S7.9 and S7.10. (For vehicles only having to meet the requirements of S5.1.1, S5.1.2, S5.1.3, and S5.1.7 in section S5.1, the applicable test procedures and sequence are S7.1, S7.2, S7.4, S7.5(b), S7.5(a), S7.8, S7.9, S7.10, and S7.18. However, at the option of the manufacturer, the following test procedure and sequence may be conducted: S7.1, S7.2, S7.3, S7.4, S7.5(b), S7.6, S7.7, S7.5(a), S7.8, S7.9, S7.10, and S7.18. The choice of this option must not be construed as adding to the requirements specified in S5.1.2 and S5.1.3.) Automatic adjusters must remain activated at all times. A vehicle shall be deemed to comply with the stopping distance requirements of S5.1 if at least one of the stops at each speed and load specified in each of S7.3, S7.5(b), S7.8, S7.9, S7.10, S7.15 and S7.17 (check stops) is made within a stopping distance that does not exceed the corresponding distance specified in Table II. When the transmission selector control is required to be in neutral for a deceleration, a stop or snub must be obtained by the following procedures:

(a) Exceed the test speed by 4 to 8 mph;

(b) Close the throttle and coast in gear to approximately 2 mph above the test speed;

(c) Shift to neutral; and

(d) When the test speed is reached, apply the service brakes.

S7.1 Brake warming. If the initial brake temperature for the first stop in a test procedure (other than S7.7 and S7.16) has not been reached, heat the brakes to the initial brake temperature by making not more than 10 snubs from not more than 40 to 10 mph, at a deceleration not greater than 10 fpsps.

S7.2   Pretest instrumentation check. Conduct a general check of instrumentation by making not more than 10 stops from a speed of not more than 30 mph, or 10 snubs from a speed of not more than 40 to 10 mph, at a deceleration of not more than 10 fpsps. If instrument repair, replacement, or adjustment is necessary, make not more than 10 additional stops or snubs after such repair, replacement, or adjustment.

S7.3   Service brake system—first (preburnish) effectiveness test. Make six stops from 30 mph. Then make six stops from 60 mph.

S7.4   Service brake system—burnish procedure.

S7.4.1   Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 lb or less.

S7.4.1.1   Burnish. Burnish the brakes by making 200 stops from 40 mph at 12 fpsps (the 150 lb control force limit does not apply here). The interval from the start of one service brake application to the start of the next shall be either the time necessary to reduce the initial brake temperature to between 230 °F. and 270 °F., or the distance of 1 mile, whichever occurs first. Accelerate to 40 mph after each stop and maintain that speed until making the next stop.

S7.4.1.2   Brake adjustment—post burnish. After burnishing, adjust the brakes in accordance with the manufacturer's published recommendations.

S7.4.2 Vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds.

S7.4.2.1   Burnish. Vehicles are burnished according to the following procedures. Make 500 snubs between 40 mph and 20 mph at a deceleration rate of 10 f.p.s.p.s. Except where an adjustment is specified, after each brake application accelerate to 40 mph and maintain that speed until making the next brake application at a point 1 mile from the initial point of the previous brake application. If the vehicle cannot attain a speed of 40 mph in 1 mph, continue to accelerate until the vehicle reaches 40 mph or until the vehicle has traveled 1.5 miles from the initial point of the previous brake application, whichever occurs first. The brakes shall be adjusted three times during the burnish procedure, in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations, after 125, 250, and 375 snubs.

S7.4.2.2   Brake adjustment—post burnish. After burnishing, adjust the brakes in accordance with the manufacturer's published recommendations.

S7.5 (a)   Stability and control during braking (vehicles with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds). Make four stops in the lightly-loaded weight condition specified in S5.1.7. Use a full brake application for the duration of the stop, with the clutch pedal depressed or the transmission selector control in the neutral position, for the duration of each stop.

(b) Service brake system—second effectiveness test. For vehicles with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, or any school bus, make six stops from 30 mph. Then, for any vehicle, make six stops from 60 mph. Then, for a vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less, make four stops from 80 mph if the speed attainable in 2 miles is not less than 84 mph.

S7.6   First reburnish. Repeat S7.4, except make 35 burnish stops or snubs. In the case of vehicles burnished in accordance with S7.4.2.1(a) of this section, reburnish the vehicle by making 35 snubs from 60 to 20 mph, but if the hottest brake temperature reaches 500 °F ±50 °F, make the remainder of the brake applications from the highest snub condition listed in Table IV that will maintain the hottest brake temperature at 500 °F ±50 °F. If at a snub condition of 40 to 20 mph, the temperature of the hottest brake exceeds 550 °F, make the remainder of the 35 brake applications from the snub condition without regard to brake temperature.

S7.7   Parking brake test. The parking brake tests for any vehicle on different grades, in different directions, and for different loads may be conducted in any order. The force required for actuation of a hand-operated brake system shall be measured at the center of the hand grip area or at a distance of 112 inches from the end of the actuation lever, as illustrated in Figure II.

S7.7.1   Test procedure for requirements of S5.2.1 and S5.2.3.

S7.7.1.1   Condition the parking brake friction elements so that the temperature at the beginning of the test is at any level not more than 150 °F. (when the temperature of components on both ends of an axle are averaged).

S7.7.1.2   Drive the vehicle, loaded to GVWR, onto the specified grade with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle in the direction of the slope of the grade, stop the vehicle and hold it stationary by application of the service brake control, and place the transmission in neutral.

S7.7.1.3   With the vehicle held stationary by means of the service brake control, apply the parking brake by a single application of the force specified in (a), (b), or (c) of this paragraph, except that a series of applications to achieve the specified force may be made in the case of a parking brake system design that does not allow the application of the specified force in a single application:

(a) In the case of a passenger car or other vehicle with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs. or less, not more than 125 pounds for a foot-operated system, and not more than 90 pounds for a hand-operated system; and

(b) In the case of a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) not more than 150 pounds for a foot-operated system, and not more than 125 pounds for a hand-operated system.

(c) For a vehicle using an electrically-activated parking brake, apply the parking brake by activating the parking brake control.

S7.7.1.4   Following the application of the parking brake in accordance with S7.7.1.3, release all force on the service brake control and commence the measurement of time if the vehicle remains stationary. If the vehicle does not remain stationary, reapplication of the service brake to hold the vehicle stationary, with reapplication of a force to the parking brake control at the level specified in S7.7.1.3 (a) or (b) as appropriate for the vehicle being tested (without release of the ratcheting or other holding mechanism of the parking brake) may be used twice to attain a stationary position.

S7.7.1.5   Following observation of the vehicle in a stationary condition for the specified time in one direction, repeat the same test procedure with the vehicle orientation in the opposite direction on the specified grade.

S7.7.1.6   Check the operation of the parking brake application indicator required by S5.3.1(d).

S7.7.2   Test procedure for requirements of S5.2.2 (a) Check that transmission must be placed in park position to release key;

(b) Test as in S7.7.1, except in addition place the transmission control to engage the parking mechanism; and

(c) Test as in S7.7.1 except on a 20 percent grade, with the parking mechanism not engaged.

S7.7.3   Lightly loaded vehicle. Repeat S7.7.1 or S7.7.2 as applicable except with the vehicle at lightly loaded vehicles weight or at manufacturer's option, for a vehicle with GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, at lightly loaded vehicle weight plus not more than an additional 1,000 pounds for a roll bar structure on the vehicle.

S7.7.4   Non-service brake type parking brake systems. For vehicles with parking brake systems not utilizing the service brake friction elements, burnish the friction elements of such systems prior to parking brake tests according to the manufacturer's published recommendations as furnished to the purchaser. If no recommendations are furnished, run the vehicle in an unburnished condition.

S7.8   Service brake system test—lightly loaded vehicle (third effectiveness) test. Make six stops from 60 mph with vehicle at lightly vehicle weight, or at the manufacturer's option for a vehicle with GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, at lightly loaded vehicle weight plus not more than an additional 1,000 pounds for a roll bar structure on the vehicle. (This test is not applicable to a vehicle which has a GVWR of not less than 7,716 pounds and not greater than 10,000 pounds and is not a school bus.)

S7.9   Service brake system test—partial failure.

S7.9.1   With the vehicle at lightly loaded vehicle weight or at the manufacturer's option for a vehicle with a GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds, at lightly loaded vehicle weight plus not more than an additional 1,000 pounds for a roll bar structure on the vehicle, alter the service brake system to produce any one rupture or leakage type of failure, other than a structural failure of a housing that is common to two or more subsystems. Determine the control force, pressure level, or fluid level (as appropriate for the indicator being tested) necessary to activate the brake system indicator lamp. Make four stops if the vehicle is equipped with a split service brake system, or 10 stops if the vehicle is not so equipped, each from 60 mph, by a continuous application of the service brake control. Restore the service brake system to normal at completion of this test.

S7.9.2   Repeat S7.9.1 for each of the other subsystems.

S7.9.3   Repeat S7.9.1 and S7.9.2 with vehicle at GVWR. Restore the service brake system to normal at completion of this test.

S7.9.4   (For vehicles with antilock and/or variable proportioning brake systems.) With vehicle at GVWR, disconnect functional power source, or otherwise render antilock system inoperative. Disconnect variable proportioning brake system. Make four stops, each from 60 mph. If more than one antilock or variable proportioning brake subsystem is provided, disconnect or render one subsystem inoperative and run as above. Restore system to normal at completion of this test. Repeat for each subsystem provided.

Determine whether the brake system indicator lamp is activated when the electrical power source to the antilock or variable proportioning unit is disconnected.

S7.9.5   For a vehicle in which the brake signal is transmitted electrically between the brake pedal and some or all of the foundation brakes, regardless of the means of actuation of the foundation brakes, the tests in S7.9.1 through S7.9.3 of this standard are conducted by inducing any single failure in any circuit that electrically transmits the brake signal, and all other systems intact. Determine whether the brake system indicator lamp is activated when the failure is induced.

S7.9.6   For an EV with RBS that is part of the service brake system, the tests specified in S7.9.1 through S7.9.3 are conducted with the RBS disconnected and all other systems intact. Determine whether the brake system indicator lamp is activated when the RBS is disconnected.

S7.10   Service brake system—inoperative brake power unit or brake power assist unit test. (For vehicles equipped with brake power unit or brake power assist unit.)

S7.10.1   Regular procedure. (This test need not be run if the option in S7.10.2 is selected.) On vehicles with brake power assist units, render the brake power assist unit inoperative, or one of the brake power assist unit subsystems if two or more subsystems are provided, by disconnecting the relevant power supply. Exhaust any residual brake power reserve capability of the disconnected system. On vehicles with brake power units, disconnect the primary source of power. Make four stops, each from 60 mph by a continuous application of the service brake control. Restore the system to normal at completion of this test. For vehicles equipped with more than one brake power unit or brake power assist unit, conduct tests of each in turn.

S7.10.2   Optional Procedures. On vehicles with brake power assist units, the unit is charged to maximum prior to start of test. (Engine may be run up in speed, then throttle closed quickly to attain maximum charge on vacuum assist units.) Brake power units shall also be charged to maximum accumulator pressure prior to start of test. No recharging is allowed after start of test.

(a) (For vehicles with brake power assist units.) Disconnect the primary source of power. Make six stops each from 60 mph, to achieve the average deceleration for each stop as specified in table III. Apply the brake control as quickly as possible. Maintain control force until vehicle has stopped.

At the completion of the stops specified above, deplete the system of any residual brake power reserve capability. Make one stop from 60 mph at an average deceleration of not lower than 7 fpsps for passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 554 feet), or 6 fpsps for vehicles other than passenger cars (equivalent stopping distance 646 feet) and determine whether the control force exceeds 150 pounds.

(b) (For vehicles with brake power units with accumulator type systems.) Test as in S7.10.2(a), except make 10 stops instead of 6 and, at the completion of the 10 stops, deplete the failed element of the brake power unit of any residual brake power reserve capability before making the final stop.

(c) (For vehicles with brake power assist or brake power units with backup systems.) If the brake power or brake power assist unit operates in conjunction with a backup system and the backup system is activated automatically in the event of a primary power failure, the backup system is operative during this test. Disconnect the primary source of power of one subsystem. Make 15 stops, each from 60 mph, with the backup system activated for the failed subsystem, to achieve an average deceleration of 12 fpsps for each stop.

(d) Restore systems to normal at completion of these tests. For vehicles equipped with more than one brakepower assist or brakepower unit, conduct tests of each in turn.

S7.10.3 Electric brakes.

(a) For vehicles with electrically-actuated service brakes, the tests in S7.10.1 or S7.10.2 are conducted with any single electrical failure in the electric brake system instead of the brake power or brake power assist systems, and all other systems intact.

(b) For EVs with RBS that is part of the service brake system, the tests in S7.10.1 or S7.10.2 are conducted with the RBS discontinued and all other systems intact.

S7.11   Service brake system—first fade and recovery test.

S7.11.1   Baseline check stops or snubs.

S7.11.1.1   Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 lb or less. Make three stops from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop. Control force readings may be terminated when vehicle speed falls to 5 mph. Average the maximum brake control force required for the three stops.

S7.11.1.2   Vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 pounds. With transmission in neutral (or declutched), make three snubs from 40 to 20 mph at 10 fpsps for each snub. Average the maximum brake control force required for the three snubs.

S7.11.2   Fade stops or snubs.

S7.11.2.1   Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 pounds or less. Make 5 stops from 60 mph at 15 fpsps followed by 5 stops at the maximum attainable deceleration between 5 and 15 fpsps for each stop. Establish an initial brake temperature before the first brake application of 130° to 150 °F. Initial brake temperatures before brake applications for subsequent stops are those occurring at the distance intervals. Attain the required deceleration within 1 second and, as a minimum, maintain it for the remainder of the stopping time. Control force readings may be terminated when vehicle speed falls to 5 mph. Leave an interval of 0.4 mi between the start of brake applications. Accelerate immediately to the initial test speed after each stop. Drive 1 mi at 30 mph after the last fade stop, and immediately follow the recovery procedure specified in S7.11.3.1.

S7.11.2.2   Vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lb. With transmission in neutral (or declutched) make 10 snubs from 40 to 20 mph at 10 fpsps for each snub. Establish an initial brake temperature before the first brake application of 130 °F. to 150 °F. Initial brake temperatures before brake application for subsequent snubs are those occurring in the time intervals specified below. Attain the required deceleration within 1 s and maintain it for the remainder of the snubbing time. Leave an interval of 30 s between snubs (start of brake application to start of brake application). Accelerate immediately to the initial test speed after each snub. Drive for 1.5 mi at 40 mph after the last snub and immediately follow the recovery procedure specified in S7.11.3.2.

S7.11.3   Recovery stops or snubs.

S7.11.3.1   Vehicles with GVWR of 10,000 lb or less. Make five stops from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop. Control force readings may be terminated when vehicle speed falls to 5 mph. Allow a braking distance interval of 1 mi. Immediately after each stop accelerate at maximum rate to 30 mph and maintain that speed until making the next stop. Record the maximum control force for each stop.

S7.11.3.2   Vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lb. With transmission in neutral (or declutched) make five snubs from 40 to 20 mph at 10 fpsps for each snub. After each snub, accelerate at maximum rate to 40 mph and maintain that speed until making the next brake application at a point 1.5 mi from the point of the previous brake application. Record the maximum control force for each snub.

S7.12   Service brake system—second reburnish. Repeat S7.6.

S7.13   Service brake system—second fade and recovery test. Repeat S7.11 except in S7.11.2 run 15 fade stops or 20 snubs instead of 10.

S7.14   Third reburnish. Repeat S7.6.

S7.15   Service brake system—fourth effectiveness test. Repeat S7.5. Then (for passenger cars) make four stops from either 95 mph if the speed attainable in 2 mi is 99 to (but not including) 104 mph, or 100 mph if the speed attainable in 2 mi is 104 mph or greater.

S7.16   Service brake system—water recovery test.

S7.16.1   Baseline check stop. Make three stops from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop. Control force readings may be terminated when vehicle speed falls to 5 mph. Average the maximum brake control force required for the three stops.

S7.16.2   Wet brake recovery stops. With the brakes fully released at all times, drive the vehicle for 2 min at a speed of 5 mph in any combination of forward and reverse directions, through a trough having a water depth of 6 in. After leaving the trough, immediately accelerate at a maximum rate to 30 mph without a brake application. Immediately upon reaching that speed make five stops, each from 30 mph at 10 fpsps for each stop. After each stop (except the last), accelerate the vehicle immediately at a maximum rate to a speed of 30 mph and begin the next stop.

S7.17   Spike stops. Make 10 successive spike stops from 30 mph with the transmission in neutral, with no reverse stops. Make spike stops by applying a control force of 200 lb while recording control force versus time. Maintain control force until vehicle has stopped. At completion of 10 spike stops, make six effectiveness stops from 60 mph.

S7.18   Final inspection. Inspect—

(a) The service brake system for detachment or fracture of any components, such as brake springs and brake shoes or disc pad facing.

(b) The friction surface of the brake, the master cylinder or brake power unit reservoir cover and seal and filler openings, for leakage of brake fluid or lubricant.

(c) The master cylinder or brake power unit reservoir for compliance with the volume and labeling requirements of S5.4.2 and S5.4.3. In determining the fully applied worn condition assume that the lining is worn to: (1) Rivet or bolt heads on riveted or bolted linings, or (2) within one thirty-seconds of an inch of shoe or pad mounting surface on bonded linings, or (3) the limit recommended by the manufacturer, whichever is larger relative to the total possible shoe or pad movement. Drums or rotors are assumed to be at nominal design drum diameter or rotor thickness. Linings are assumed adjusted for normal operating clearance in the released position.

(d) The brake system indicator light(s), for compliance with operation in various key positions, lens color, labeling, and location, in accordance with S5.3.

S7.19   Moving barrier test. (Only for vehicles that have been tested according to S7.7.2.) Load the vehicle to GVWR, release parking brake, and place the transmission selector control to engage the parking mechanism. With a moving barrier as described in paragraph 4.3 of SAE Recommended Practice J972 (2000) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), impact the vehicle from the front at 212 mph. Keep the longitudinal axis of the barrier parallel with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. Repeat the test, impacting the vehicle from the rear.

Note: The vehicle used for this test need not be the same vehicle that has been used for the braking tests.

eCFR graphic ec01au91.004.gif

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Figure 1—Typical Plug Thermocouple Installations

Note: The second thermocouple shall be installed at .080 inch depth within 1 inch circumferentially of the thermocouple installed at .040 inch depth.

eCFR graphic ec01au91.005.gif

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Table I—Brake Test Procedure Sequence and Requirements

Sequence Test load Test procedure Requirements
Light GVWR
1. Instrumentation checkS7.2
2. First (preburnish) effectiveness testXS7.3S5.1.1.1
3. Burnish procedureXS7.4
4. Second effectiveness testXS7.5(b)S5.1.1.2
5. First reburnishXS7.6
6. Parking brakeXXS7.7S5.2
7. Stability and control during braking (braking-in-a-curve test)XS7.5(a)S5.1.7
8. Third effectiveness (lightly loaded vehicle)XS7.8S5.1.1.3
9. Partial failureXXS7.9S5.1.2
10. Inoperative brake power and power assist unitsXS7.10S5.1.3
11. First fade and recoveryXS7.11S5.1.4
12. Second reburnishXS7.12
13. Second fade and recoveryXS7.13S5.1.4
14. Third reburnishXS7.14
15. Fourth effectivenessXS7.15S5.1.1.4
16. Water recoveryXS7.16S5.1.5
17. Spike stopsXS7.17S5.1.6
18. Final inspectionS7.18S5.6
19. Moving barrier testXS7.19S5.2.2.3
eCFR graphic er07se99.007.gif

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Table III—Inoperative Brake Power Assist and Brake Power Units

Stop No.Average deceleration, FPSPSEquivalent stopping distance, feet
Column 1—brake power assistColumn 2—brake power unitColumn 3—brake power assistColumn 4—brake power unit
(a)(b) and (c)(a)(b) and (c)(a)(b) and (c)(a)(b) and (c)
116.014.016.013.0242277242298
212.012.013.011.0323323298352
310.010.012.010.0388388323388
49.08.511.09.5431456352409
58.07.510.09.0484517388431
67.56.79.58.5517580409456
717.016.09.08.0554646431484
8NANA8.57.5NANA456517
9NANA8.07.0NANA484554
10NANA7.56.5NANA517596
11NANA17.016.0NANA554646

1Depleted. (a) Passenger cars; (b) vehicles other than passenger cars with GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less; (c) vehicles with GVWR greater than 10,000 lbs; NA = Not applicable.

[41 FR 29696, July 19, 1976]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §571.105, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§571.106   Standard No. 106; Brake hoses.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies labeling and performance requirements for motor vehicle brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce deaths and injuries occurring as a result of brake system failure from pressure or vacuum loss due to hose or hose assembly rupture.

S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, and motorcycles, and to hydraulic, air, and vacuum brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings for use in those vehicles.

S4. Definitions.

Armor means protective material installed on a brake hose to increase the resistance of the hose or hose assembly to abrasion or impact damage.

Brake hose means a flexible conduit, other than a vacuum tubing connector, manufactured for use in a brake system to transmit or contain the fluid pressure or vacuum used to apply force to a vehicle's brakes. For hose, a dimensional description such as “ 14 -inch hose” refers to the nominal inside diameter. For tubing, a dimensional description such as “ 14 -in tubing” refers to the nominal outside diameter.

Brake hose assembly means a brake hose, with or without armor, equipped with end fittings for use in a brake system, but does not include an air or vacuum assembly prepared by the owner or operator of a used vehicle, by his employee, or by a repair facility, for installation in that used vehicle.

Brake hose end fitting means a coupler, other than a clamp, designed for attachment to the end of a brake hose.

Free length means the linear measurement of hose exposed between the end fittings of a hose assembly in a straight position.

Permanently attached end fitting means an end fitting that is attached by deformation of the fitting about the hose by crimping or swaging, or an end fitting that is attached by use of a sacrificial sleeve or ferrule that requires replacement each time a hose assembly is rebuilt.

Preformed means a brake hose that is manufactured with permanent bends and is shaped to fit a specific vehicle without further bending.

Rupture means any failure that results in separation of a brake hose from its end fitting or in leakage.

Vacuum tubing connector means a flexible conduit of vacuum that (i) connects metal tubing to metal tubing in a brake system, (ii) is attached without end fittings, and (iii) when installed, has an unsupported length less than the total length of those portions that cover the metal tubing.

S5. Requirements—hydraulic brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S5.1  Construction. (a) Each hydraulic brake hose assembly shall have permanently attached brake hose end fittings which are attached by deformation of the fitting about the hose by crimping or swaging.

(b) Each hydraulic brake hose assembly that is equipped with a permanent supplemental support integrally attached to the assembly and is manufactured as a replacement for use on a vehicle not equipped, as an integral part of the vehicle's original design, with a means of attaching the support to the vehicle shall be equipped with a bracket that is integrally attached to the supplemental support and that adapts the vehicle to properly accept this type of brake hose assembly.

S5.2   Labeling.

S5.2.1 Each hydraulic brake hose, except hose sold as part of a motor vehicle, shall have at least two clearly identifiable stripes of at least one-sixteenth of an inch in width, placed on opposite sides of the brake hose parallel to its longitudinal axis. One stripe may be interrupted by the information required by S5.2.2, and the other stripe may be interrupted by additional information at the manufacturer's option. However, hydraulic brake hose manufactured for use only in an assembly whose end fittings prevent its installation in a twisted orientation in either side of the vehicle, need not meet the requirements of S5.2.1.

S5.2.2 Each hydraulic brake hose shall be labeled, or cut from bulk hose that is labeled, at intervals of not more than 6 inches, measured from the end of one legend to the beginning of the next, in block capital letters and numerals at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the information listed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. The information need not be present on hose that is sold as part of a brake hose assembly or a motor vehicle.

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the hose manufacturer that the hose conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The marking may consist of a designation other than block capital letters required by S5.2.2.

(c) The month, day, and year, or the month and year, of manufacture, expressed in numerals. For example, 10/1/96 means October 1, 1996.

(d) The nominal inside diameter of the hose expressed in inches or fractions of inches, or in millimeters followed by the abbreviation “mm.”

(e) Either “HR” to indicate that the hose is regular expansion hydraulic hose or “HL” to indicate that the hose is low expansion hydraulic hose.

S5.2.3  Package labeling for brake hose assemblies designed to be used with a supplemental support. (a) Each hydraulic brake hose assembly that is equipped with a permanent supplemental support integrally attached to the assembly and is manufactured as a replacement assembly for a vehicle equipped, as an integral part of the vehicle's original design, with a means of attaching the support to the vehicle shall be sold in a package that is marked or labeled as follows: “FOR USE ON [insert Manufacturer, Model Name] ONLY”;

(b) Each hydraulic brake hose assembly that is equipped with a permanent supplemental support integrally attached to the assembly and is manufactured as a replacement for use on a vehicle not equipped, as an integral part of the vehicle's original design, with a means of attaching the support to the vehicle shall comply with paragraphs (a) (1) and (2) of this section:

(1) Be sold in a package that is marked or labeled as follows: “FOR USE ONLY WITH A SUPPLEMENTAL SUPPORT.”

(2) Be accompanied by clear, detailed instructions explaining the proper installation of the brake hose and the supplemental support bracket to the vehicle and the consequences of not attaching the supplemental support bracket to the vehicle. The instructions shall be printed on or included in the package specified in paragraph (a)(1) of this section.

S5.2.4 Each hydraulic brake hose assembly, except those sold as part of a motor vehicle, shall be labeled by means of a band around the brake hose assembly as specified in this paragraph or, at the option of the manufacturer, by means of labeling as specified in S5.2.4.1. The band may at the manufacturer's option be attached so as to move freely along the length of the assembly, as long as it is retained by the end fittings. The band shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters, numerals or symbols at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT constituting certification by the hose assembler that the hose assembly conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals or a symbol.

S5.2.4.1   At least one end fitting of a hydraulic brake hose assembly shall be etched, stamped or embossed with a designation at least one-sixteenth of an inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly and is filed in accordance with S5.2.4(b).

S5.3   Test requirements. A hydraulic brake hose assembly or appropriate part thereof shall be capable of meeting any of the requirements set forth under this heading, when tested under the conditions of S13 and the applicable procedures of S6. However, a particular hose assembly or appropriate part thereof need not meet further requirements after having been subjected to and having met the constriction requirement (S5.3.1) and any one of the requirements specified in S5.3.2 through S5.3.13.

S5.3.1   Constriction. Except for that part of an end fitting which does not contain hose, every inside diameter of any section of a hydraulic brake hose assembly shall be not less than 64 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the brake hose (S6.12).

S5.3.2   Expansion and burst strength. The maximum expansion of a hydraulic brake hose assembly at 1,000 psi, 1,500 psi and 2,900 psi shall not exceed the values specified in Table I (S6.1), except that a brake hose larger than 316 inch or 5 mm is not subject to the 2,900 psi expansion test requirements. The hydraulic brake hose assembly shall then withstand water pressure of 4,000 psi for 2 minutes without rupture, and then shall not rupture at less than 7,000 psi for a 18 inch, 3 mm, or smaller diameter hose, or at less than 5,000 psi for a hose with a diameter larger than 18 inch or 3 mm (S6.2).

Table I—Maximum Expansion of Free Length Brake Hose, CC/FT

Hydraulic brake hose, inside diameterTest pressure
1,000 psi1,500 psi2,900 psi
Regular
expansion
hose
Low
expansion
hose
Low
expansion
hose
Regular
expansion
hose
Regular
expansion
hose
Low
expansion
hose
18 inch, or 3mm, or less0.660.330.790.421.210.61
> 18 inch or 3mm, to 316 inch or 5 mm0.860.551.020.721.670.91
> 316 inch or 5 mm1.040.821.301.17**

S5.3.3   Whip resistance. A hydraulic brake hose assembly shall not rupture when run continuously on a flexing machine for 35 hours (S6.3).

S5.3.4   Tensile strength. A hydraulic brake hose assembly shall withstand a pull of 325 pounds without separation of the hose from its end fittings during a slow pull test, and shall withstand a pull of 370 pounds without separation of the hose from its end fittings during a fast pull test (S6.4).

S5.3.5   Water absorption and burst strength. A hydraulic brake hose assembly, after immersion in water for 70 hours (S6.5), shall withstand water pressure of 4,000 psi for 2 minutes, and then shall not rupture at less than 5,000 psi (S6.2).

S5.3.6   Water absorption and tensile strength. A hydraulic brake hose assembly, after immersion in water for 70 hours (S6.5), shall withstand a pull of 325 pounds without separation of the hose from its end fittings during a slow pull test, and shall withstand a pull of 370 pounds without separation of the hose from its end fittings during a fast pull test (S6.4).

S5.3.7   Water absorption and whip resistance. A hydraulic brake hose assembly, after immersion in water for 70 hours (S6.5), shall not rupture when run continuously on a flexing machine for 35 hours (S6.3).

S5.3.8   Low-temperature resistance. A hydraulic brake hose conditioned at a temperature between minus 49 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45 degrees Celsius) and minus 54 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 48 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours shall not show cracks visible without magnification when bent around a cylinder as specified in S6.6 (S6.6).

S5.3.9   Brake fluid compatibility, constriction, and burst strength. Except for brake hose assemblies designed for use with mineral or petroleum-based brake fluids, a hydraulic brake hose assembly shall meet the constriction requirement of S5.3.1 after having been subjected to a temperature of 248 degrees Fahrenheit (120 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours while filled with SAE RM-66-04 “Compatibility Fluid,” as described in Appendix B of SAE Standard J1703 JAN95 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). It shall then withstand water pressure of 4,000 psi for 2 minutes and thereafter shall not rupture at less than 5,000 psi (S6.2 except all sizes of hose are tested at 5,000 psi).

S5.3.10   Ozone resistance. A hydraulic brake hose shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after exposure to ozone for 70 hours at 104 °F. (S6.8).

S5.3.11   Dynamic ozone test. A hydraulic brake hose shall not show cracks visible without magnification after having been subjected to a 48-hour dynamic ozone test (S6.9).

S5.3.12   High temperature impulse test. A brake hose assembly tested under the conditions in S6.10:

(a) Shall withstand pressure cycling for 150 cycles, at 295 degrees Fahrenheit (146 degrees Celsius) without leakage;

(b) Shall not rupture during a 2-minute, 4,000 psi pressure hold test, and;

(c) Shall not burst at a pressure less than 5,000 psi.

S5.3.13   End fitting corrosion resistance. After 24 hours of exposure to salt spray, a hydraulic brake hose end fitting shall show no base metal corrosion on the end fitting surface except where crimping or the application of labeling information has caused displacement of the protective coating (S6.11).

S6. Test procedures—Hydraulic brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S6.1.   Expansion test.

S6.1.1   Apparatus. Utilize a test apparatus (as shown in Figure 1) which consists of:

(a) Source for required fluid pressure;

(b) Test fluid of water without any additives and free of gases;

(c) Reservoir for test fluid;

(d) Pressure gauges;

(e) Brake hose end fittings in which to mount the hose vertically; and

(f) Graduate burette with 0.05 cc increments.

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Fig. 1—Expansion Test Apparatus

S6.1.2   Preparation. (a) Measure the free length of the hose assembly.

(b) Mount the hose so that it is in a vertical straight position without tension when pressure is applied.

(c) Fill the hose with test fluid and bleed all gases from the system.

(d) Close the valve to the burette and apply 1,500 psi for 10 seconds; then release pressure.

S6.1.3   Calculation of expansion at 1,000 and 1,500 psi. (a) Adjust the fluid level in the burette to zero.

(b) Close the valve to the burette, apply pressure at the rate of 15,000 psi per minute, and seal 1,000 psi in the hose (1,500 psi in the second series, and 2,900 psi in the third series).

(c) After 3 seconds open the valve to the burette for 10 seconds and allow the fluid in the expanded hose to rise into the burette.

(d) Repeat the procedure in steps (b) and (c) twice. Measure the amount of test fluid which has accumulated in the burette as a result of the three applications of pressure.

(e) Calculate the volumetric expansion per foot by dividing the total accumulated test fluid by 3 and further dividing by the free length of the hose in feet.

S6.2   Burst strength test. (a) Connect the brake hose to a pressure system and fill it completely with water, allowing all gases to escape.

(b) Apply water pressure of 4,000 psi at a rate of 15,000 psi per minute.

(c) After 2 minutes at 4,000 psi, increase the pressure at the rate of 15,000 psi per minute until the pressure exceeds 5,000 psi for a brake hose larger than 18 inch or 3 mm diameter, or until the pressure exceeds 7,000 psi for a brake hose of 18 inch, 3 mm, or smaller diameter.

S6.3   Whip resistance test.

S6.3.1   Apparatus. Utilize test apparatus that is dynamically balanced and includes:

(a) A movable header consisting of a horizontal bar equipped with capped end fittings and mounted through bearings at each end to points 4 inches from the center of two vertically rotating disks whose edges are in the same vertical plane;

(b) An adjustable stationary header parallel to the movable header in the same horizontal plane as the centers of the disks, and fitted with open end fittings;

(c) An elapsed time indicator; and

(d) A source of water pressure connected to the open end fittings.

S6.3.2  Preparation. (a) Except for the supplemental support specified in S6.3.2(d), remove all external appendages including, but not limited to, hose armor, chafing collars, mounting brackets, date band and spring guards.

(b) Measure the hose free length.

(c) Mount the hose in the whip test machine, introducing slack as specified in Table II for the size hose tested, measuring the projected length parallel to the axis of the rotating disks. The manufacturer may, at his option, adapt the fitting attachment points to permit mounting hose assemblies equipped with angled or other special fittings in the same orientation as hose assemblies equipped with straight fittings.

(d) In the case of a brake hose assembly equipped with a permanent supplemental support integrally attached to the assembly, the assembly may be mounted using the supplemental support and associated means of simulating its attachment to the vehicle. Mount the supplemental support in the same vertical and horizontal planes as the stationary header end of the whip test fixture described in S6.3.1(b). Mount or attach the supplemental support so that it is positioned in accordance with the recommendation of the assembly manufacturer for attaching the supplemental support on a vehicle.

Table II—Hose Lengths

Free length between end fittings, inchesSlack, inches
18 inch or 3 mm hose or lessMore than 18 inch or 3 mm hose
8 to 1512 , inclusive1.750
10 to 1512 , inclusive1,000
Over 1512 to 19 inclusive1.250
Over 19 to 24, inclusive0.750

S6.3.3   Operation. (a) Apply 235 psi water pressure and bleed all gases from the system.

(b) Drive the movable head at 800 rpm.

S6.4   Tensile strength test. Utilize a tension testing machine conforming to the requirements of ASTM E4-03 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) and provided with a recording device to measure the force applied.

S6.4.1   Preparation. Mount the hose assembly to ensure straight, evenly distributed machine pull.

S6.4.2   Operation. (a) Conduct the slow pull test by applying tension at a rate of 1 inch per minute travel of the moving head until separation occurs.

(b) Conduct the fast pull test by applying tension at a rate of 2 inches per minute travel of the moving head until separation occurs.

S6.5   Water absorption sequence tests. (a) Prepare three brake hose assemblies and measure the free length of the hose assemblies.

(b) Immerse the brake hose assemblies in distilled water at 185 degrees Fahrenheit (85 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours. Remove the brake hose assemblies from the water and condition in air at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(c) Conduct the tests in S6.2, S6.3, and S6.4, using a different hose for each sequence.

S6.6   Low temperature resistance test.

S6.6.1   Preparation. (a) Remove hose armor, if any, and condition the hose in a straight position in air at a temperature between minus 49 degrees Fahrenheit and minus 54 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45 degrees Celsius and minus 48 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours.

(b) Condition a cylinder in air at a temperature between minus 49 degrees Fahrenheit and minus 54 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 45 degrees Celsius and minus 48 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours, using a cylinder of 212 inches in diameter for tests of hose less than 18 inch or 3mm, 3 inches in diameter for tests of 18 inch or 3 mm hose, 312 inches in diameter for tests of 316 to 14 inch hose or 4 mm to 6 mm hose, and 4 inches in diameter for tests of hose greater than 14 inch or 6 mm in diameter.

S6.6.2   Flexibility testing. Bend the conditioned hose 180 degrees around the conditioned cylinder at a steady rate in a period of 3 to 5 seconds. Examine without magnification for cracks.

S6.7   Brake fluid compatibility test.

S6.7.1   Preparation. (a) Attach a hose assembly below a 1-pint reservoir filled with 100 ml. of SAE RM-66-04 Compatibility Fluid as shown in Figure 2.

(b) Fill the hose assembly with brake fluid, seal the lower end, and place the test assembly in an oven in a vertical position.

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S6.7.2   Oven treatment. (a) Condition the hose assembly at 200 °F. for 70 hours.

(b) Cool the hose assembly at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(c) Drain the brake hose assembly, immediately determine that every inside diameter of any section of the hose assembly, except for that part of an end fitting which does not contain hose, is not less than 64 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose, and conduct the test specified in S6.2.

S6.8   Ozone resistance test. Utilize a cylinder with a diameter eight times the nominal outside diameter of the brake hose excluding armor.

S6.8.1   Preparation. After removing any armor, bind a hydraulic brake hose 360° around the cylinder. In the case of hose shorter than the circumference of the cylinder, bend the hose so that as much of its length as possible is in contact.

S6.8.2   Exposure to ozone. (a) Condition the hose on the cylinder in air at room temperature for 24 hours.

(b) Immediately thereafter, condition the hose on the cylinder for 70 hours in an exposure chamber having an ambient air temperature of 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) during the test and containing air mixed with ozone in the proportion of 100 parts of ozone per 100 million parts of air by volume.

(c) Examine the hose for cracks under 7-power magnification, ignoring areas immediately adjacent to or within the area covered by binding.

S6.9   Dynamic ozone test.

S6.9.1   Apparatus. Utilize a test apparatus shown in Figure 3 which is constructed so that:

(a) It has a fixed pin with a vertical orientation over which one end of the brake hose is installed.

(b) It has a movable pin that is oriented 30 degrees from vertical, with the top of the movable pin angled towards the fixed pin. The moveable pin maintains its orientation to the fixed pin throughout its travel in the horizontal plane. The other end of the brake hose is installed on the movable pin.

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S6.9.2   Preparation. (a) Precondition the hose assembly by laying it on a flat surface in an unstressed condition, at room temperature, for 24 hours.

(b) Cut the brake hose assembly to a length of 8.6 inches (218 mm), such that no end fittings remain on the cut hose.

(c) Mount the brake hose onto the test fixture by fully inserting the fixture pins into each end of the hose. Secure the hose to the fixture pins using a band clamp at each end of the hose.

(d) Place the test fixture into an ozone chamber

(e) Stabilize the atmosphere in the ozone chamber so that the ambient temperature is 104 °F (40 degrees Celsius) and the air mixture contains air mixed with ozone in the proportion of 100 parts of ozone per 100 million parts of air by volume. This atmosphere is to remain stable throughout the remainder of the test.

(f) Begin cycling the movable pin at a rate of 0.3 Hz. Continue the cycling for 48 hours.

(g) At the completion of 48 hours of cycling, remove the test fixture from the ozone chamber. Without removing the hose from the test fixture, visually examine the hose for cracks without magnification, ignoring areas immediately adjacent to or within the area covered by the band clamps. Examine the hose with the movable pin at any point along its travel.

S6.10   High temperature impulse test.

S6.10.1   Apparatus. (a) A pressure cycling machine to which one end of the brake hose assembly can be attached, with the entire hose assembly installed vertically inside of a circulating air oven. The machine shall be capable of increasing the pressure in the hose from zero psi to 1600 psi, and decreasing the pressure in the hose from 1600 psi to zero psi, within 2 seconds.

(b) A circulating air oven that can reach a temperature of 295 degrees Fahrenheit (146 degrees Celsius) within 30 minutes, and that can maintain a constant 295 degrees F (146 degrees Celsius) thereafter, with the brake hose assembly inside of the oven and attached to the pressure cycling machine.

(c) A burst test apparatus to conduct testing specified in S6.2

S6.10.2   Preparation. (a) Connect one end of the hose assembly to the pressure cycling machine and plug the other end of the hose. Fill the pressure cycling machine and hose assembly with SAE RM-66-04 “Compatibility Fluid,” as described in Appendix B of SAE Standard J1703 JAN95 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) and bleed all gases from the system.

(b) Place the brake hose assembly inside of the circulating air oven in a vertical position. Increase the oven temperature to 295 degrees F (146 degrees Celsius) and maintain this temperature throughout the pressure cycling test.

(c) During each pressure cycle, the pressure in the hose is increased from zero psi to 1600 psi and held constant for 1 minute, then the pressure is decreased from 1600 psi to zero psi and held constant for 1 minute. Perform 150 pressure cycles on the brake hose assembly.

(d) Remove the brake hose assembly from the oven, disconnect it from the pressure cycling machine, and drain the fluid from the hose. Cool the brake hose assembly at room temperature for 45 minutes.

(e) Wipe the brake hose using acetone to remove residual Compatibility Fluid. Conduct the burst strength test in S6.2, except all sizes of hose are tested at 5,000 psi.

S6.11   End fitting corrosion test. Utilize the apparatus described in ASTM B117-03 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S6.11.1   Construction. Construct the salt spray chamber so that:

(a) The construction material does not affect the corrosiveness of the fog.

(b) The hose assembly is supported or suspended 30 degrees from the vertical and parallel to the principal direction of the horizontal flow of fog through the chamber.

(c) The hose assembly does not contact any metallic material or any material capable of acting as a wick

(d) Condensation which falls from the assembly does not return to the solution reservoir for respraying.

(e) Condensation from any source does not fall on the brake hose assemblies or the solution collectors.

(f) Spray from the nozzles is not directed onto the hose assembly.

S6.11.2   Preparation. (a) Plug each end of the hose assembly.

(b) Mix a salt solution five parts by weight of sodium chloride to 95 parts of distilled water, using sodium chloride substantially free of nickel and copper, and containing on a dry basis not more than 0.1 percent of sodium iodide and not more than 0.3 percent total impurities. Ensure that the solution is free of suspended solids before the solution is atomized.

(c) After atomization at 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius), ensure that the collected solution is in the PH range of 6.5 to 7.2. Make the PH measurements at 77 degrees Fahrenheit (28 degrees Celsius).

(d) Maintain a compressed air supply to the nozzle or nozzles free of oil and dirt and between 10 and 25 psi.

S6.11.3   Operation. Subject the brake hose assembly to the salt spray continuously for 24 hours.

(a) Regulate the mixture so that each collector will collect from 1 to 2 milliliters of solution per hour for each 80 square centimeters of horizontal collecting area.

(b) Maintain exposure zone temperature at 95 degrees Fahrenheit (35 degrees Celsius).

(c) Upon completion, remove the salt deposit from the surface of the hose by washing gently or dipping in clean running water not warmer than 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) and then drying immediately.

S6.12   Constriction test. Brake hose constriction test requirements shall be met using at least one of the methods specified in S6.12.1, S6.12.2, or S6.12.3.

S6.12.1   Plug gauge. (a) Utilize a plug gauge as shown in Figure 4. Diameter “A” is equal to 64 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hydraulic brake hose being tested.

(b) Brake hose assemblies that are to be used for additional testing have constriction testing only at each end fitting. Other brake hose assemblies may be cut into 3-inch lengths to permit constriction testing of the entire assembly. Hose assemblies with end fittings that do not permit entry of the gauge (e.g., restrictive orifice or banjo fitting) are cut 3 inches from the point at which the hose terminates in the end fitting and then tested from the cut end.

(c) Hold the brake hose in a straight position and vertical orientation.

(d) Place the spherical end of the plug gauge just inside the hose or end fitting. If the spherical end will not enter the hose or end fitting using no more force than gravity acting on the plug gauge, this constitutes failure of the constriction test.

(e) Release the plug gauge. Within 3 seconds, the plug gauge shall fall under the force of gravity alone up to the handle of the gauge. If the plug gauge does not fully enter the hose up to the handle of the gauge within three seconds, this constitutes failure of the constriction test.

S6.12.2   Extended plug gauge. (a) The test in 6.12.1 may be conducted with an extended plug gauge to enable testing of the entire brake hose from one end fitting, without cutting the brake hose. The extended plug gauge weight and spherical diameter specifications are as shown in Figure 4, but the handle portion of the gauge may be deleted and the gauge length may be greater than 3 inches.

(b) The required performance of the extended plug gauge in S6.12.1(e) is that after the plug gauge is released, the extended plug gauge shall fall under the force of gravity alone at an average rate of 1 inch per second until the spherical diameter of the extended gauge passes through all portions of the brake hose assembly containing hose. If the extended plug gauge does not pass through all portions of the brake hose assembly containing hose at an average rate of 1 inch per second, this constitutes failure of the constriction test.

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S6.12.3   Drop ball test. (a) Utilize a rigid spherical ball with a diameter equal to 64 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hydraulic brake hose being tested. The weight of the spherical ball shall not exceed 2 ounces (57 grams).

(b) Hold the brake hose in a straight position and vertical orientation.

(c) Hold the ball just above the end fitting.

(d) Release the ball. The ball shall fall under the force of gravity alone completely through all portions of the brake hose assembly containing hose, at an average rate of 1 inch per second. Failure of the ball to pass completely through all portions of the brake hose assembly containing hose, at an average rate of 1 inch per second, constitutes failure of the constriction test.

S7. Requirements—Air brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S7.1   Construction. Each air brake hose assembly shall be equipped with permanently attached brake hose end fittings or reusable brake hose end fittings. Each air brake hose constructed of synthetic or natural elastomeric rubber shall conform to the dimensional requirements specified in Table III, except for brake hose manufactured in metric sizes.

S7.2   Labeling

S7.2.1 Hose. Each air brake hose shall be labeled, or cut from bulk hose that is labeled, at intervals of not more than 6 inches, measured from the end of one legend to the beginning of the next, in block capital letters and numerals at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the information listed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. The information need not be present on hose that is sold as part of a brake hose assembly or a motor vehicle.

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the hose manufacturer that the hose conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals, or a symbol.

(c) The month, day, and year, or the month and year, of manufacture, expressed in numerals. For example, 10/1/96 means October 1, 1996.

(d) The nominal inside diameter of the hose expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters. The abbreviation “mm” shall follow hose sizes that are expressed in millimeters. (Examples: 38 , 12 ( 12 SP in the case of 12 inch special air brake hose), 4mm, 6mm.)

(e) The type designation corresponding to the brake hose dimensions in Table III. Type A shall be labeled with the letter “A”, Type AI shall be labeled with the letters “AI”, and type AII shall be labeled with the letters “AII”. Metric air brake hose shall be labeled with the letter “A.”

Table III—Air Brake Hose Dimensions—Inside Diameter (ID) and Outside Diameter (OD) Dimensions in Inches (Millimeters)

   Type A—Hose Size—Nominal Inside Diameter
14 516 38 716 12 SP(1) 58
Min. I.D.0.227
(5.8)
0.289
(7.3)
0.352
(8.9)
0.407
(10.3)
0.469
(11.9)
0.594
(15.1)
Max. I.D.0.273
(6.9)
0.335
(8.5)
0.398
(10.1)
0.469
(11.9)
0.531
(13.5)
0.656
(16.7)
Min. O.D.0.594
(15.1)
0.656
(16.7)
0.719
(18.3)
0.781
(19.8)
0.844
(21.4)
1.031
(26.2)
Max. O.D.0.656
(16.7)
0.719
(18.3)
0.781
(19.8)
0.843
(21.4)
0.906
(23.0)
1.094
(27.8)
   Type AI(2)—Hose Size—Nominal Inside Diameter
    316 14 516 1332 12 58
Min. I.D.0.188
(4.8)
0.250
(6.4)
0.312
(7.9)
0.406
(10.3)
0.500
(12.7)
0.625
(15.9)
Max. I.D.0.214
(5.4)
0.281
(7.1)
0.343
(8.7)
0.437
(11.1)
0.539
(13.7)
0.667
(16.9)
Min. O.D.0.472
(12.0)
0.535
(13.6)
0.598
(15.1)
0.714
(18.1)
0.808
(20.5)
0.933
(23.7)
Max. O.D.0.510
(13.0)
0.573
(14.6)
0.636
(16.2)
0.760
(19.3)
0.854
(21.7)
0.979
(24.9)
   Type AII(2)—Hose Size—Nominal Inside Diameter
    316 14 516 1332 12 58
Min. I.D.0.188
(4.8)
0.250
(6.4)
0.312
(7.9)
0.406
(10.3)
0.500
(12.7)
0.625
(15.9)
Max. I.D.0.214
(5.4)
0.281
(7.1)
0.343
(8.7)
0.437
(11.1)
0.539
(13.7)
0.667
(16.9)
Min. O.D.0.500
(12.7)
0.562
(14.3)
0.656
(16.7)
0.742
(18.8)
0.898
(22.8)
1.054
(26.8)
Max. O.D.0.539
(13.7)
0.602
(15.3)
0.695
(17.7)
0.789
(20.1)
0.945
(24.0)
1.101
(27.9)

(1)Notes: Type A, sizes 38 , 716 , and 12 Special can be assembled with reusable end fittings. All sizes can be assembled using permanently-attached (crimped) end fittings.

(2)Types AI and AII, all sizes, can be assembled with reusable or permanently-attached (crimped) end fittings.

S7.2.2   End fittings. Except for an end fitting that is attached by deformation of the fitting about a hose by crimping or swaging, at least one component of each air brake hose fitting shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters and numerals at least one-sixteenth of an inch high with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the manufacturer of that component that the component conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of that component of the fitting, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. S.W., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals, or a symbol.

(c) The letter “A” shall indicate intended use in air brake systems. In the case of an end fitting intended for use in a reusable assembly with brake hose subject to Table III, “AI” or “AII” shall indicate use with Type I or Type II hose, respectively.

(d) The nominal inside diameter of the hose to which the fitting is properly attached expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters. (See examples in S7.2.1 (d).) The abbreviation “mm” shall follow hose sizes that are expressed in millimeters.

S7.2.3 Assemblies. Each air brake hose assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging, except those sold as part of a motor vehicle, shall be labeled by means of a band around the brake hose assembly as specified in this paragraph or, at the option of the manufacturer, by means of labeling as specified in S7.2.3.1. The band may at the manufacturer's option be attached so as to move freely along the length of the assembly, as long as it is retained by the end fittings. The band shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters, numerals or symbols at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting certification by the hose assembler that the hose assembly conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, Vehicle Dynamics Division, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals or a symbol.

S7.2.3.1   At least one end fitting of an air brake hose assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging shall be etched, stamped or embossed with a designation at least one-sixteenth of an inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly and is filed in accordance with S7.2.3(b).

S7.3   Test requirements. Each air brake hose assembly or appropriate part thereof shall be capable of meeting any of the requirements set forth under this heading, when tested under the conditions of S13 and the applicable procedures of S8. However, a particular hose assembly or appropriate part thereof need not meet further requirements after having met the constriction requirement (S7.3.1) and then having been subjected to any one of the requirements specified in S7.3.2 through S7.3.13.

S7.3.1   Constriction. Every inside diameter of any section of an air brake hose assembly shall not be less than 66 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the brake hose. (S8.14)

S7.3.2   High temperature resistance. An air brake hose shall not show external or internal cracks, charring, or disintegration visible without magnification when straightened after being bent for 70 hours at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) over a small test cylinder having the radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested. (S8.1)

S7.3.3   Low temperature resistance. The inside and outside surfaces of an air brake hose shall not show cracks as a result of conditioning at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours when bent around a large test cylinder having the radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested (S8.2).

Table IV—Air Brake Hose Diameters and Test Cylinder Radii

Nominal hose inside diameter, inches1 316 14 516 38 1332 716 , 12 58
Nominal hose inside diameter, millimeters14, 568101216
Small test cylinder, radius in inches (millimeters)21 (25)112 (38)134 (45)134 (45)178 (48)2 (51)212 (64)
Large test cylinder, radius in inches (millimeters)32 (51)212 (64)3 (76)312 (89)312 (89)4 (102)412 (114)

Notes:

1These sizes are listed to provide test cylinder radii for brake hoses manufactured in these sizes. They do not represent conversions.

2Small test cylinders are used for the high temperature resistance test.

3Large test cylinders are used for the low temperature resistance, ozone resistance, and adhesion of wire-reinforced hose tests.

S7.3.4   Oil resistance. After immersion in ASTM No. 3 oil for 70 hours at 212 °F. the volume of a specimen prepared from the inner tube and cover of an air brake hose shall not increase more than 100 percent (S8.3).

S7.3.5   Ozone resistance. An air brake hose assembly shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after exposure to ozone for 70 hours at 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius) when bent around a test cylinder of the radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested (S8.4).

S7.3.6   Length change. An air brake hose shall not contract in length more than 7 percent nor elongate more than 5 percent when subjected to air pressure of 200 psi (S8.5).

S7.3.7   Adhesion. (a) Except for hose reinforced by wire, an air brake hose shall withstand a tensile force of 8 pounds per inch of length before separation of adjacent layers (S8.6).

(b) An air brake hose reinforced by wire shall permit a steel ball to roll freely along the entire length of the inside of the hose when the hose is subjected to a vacuum of 25 inches of Hg and bent around a test cylinder (S8.13).

S7.3.8   Flex strength and air pressure leakage. An air brake hose assembly of the length specified in the table accompanying Figure 5, when subjected to a flex test and internal pressure cycling, shall be capable of having its internal pressure increased from zero to 140 psi within 2 minutes with pressurized air supplied through an orifice (S8.7).

S7.3.9   Corrosion resistance and burst strength. An air brake hose assembly exposed to salt spray shall not rupture when exposed to hydrostatic pressure of 900 psi (S8.8).

S7.3.10   Tensile strength. An air brake hose assembly designed for use between a frame and axle or between a towed and towing vehicle shall withstand, without separation of the hose from its end fittings, a pull of 250 pounds if it is 14 inch, 6 mm, or less in nominal inside diameter, or a pull of 325 pounds if it is larger than 14 inch or 6 mm in nominal inside diameter. An air brake hose assembly designed for use in any other application shall withstand, without separation of the hose from its end fittings, a pull of 50 pounds if it is 14 inch, 6 mm, or less in nominal inside diameter, 150 pounds if it is larger than 14 inch or 6 mm and equal to or smaller than 12 inch or 12 mm in nominal inside diameter, or 325 pounds if it is larger than 12 inch or 12 mm in nominal inside diameter (S8.9).

S7.3.11   Water absorption and tensile strength. After immersion in distilled water for 70 hours, an air brake hose assembly designed for use between a frame and axle or between a towed and a towing vehicle shall withstand, without separation of the hose from its end fittings, a pull of 250 pounds if it is 14 inch or less or 6 mm or less in nominal inside diameter, or a pull of 325 pounds if it is larger than 14 inch or 6 mm in nominal inside diameter. After immersion in distilled water for 70 hours, an air brake hose assembly designed for use in any other application shall withstand, without separation of the hose from its end fittings, a pull of 50 pounds if it is 14 inch or 6 mm or less in nominal inside diameter, 150 pounds if it is larger than 14 inch or 6 mm and equal to or smaller than 12 inch or 12 mm in nominal inside diameter, or 325 pounds if it is larger than 12 inch or 12 mm in nominal inside diameter. (S8.10)

S7.3.12   Zinc chloride resistance. The outer cover of an air brake hose shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after immersion in a 50 percent zinc chloride aqueous solution for 200 hours (S8.11).

S7.3.13   End fitting corrosion resistance. After 24 hours of exposure to salt spray, air brake hose end fittings shall show no base metal corrosion on the end fitting surface except where crimping or the application of labeling information causes a displacement of the protective coating.

S8. Test procedures—Air brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S8.1   High temperature resistance test.

(a) Utilize a small test cylinder with a radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested.

(b) Bind the hose around the cylinder and condition it in an air oven for 70 hours at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius).

(c) Cool the hose to room temperature, remove it from the cylinder and straighten it.

(d) Without magnification, examine the hose externally and cut the hose lengthwise and examine the inner tube.

S8.2   Low temperature resistance test. (a) Utilize a large test cylinder with a radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested.

(b) Condition the cylinder and the brake hose, in a straight position, in a cold box at minus 40 °F. for 70 hours.

(c) With the hose and cylinder at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), bend the hose 180 degrees around the cylinder at a steady rate in a period of 3 to 5 seconds. Remove the hose from the test cylinder and visibly examine the exterior of the hose for cracks without magnification.

(d) Allow the hose to warm at room temperature for 2 hours. All reusable end fittings are removed from the hose. All permanently-attached end fittings are cut away from the hose. Cut through one wall of the hose longitudinally along its entire length. Unfold the hose to permit examination of the interior surface. Visibly examine the interior of the hose for cracks without magnification.

S8.3   Oil resistance test. Utilize three test specimens and average the results.

S8.3.1   Preparation. Fashion a test specimen by cutting a rectangular block 2 inches long and not less than one-third of an inch in width, having a thickness of not more than one-sixteenth inch, from the brake hose and buff the specimen on both faces to ensure smooth surfaces.

S8.3.2   Measurement. (a) Weigh each specimen to the nearest milligram in air (W1) and in distilled water (W2) at room temperature. If wetting is necessary to remove air bubbles, dip the specimen in acetone and thoroughly rinse it with distilled water.

(b) Immerse each specimen in ASTM IRM 903 oil for 70 hours at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) and then cool in ASTM IRM 903 oil at room temperature for 30 to 60 minutes.

(c) Dip the specimen quickly in acetone and blot it lightly with filter paper.

(d) Weigh each specimen in a tared weighing bottle (W3) and in distilled water (W4) within five minutes of removal from the cooling liquid.

(e) Calculate the percentage increase in volume follows:

Percent of increase=

[(W3−W4)−(W1−W2)]/(W1−W2) × 100

S8.4   Ozone resistance test. Conduct the test specified in S6.8, using air brake hose, except use the large test cylinder specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested.

S8.5   Length change test. (a) Position a test hose in a straight, horizontal position, and apply air pressure of 10 psi thereto.

(b) Measure the hose to determine original free length.

(c) Without releasing the 10 psi, raise the air pressure to the test hose to 200 psi.

(d) Measure the hose under 200 psi to determine final free length. An elongation or contraction is an increase or decrease, respectively, in the final free length from the original free length of the hose.

S8.6   Adhesion test for air brake hose not reinforced by wire.

S8.6.1   Apparatus. A tension testing machine that is power-driven and that applies a constant rate of extension is used for measuring the force required to separate the layers of the test specimen. The apparatus is constructed so that:

(a) The recording head includes a freely rotating form with an outside diameter substantially the same as the inside diameter of the hose specimen to be placed on it.

(b) The freely rotating form is mounted so that its axis of rotation is in the plane of the ply being separated from the specimen and so that the applied force is perpendicular to the tangent of the specimen circumference at the line of separation.

(c) The rate of travel of the power-actuated grip is a uniform one inch per minute and the capacity of the machine is such that maximum applied tension during the test is not more than 85 percent nor less than 15 percent of the machine's rated capacity.

(d) The machine produces a chart with separation as one coordinate and applied tension as the other.

S8.6.2   Preparation. (a) Cut a test specimen of 1 inch or more in length from the hose to be tested and cut the layer to be tested of that test specimen longitudinally along its entire length to the level of contact with the adjacent layer.

(b) Peel the layer to be tested from the adjacent layer to create a flap large enough to permit attachment of the power-actuated clamp of the apparatus.

(c) Mount the test specimen on the freely rotating form with the separated layer attached to the power-actuated clamp.

S8.6.3 [Reserved]

S8.6.4   Calculations. (a) The adhesion value shall be the minimum force recorded on the chart excluding that portion of the chart which corresponds to the initial and final 20 percent portion along the displacement axis.

(b) Express the force in pounds per inch of length.

S8.7   Flex strength and air pressure test.

S8.7.1   Apparatus. A flex testing machine with a fixed hose assembly attachment point and a movable hose assembly attachment point, which meets the dimensional requirements of Figure 5 for the size of hose being tested. The attachment points connect to the end fittings on the hose assembly without leakage and, after the hose assembly has been installed for the flex test, are restrained from rotation. The movable end has a linear travel of 6 inches and a cycle rate of 100 cycles per minute. The machine is capable of increasing the air pressure in the hose assembly from zero to 150 psi within 2 seconds, and decreasing the air pressure in the hose assembly from 150 to zero psi within 2 seconds.

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Table Accompanying Figure 5—Dimensions in Inches (Millimeters)

Free hose lengthNominal hose inside diameterDimensions
Position “1”Position “2”
ABCR(1)ABCR(1)
10.00 (254) 316 , 14 3.00
(76)
2.75
(70)
3.75
(95)
1.40
(34)
3.00
(76)
2.75
(70)
3.75
(95)
1.20
(30)
11.00 (279) 516 , 38 , 1332 3.00
(76)
3.50
(89)
4.50
(114)
1.70
(43)
3.00
(76)
3.50
(89)
4.50
(114)
1.30
(33)
14.00 (355) 716 , 12 , 58 3.00
(76)
4.00
(102)
5.00
(127)
2.20
(56)
3.00
(76)
4.00
(102)
5.00
(127)
1.80
(46)

Note (1): This is an approximate average radius.

S8.7.2   Preparation. (a) Lay the hose material on a flat surface in an unstressed condition. Apply a permanent marking line along the centerline of the hose on the uppermost surface.

(b) Prepare the hose assembly with a free length as shown in the table accompanying Figure 5. The end fittings shall be attached according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions.

(c) Plug the ends of the hose assembly and conduct the salt spray test in S6.11 using an air brake hose assembly. Remove the plugs from the end fittings.

(d) Within 168 hours of completion of the salt spray test, expose the hose assembly to an air temperature of 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours, with the hose in a straight position. Remove the hose and cool it at room temperature for 2 hours. Within 166 hours, subject the hose to the flexure test in S8.7.2(e).

(e) Install the hose assembly on the flex testing machine as follows. With the movable hose attachment point at the mid point of its travel, attach one end of the hose to the movable attachment point with the marked line on the hose in the uppermost position. Attach the other end of the hose to the fixed attachment point allowing the hose to follow its natural curvature.

(f) Cycle the air pressure in the hose by increasing the pressure in the hose from zero psi to 150 psi and holding constant for one minute, then decreasing the pressure from 150 psi to zero psi and holding constant for one minute. Continue the pressure cycling for the duration of the flex testing. Begin the flex testing by cycling the movable attachment point through 6 inches of travel at a rate of 100 cycles per minute. Stop the flex testing and pressure cycling after one million flex cycles have been completed.

(g) Install an orifice with a hole diameter of 0.0625 inches and a thickness of 0.032 inches in the air pressure supply line to the hose assembly. Provide a gauge or other means to measure air pressure in the hose assembly. Regulate the supply air pressure to the orifice to 150 psi.

(h) Apply 150 psi air pressure to the orifice. After 2 minutes have elapsed, measure the air pressure in the brake hose assembly, while pressurized air continues to be supplied through the orifice.

S8.8   Corrosion resistance and burst strength test. (a) Conduct the test specified in S6.11 using an air brake hose assembly. Remove the plugs from the ends of the hose assembly.

(b) Fill the hose assembly with water, allowing all gases to escape. Apply water pressure at a uniform rate of increase of approximately 1,000 psi per minute until the hose ruptures.

S8.9   Tensile strength test. Utilize a tension testing machine conforming to the requirements of ASTM E4-03 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) and provided with a recording device to measure the force applied.

(a) Attach an air brake hose assembly to the testing machine to permit straight, even, machine pull on the hose. Use adapters to mount hose assemblies equipped with angled end fittings so that the hose is in a straight position when installed on the machine.

(b) Apply tension at a rate of 1 inch per minute travel of the moving head until separation occurs.

S8.10   Water Absorption and tensile strength test. Immerse an air brake hose assembly in distilled water at room temperature for 70 hours. Thirty minutes after removal from the water, conduct the test specified in S8.9.

S8.11   Zinc chloride resistance test. Immerse an air brake hose in a 50 percent zinc chloride aqueous solution at room temperature for 200 hours. Remove it from the solution and examine it under 7-power magnification for cracks.

S8.12   End fitting corrosion resistance test. Conduct the test specified in S6.11 using an air brake hose assembly.

S8.13   Adhesion test for air brake hose reinforced by wire. (a) Place a steel ball with a diameter equal to 73 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose being tested inside of the hose. Plug one end of the hose. Attach the other end of the hose to a source of vacuum.

(b) Subject the hose to a vacuum of 25 inches of Hg for five minutes. With the vacuum still applied to the hose, bend the hose 180 degrees around a large test cylinder with a radius specified in Table IV for the size of hose tested. At the location of this bend, bend the hose 180 degrees around the test cylinder in the opposite direction.

(c) With the vacuum still applied to the hose, return the hose to a straight position. Attempt to roll the ball inside the hose using gravity from one end of the hose to the other end.

S8.14   Constriction test. Perform the constriction test in S6.12 using an air brake hose, except that the spherical diameter “A” of the plug gauge in Figure 4, or the diameter of the rigid spherical ball in S6.12.3(a), shall be 66 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the air brake hose being tested.

S9. Requirements—vacuum brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S9.1 Labeling.

S9.1.1 Hose. Each vacuum brake hose shall be labeled, or cut from bulk hose that is labeled, at intervals of not more than 6 inches, measured from the end of one legend to the beginning of the next, in block capital letters and numerals at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the information listed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. The information need not be present on hose that is sold as part of a brake hose assembly or a motor vehicle. (a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the hose manufacturer that the hose conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, Vehicle Dynamics Division, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals or a symbol.

(c) The month, day, and year, or the month and year, of manufacture, expressed in numerals. For example, 10/1/96 means October 1, 1996.

(d) The nominal inside diameter of the hose expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters, or the nominal outside diameter of plastic tubing expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters followed by the letters OD. The abbreviation “mm” shall follow hose sizes that are expressed in millimeters. (Example of inside diameter: 732 , 14 , 4 mm. Example of outside diameter: 14 OD, 12 mm OD.)

(e) The letters “VL” or “VH” shall indicate that the component is a light-duty vacuum brake hose or heavy-duty vacuum brake hose, respectively.

S9.1.2   End fittings. Except for an end fitting that is attached by heat shrinking or by interference fit with plastic vacuum hose or that is attached by deformation of the fitting about a hose by crimping or swaging, at least one component of each vacuum brake hose fitting shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters and numerals at least one-sixteenth of an inch high with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the manufacturer of that component that the component conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of that component of the fitting, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, Vehicle Dynamics Division, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street, SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals or a symbol.

(c) The letters “VL” or “VH” shall indicate that the end fitting is intended for use in a light-duty or heavy-duty vacuum brake system, respectively.

(d) The nominal inside diameter of the hose to which the fitting is properly attached expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters, or the outside diameter of the plastic tubing to which the fitting is properly attached expressed in inches or fraction of inches or in millimeters followed by the letter OD (See examples in S9.1.1(d)). The abbreviation “mm” shall follow hose sizes that are expressed in millimeters.

S9.1.3 Assemblies. Each vacuum brake hose assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging and each plastic tube assembly made with end fittings that are attached by heat shrinking or dimensional interference fit, except those sold as part of a motor vehicle, shall be labeled by means of a band around the brake hose assembly as specified in this paragraph or, at the option of the manufacturer, by means of labeling as specified in S9.1.3.1. The band may at the manufacturer's option be attached so as to move freely along the length of the assembly, as long as it is retained by the end fittings. The band shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters, numerals or symbols at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting certification by the hose assembler that the hose assembly conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, Vehicle Dynamics Division, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals or a symbol.

S9.1.3.1 At least one end fitting of a vacuum brake hose assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging, or of a plastic tubing assembly made with end fittings that are attached by heat shrinking or dimensional interference fit shall be etched, stamped or embossed with a designation at least one-sixteenth of an inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly and is filed in accordance with S9.1.3(b).

S9.2   Test requirements. Each vacuum brake hose assembly or appropriate part thereof shall be capable of meeting any of the requirements set forth under this heading, when tested under the conditions of S13 and the applicable procedures of S10. However, a particular hose assembly or appropriate part thereof need not meet further requirements after having met the constriction requirement (S9.2.1) and then having been subjected to any one of the requirements specified in S9.2.2 through S9.2.10.

S9.2.1   Constriction. Except for that part of an end fitting which does not contain hose, every inside diameter of any section of a vacuum brake hose assembly shall not be less than 75 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose if for heavy duty, or 70 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose if for light duty (S10.11).

S9.2.2   High temperature resistance. A vacuum brake hose tested under the conditions specified in S10.1:

(a) Shall not have collapse of the outside diameter exceeding 10 percent of the initial outside diameter for a heavy-duty vacuum brake hose, or exceeding 15 percent of the initial outside diameter for a light-duty vacuum brake hose;

(b) Shall not show external cracks, charring, or disintegration visible without magnification, and;

(c) Shall not leak when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test.

S9.2.3   Low temperature resistance. A vacuum brake hose tested under the conditions specified in S10.2 shall:

(a) Not show cracks visible without magnification after conditioning at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours when bent around a cylinder having the radius specified in Table V for the size hose tested; and

(b) Not leak when subjected to a hydrostatic pressure test (S10.1(e)).

S9.2.4   Ozone resistance. A vacuum brake hose shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after exposure to ozone for 70 hours (S10.3).

S9.2.5   Burst strength. A vacuum brake hose shall not rupture under hydrostatic pressure of 350 psi (S10.4).

S9.2.6   Vacuum. The collapse of the outside diameter of a vacuum brake hose under internal vacuum of 26 inches of Hg. for five minutes shall not exceed one-sixteenth of an inch (S10.5).

S9.2.7   Bend. The collapse of the outside diameter of a vacuum brake hose, other than a preformed vacuum brake hose, at the middle point of the test length when bent until the ends touch shall not exceed the values given in Table V for the size of hose tested (S10.6).

Table V—Vacuum Brake Hose Test Requirements

Hose inside diameter*High temperature resistanceLow temperature resistanceBendDeformation—collapsed inside diameter (dimension D), inches
Inches MillimetersHose length, inchesRadius of cylinder, inchesHose length, inchesRadius of cylinder, inchesHose length, inchesMaximum collapse of outside diameter, inches
732 58112 1712 37 1164 364
14 69112 1712 38 332 116
932 9134 19312 9 1264 464
1132 89134 19312 11 1364 564
38 1010134 19312 12 532 332
716 1122012 414 1764 564
1532 1122012 414 1764 564
12 121122012 416 732 18
58 1612214 22412 22 732 532
34 14212 24528 732 316
116314 2812 612 36 932 14

*These sizes are listed to provide test values for brake hoses manufactured in these sizes. They do not represent conversions.

S9.2.8   Swell and adhesion. Following exposure to Reference Fuel B (as described in ASTM D471-98 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5)), every inside diameter of any section of a vacuum brake hose shall not be less than 75 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose if for heavy duty, or 70 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the hose if for light duty. The vacuum brake hose shall show no leakage in a vacuum test of 26 inches of Hg for 10 minutes. A vacuum hose that is constructed of two or more layers shall withstand a force of 6 pounds per inch of length before separation of adjacent layers. (S10.7).

S9.2.9   Deformation. A vacuum brake hose shall return to 90 percent of its original outside diameter within 60 seconds after five applications of force as specified in S10.8, except that a wire-reinforced hose need only return to 85 percent of its original outside diameter. In the case of a heavy duty hose, the first application of force shall not exceed a peak value of 70 pounds, and the fifth application of force shall reach a peak value of at least 40 pounds. In the case of light duty hose the first application of force shall not exceed a peak value of 50 pounds, and the fifth application of force shall reach a peak value of at least 20 pounds (S10.9).

S9.2.10   End fitting corrosion resistance. After 24 hours of exposure to salt spray, vacuum brake hose end fittings shall show no base metal corrosion of the end fitting surface except where crimping or the application of labeling information has caused displacement of the protective coating. (S10.10).

S10. Test procedures—Vacuum brake hose, brake hose assemblies, and brake hose end fittings.

S10.1   High temperature resistance test. (a) Measure the initial outside diameter of the hose.

(b) Subject the hose to an internal vacuum of 26 inches of Hg at an ambient temperature of 257 degrees Fahrenheit (125 degrees Celsius) for a period of 96 hours. Remove the hose to room temperature and atmospheric pressure.

(c) Within 5 minutes of completion of the conditioning in S10.1(b), measure the outside diameter at the point of greatest collapse and calculate the percentage collapse based on the initial outside diameter.

(d) Cool the hose at room temperature for 5 hours. Bend the hose around a mandrel with a diameter equal to five times the initial outside diameter of the hose. Examine the exterior of the hose for cracks, charring, or disintegration visible without magnification. Remove the hose from the mandrel.

(e) Fill the hose assembly with water, allowing all gases to escape. Apply water pressure in the hose of 175 psi within 10 seconds. Maintain an internal hydrostatic pressure of 175 psi for one minute and examine the hose for visible leakage.

S10.2   Low temperature resistance test. (a) Conduct the test specified in S8.2(a) through (c) using vacuum brake hose with the cylinder radius specified in Table V for the size of hose tested.

(b) Remove the hose from the test cylinder, warm the hose at room temperature for 5 hours, and conduct the hydrostatic pressure test in S10.1(e).

S10.3   Ozone resistance test. Conduct the test specified in S6.8 using vacuum brake hose.

S10.4   Burst strength test. Conduct the test specified in S8.8 using vacuum brake hose.

S10.5   Vacuum test. Utilize a 12-inch vacuum brake hose assembly sealed at one end. (a) Measure the hose outside diameter.

(b) Attach the hose to a source of vacuum and subject it to a vacuum of 26 inches of Hg for 5 minutes.

(c) Measure the hose to determine the minimum outside diameter while the hose is still subject to vacuum.

S10.6   Bend test. (a) Bend a vacuum brake hose, of the length prescribed in Table V, in the direction of its normal curvature until the ends just touch as shown in Figure 6.

(b) Measure the outside diameter of the specimen at point A before and after bending.

(c) The difference between the two measurements is the collapse of the hose outside diameter on bending.

eCFR graphic ec01au91.008.gif

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Fig. 6—Bend Test of Vacuum Brake Hose.

S10.7   Swell and adhesion test. (a) Fill a specimen of vacuum brake hose 12 inches long with ASTM Reference Fuel B as described in ASTM D471-98 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

(b) Maintain reference fuel in the hose under atmospheric pressure at room temperature for 48 hours.

(c) Remove fuel and conduct the constriction test in S10.11.

(d) Attach the hose to a source of vacuum and subject it to a vacuum of 26 inches of Hg for 10 minutes. Remove the hose from the vacuum source.

(e) For a vacuum brake hose constructed of two or more layers, conduct the test specified in S8.6 using the vacuum brake hose.

S10.8 [Reserved]

S10.9   Deformation test. Table VI specifies the test specimen dimensions.

S10.9.1   Apparatus. Utilize a compression device, equipped to measure force of at least 100 pounds, and feeler gages of sufficient length to be passed completely through the test specimen.

S10.9.2   Operation. (a) Position the test specimen longitudinally in the compression device with the fabric laps not in the line of the applied pressure.

Table VI—Dimensions of Test Specimen and Feeler Gage For Deformation Test

Hose inside diameter*Specimen dimensions (see Fig. 7)Feeler gage dimensions
in.mmDepth (inch)Length (inch)Width (inch)Thickness (inch)
732 5 364 1 18 364
14 6 116 1 18 116
932 116 1 18 116
1132 8 564 1 316 564
38 10 332 1 316 332
716 564 1 14 564
1532 564 1 14 564
12 12 18 1 14 18
58 16 532 1 14 532
34 316 1 14 316
1 14 1 14 14

*These sizes are listed to provide test values for brake hoses manufactured in these sizes. They do not represent conversions.

(b) Apply gradually increasing force to the test specimen to compress its inside diameter to that specified in Table VI (dimension D of Figure 7) for the size of hose tested.

eCFR graphic ec01au91.009.gif

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Fig. 7—Deformed Specimen of Vacuum Brake Hose

(c) After 5 seconds release the force and record the peak load applied.

(d) Repeat the procedure four times permitting a 10-second recovery period between load applications.

S10.10   End fitting corrosion resistance test. Conduct the test specified in S6.11 using a vacuum brake hose assembly.

S10.11   Constriction test. Perform the constriction test in S6.12 using a vacuum brake hose, except that the spherical diameter “A” of the plug gauge in Figure 4, or the diameter of the rigid spherical ball in S6.12.3(a), shall be 75 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the vacuum brake hose if it is heavy duty, or 70 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the vacuum brake hose if it is light duty.

S11.   Requirements—Plastic air brake tubing, plastic air brake tubing assemblies, and plastic air brake tubing end fittings.

11.1   Construction. Each plastic air brake tubing assembly shall be equipped with permanently attached end fittings or reusable end fittings. Plastic air brake tubing shall conform to the dimensional requirements specified in Table VII. (S12.1)

Table VII—Plastic Air Brake Tubing Dimensions

Nominal tubing outside diameter Maximum outside diameterMinimum outside diameter Nominal inside diameter Nominal wall thickness Wall thickness tolerance
mm inches mm inches mm inches mm inches mm inches
18 inch3.250.1283.100.1222.010.0790.580.0230.080.003
532 inch4.040.1593.890.1532.340.0920.810.0320.080.003
316 inch4.830.1904.670.1842.970.1170.890.0350.080.003
14 inch6.430.2536.270.2474.320.1701.020.0400.080.003
516 inch8.030.3167.820.3085.890.2321.020.0400.100.004
38 inch9.630.3799.420.3716.380.2511.570.0620.100.004
12 inch12.830.50512.570.4959.550.3761.570.0620.100.004
58 inch16.000.63015.750.62011.200.4412.340.0920.130.005
34 inch19.180.75518.920.74514.380.5662.340.0920.130.005
6 mm6.100.2405.900.2324.000.1571.000.0390.100.004
8 mm8.100.3197.900.3116.000.2361.000.0390.100.004
10 mm10.130.3999.870.3897.000.2761.500.0590.100.004
12 mm12.130.47811.870.4679.000.3541.500.0590.100.004
16 mm16.130.63515.870.62512.000.4722.000.0790.130.005

S11.2   Labeling.

S11.2.1   Plastic air brake tubing. Plastic air brake tubing shall be labeled, or cut from bulk tubing that is labeled, at intervals of not more than 6 inches, measured from the end of one legend to the beginning of the next, in block capital letters and numerals at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the information listed in paragraphs (a) through (e) of this section. The information need not be present on tubing that is sold as part of a motor vehicle.

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the hose manufacturer that the hose conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the tubing, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals, or a symbol.

(c) The month, day, and year, or the month and year, of manufacture, expressed in numerals. For example, 10/1/96 means October 1, 1996.

(d) The nominal outside diameter expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters followed by the letters OD. The abbreviation “mm” shall follow tubing sizes that are expressed in millimeters. (Examples: 38 OD, 6 mm OD.)

(e) The letter “A” shall indicate intended use in air brake systems.

S11.2.2   End fittings. Except for an end fitting that is attached by deformation of the fitting about the tubing by crimping or swaging, at least one component of each plastic air brake tubing end fitting shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters and numerals at least one-sixteenth of an inch high with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the manufacturer that the end fitting conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the end fitting, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals, or a symbol.

(c) The letter “A” shall indicate intended use in air brake systems.

(d) The nominal outside diameter of the plastic tubing to which the fitting is properly attached expressed in inches or fractions of inches or in millimeters followed by the letters OD. The abbreviation “mm” shall follow tubing sizes that are expressed in millimeters. (Examples: 38 OD, 6 mm OD)

S11.2.3.   Assemblies. Each plastic air brake tubing assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging, except those sold as part of a motor vehicle, shall be labeled by means of a band around the brake tubing assembly as specified in this paragraph or, at the option of the manufacturer, by means of labeling as specified in S11.2.3.1. The band may at the manufacturer's option be attached so as to move freely along the length of the assembly, as long as it is retained by the end fittings. The band shall be etched, embossed, or stamped in block capital letters, numerals or symbols at least one-eighth of an inch high, with the following information:

(a) The symbol DOT, constituting certification by the tubing assembler that the tubing assembly conforms to all applicable motor vehicle safety standards.

(b) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the hose assembly, which shall be filed in writing with: Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, Equipment Division NVS-222, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh St. SW., Washington, DC 20590. The designation may consist of block capital letters, numerals, or a symbol.

S11.2.3.1   At least one end fitting of a plastic air brake tubing assembly made with end fittings that are attached by crimping or swaging shall be etched, stamped, or embossed with a designation at least one-sixteenth of an inch high that identifies the manufacturer of the tubing assembly and is filed in accordance with S11.2.3(b).

S11.3   Test requirements. Each plastic air brake tubing assembly or appropriate part thereof shall be capable of meeting any of the requirements set forth under this heading, when tested under the conditions of S13 and the applicable procedures of S12. However, a particular tubing assembly or appropriate part thereof need not meet further requirements after having met the constriction requirement (S11.3.1) and then having been subjected to any one of the requirements specified in S11.3.2 through S11.3.24. Unless otherwise specified, testing is conducted on a sample of tubing 12 inches in length.

S11.3.1   Constriction. Every inside diameter of any section of a plastic air brake tubing assembly shall not be less than 66 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the brake tubing. (S12.2)

S11.3.2   High temperature conditioning and dimensional stability. Plastic air brake tubing shall conform to the dimensions in Table VII after conditioning in air at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for four hours. (S12.3)

S11.3.3   Boiling water conditioning and dimensional stability. Plastic air brake tubing shall conform to the dimensions in Table VII after conditioning in boiling water for two hours. (S12.4)

S11.3.4   Burst Strength. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture when subjected to the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested. (S12.5)

S11.3.5   Moisture absorption and burst strength. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII, after the tubing has been dried in an oven and then conditioned in a 100 percent relative humidity atmosphere at 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius) for 100 hours. (S12.6)

Table VIII—Plastic Air Brake Tubing Mechanical Properties

Nominal tubing OD Burst strength pressure Supported bend radius1 Unsupported bend radius2 Conditioned tensile load
kPa Psi Mm inches mm inches N lbf
18 inch690010009.40.379.40.3715635
532 inch8300120012.70.5012.70.5017840
316 inch8300120019.10.7519.10.7522250
14 inch8300120025.41.0025.41.0022250
516 inch6900100031.81.2538.11.5033475
38 inch9700140038.11.5038.11.50667150
12 inch660095050.82.0063.52.50890200
58 inch620090063.52.5076.23.001446325
34 inch550080076.23.0088.93.501557350
6 mm7600110020.00.7525.41.0022250
8 mm620090031.81.2538.11.5033475
10 mm8200120038.11.5038.11.50667150
12 mm6900100044.51.7563.52.50890200
16 mm600087569.92.7576.23.001446325

Notes: (1) Supported bend radius for tests specifying cylinders around which the tubing is bent. (2) Unsupported bend radius for the collapse resistance test in which the tubing is not supported by a cylinder during bending.

S11.3.6   Ultraviolet light resistance. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after being exposed to ultraviolet light for 300 hours and then impacted with a one pound weight dropped from a height of 12 inches. (S12.7)

S11.3.7   Low temperature flexibility. The outer surface of plastic air brake tubing shall not show cracks visible without magnification as a result of conditioning in air at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours, and then conditioning in air at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for four hours, and then bending the tubing 180 degrees around a test cylinder having a radius equal to six times the nominal outside diameter of the tubing. (S12.8)

S11.3.8   High temperature flexibility. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture or burst when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after the tubing has been:

(a) Conditioned in air at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours while bent 180 degrees around a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested; and

(b) Cooled to room temperature while remaining on the cylinder, then straightened; and

(c) Bent 180 degrees around the cylinder in the opposite direction of the first bending. (S12.9)

S11.3.9   High temperature resistance. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture or burst when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after the tubing has been conditioned in air at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. (S12.10)

S11.3.10   High temperature conditioning, low temperature impact resistance. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture or burst when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after the tubing has been conditioned in air at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours, then conditioned in air at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 4 hours and impacted with a one pound weight dropped from a height of 12 inches. (S12.11)

S11.3.11   Boiling water conditioning, low temperature impact resistance. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after the tubing has been conditioned in boiling water for two hours, then conditioned in air at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 4 hours, and then impacted with a one pound weight dropped from a height of 12 inches. (S12.12)

S11.3.12   Zinc chloride resistance. The outer surface of plastic air brake tubing shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after immersion in a 50 percent zinc chloride aqueous solution for 200 hours while bent around a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing tested. (S12.13)

S11.3.13   Methyl alcohol resistance. The outer surface of plastic air brake tubing shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after immersion in a 95 percent methyl alcohol aqueous solution for 200 hours while bent around a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing tested. (S12.14)

S11.3.14   High temperature conditioning and collapse resistance. The collapse of the outside diameter of plastic air brake tubing shall not exceed twenty percent of the original outside diameter when bent 180 degrees on a holding fixture to the unsupported bend radius specified in Table VIII and conditioned in air at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours. (S12.15)

S11.3.15   Ozone resistance. The outer surface of plastic air brake tubing shall not show cracks visible under 7-power magnification after exposure to ozone for 70 hours at 104 degrees Fahrenheit (40 degrees Celsius). (S12.16)

S11.3.16   Oil resistance. Plastic air brake tubing shall not rupture when subjected to 80 percent of the burst strength pressure in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested, after the tubing has been conditioned in ASTM IRM 903 oil at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours. (S12.17)

S11.3.17   Tensile strength. A plastic air brake tubing assembly designed for use between frame and axle or between a towed and a towing vehicle shall withstand, without separation of the tubing from its end fittings, a pull of 250 pounds if it is 38 inch, 10 mm, or less in nominal outside diameter, or a pull of 325 pounds if it is larger than 38 inch or 10 mm in nominal outside diameter. A plastic air brake tubing assembly designed for use in any other application shall withstand, without separation of the hose from its end fittings, a pull of 35 pounds if it is 18 inch, 3 mm, or less in nominal outside diameter, 40 pounds if it is 532 inch or 4 mm in nominal outside diameter, 50 pounds if it is 316 to 38 inch or 5 mm to 10 mm in nominal outside diameter, 150 pounds if it is 12 to 58 inch or 11 mm to 16 mm in nominal outside diameter, or 325 pounds if it is larger than 58 inch or 16 mm in nominal outside diameter. (S12.18)

S11.3.18   Boiling water conditioning and tensile strength. A plastic air brake tubing assembly when subjected to a tensile pull test shall either elongate 50 percent or withstand the conditioned tensile load in Table VIII without separation from its end fittings, with one end of the assembly conditioned in boiling water for 5 minutes. (S12.19)

S11.3.19   Thermal conditioning and tensile strength. A plastic air brake tubing assembly when subjected to a tensile pull test shall either elongate 50 percent or withstand the conditioned tensile load in Table VIII without separation from its end fittings after the assembly has been subjected to four cycles of conditioning in air at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for thirty minutes, normalizing at room temperature, conditioning in boiling water for 15 minutes, and normalizing at room temperature. (S12.20)

S11.3.20   Vibration resistance. A plastic air brake tubing assembly with an internal air pressure of 120 psig shall not rupture or leak more than 50 cm3 per minute at a temperature of minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) and 25 cm3 per minute at a temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius), after the assembly has been subjected to 1,000,000 cycles of vibration testing with one end of the assembly fixed and the other end stroked 12 -inch at 600 cycles per minute. In addition, end fittings that use a threaded retention nut shall retain at least 20 percent of the original retention nut tightening torque upon completion of the vibration testing. The vibration test shall be conducted in an environmental chamber and the air temperature shall be cycled between minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) and 220 degrees Fahrenheit (104 degrees Celsius) during the test. (S12.21)

S11.3.21   End fitting retention. The end fittings of a plastic air brake tubing assembly shall not rupture when the assembly is filled with water and pressurized to the burst strength pressure in Table VIII. (S12.22)

S11.3.22   Thermal conditioning and end fitting retention. The end fittings of a plastic air brake tubing assembly shall not rupture when the tubing assembly is filled with ASTM IRM 903 oil and:

(a) Conditioning in air at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours with atmospheric pressure inside the tubing assembly; and

(b) Increasing the pressure inside the tubing assembly to 450 psi, and holding this pressure for five minutes while maintaining an air temperature of 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius); and

(c) Reducing the pressure inside the tubing assembly to atmospheric and permitting the tubing assembly to cool at 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius) for 1 hour; and

(d) Conditioning the tubing assembly in air at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours with atmospheric pressure inside the tubing assembly; and

(e) Increasing the pressure inside the tubing assembly to 450 psi, and holding this pressure for five minutes while maintaining an air temperature of minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius). (S12.23)

S11.3.23   End fitting serviceability. A plastic air brake end fitting that uses a threaded retention nut shall not rupture or leak more than 25 cm3 per minute when pressurized to 120 psi after five assembly cycles. (S12.24)

S11.3.24   End fitting corrosion resistance. After 24 hours of exposure to salt spray, air brake hose end fittings shall show no base metal corrosion on the end fitting surface except where crimping or the application of labeling information causes a displacement of the protective coating. (S12.25)

S12.   Test procedures—Plastic air brake tubing, plastic air brake tubing assemblies, plastic air brake tubing end fittings.

S12.1   Air brake tubing dimensions. Measure the tubing dimensions including wall thickness, inside diameter, and outside diameter, using appropriate metrology apparatus such as micrometers, dial indicators and gauges, or optical comparators. To account for slight out-of-round conditions, diameter measurements may be calculated using the average of the major and minor diameters.

S12.2   Constriction test. Perform the constriction test in S6.12 using an air brake tubing assembly, except that the spherical diameter “A” of the plug gauge in Figure 4, or the diameter of the rigid spherical ball in S6.12.3(a), shall be 66 percent of the nominal inside diameter of the tubing as specified in Table VII.

S12.3   High temperature conditioning and dimensional stability test. (a) Condition the tubing at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 4 hours in an air oven.

(b) Remove the tubing from the oven and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(c) Measure the dimensions of the tubing using the procedure in S12.1.

S12.4   Boiling water conditioning and dimensional stability test. (a) Utilize a container constructed of a non-reactive material large enough so that the tubing to be tested does not touch any surface of the container. Fill container with distilled water.

(b) Slip the tubing over a stainless steel wire for positioning it in the pot.

(c) Bring the water to a boil. Place the tubing in the water and position it so that it does not touch the container. Boil the tubing for two hours. Replenish the water as necessary, adding it slowly so that the water in the pot boils continuously.

(d) Remove the tubing from the water and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes. Wipe off any water that remains on the tubing.

(e) Measure the dimensions of the tubing using the procedure in S12.1.

S12.5   Burst strength test. (a) Utilize an air brake tubing assembly or prepare a 12 inch length of tubing and install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions.

(b) Plug one end of the assembly, fill it with water, and connect the other end to a source of water pressure. Bleed any air from the assembly and water pressure system.

(c) Increase the water pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.6   Moisture absorption and burst strength. (a) Prepare a sample of tubing twelve inches in length.

(b) Condition the tubing at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours in an air oven. Remove the tubing from the oven and within 30 seconds, and weigh it to establish the initial weight. The weight shall be measured with a resolution of 0.01 gram; if the scale has a higher resolution, then values of 0.005 gram and above shall be rounded to the nearest 0.01 gram and values below 0.005 gram shall be truncated.

(c) Place the tubing in an environmental chamber and condition it for 100 hours at 100 percent relative humidity and a temperature of 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius).

(d) Remove the tubing from the chamber and within a period of 5 minutes, remove all surface moisture from the tubing using cloth and weigh the tubing to establish the conditioned weight. Weight shall be measured to the nearest 0.01 gram as in S12.6(b).

(e) Calculate percentage of moisture absorption as follows:

([Conditioned Weight—Initial Weight] ÷ [Initial Weight]) × 100

(f) Install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturers instructions.

(g) Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.7   Ultraviolet light resistance test. (a) Apparatus. An accelerated weathering test machine for ultraviolet light conditioning of plastic air brake tubing. The machine shall be equipped with fluorescent UVA-340 light bulbs and automatic irradiance control. Also utilize an impact test apparatus as shown in Figure 8.

(b) Test standards. The testing is in accordance with ASTM G154-00, ASTM G151-97, and ASTM D4329-99 (all incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

(c) Preparation. (1) Utilize a 12 inch length of plastic air brake tubing. Mask 1 inch of each end of the tubing where end fittings will be attached using opaque tape.

(2) Attach the tubing to the test rack of the machine, securing it at the ends along the masked sections. Wipe the outside surface of the tubing with acetone to remove any surface contaminants. Place the tubing and rack in the accelerated weathering test machine so that the center of the tubing assembly is approximately in the center of the UV light exposure area of the test machine. (If multiple plastic brake tubing assemblies are tested, then their position in the machine should be rotated according to ASTM D4329-99 S7.4.1, except the rotation shall be each 96 hours instead of weekly.) The distance from the light bulb to the tubing shall be approximately 2 inches. Set the UV irradiance to 0.85 watts per square meter at 340 nm and maintain this level during the testing. Maintain a temperature inside the test chamber of 113 degrees Fahrenheit (45 degrees Celsius), and use only atmospheric humidity. Expose the tubing at this UV irradiance level for 300 hours continuously. Remove the tubing from the test chamber.

(3) Place the tubing inside the impact test apparatus, and drop the impacter onto the tubing from a height of 12 inches.

(4) Remove the masking material from the ends of the tubing. Install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

eCFR graphic er20de04.007.gif

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Table Accompanying Figure 8

Nominal tubing outside diameter Hole diameter “D”
mm Inches
18 inch3.960.156
532 inch4.750.187
316 inch5.540.218
14 inch7.140.281
516 inch8.710.343
38 inch10.310.406
12 inch13.490.531
58 inch16.660.656
34 inch20.320.800
6 mm6.800.268
8 mm8.800.346
10 mm10.800.425
12 mm12.800.504
16 mm16.800.661

S12.8   Low temperature flexibility test. (a) Utilize a cylinder having a radius of six times the nominal outside diameter of the tubing.

(b) Condition the tubing in an air oven at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours. Remove from the oven and cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(c) Condition the cylinder and the tubing in an environmental chamber at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for four hours.

(d) With the tubing and test cylinder at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), bend the tubing 180 degrees around the cylinder at a steady rate in a period of 4 to 8 seconds.

S12.9   High temperature flexibility test. (a) Utilize a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested.

(b) Bend the tubing 180 degrees around the cylinder and hold in place with a clamp or other suitable support, applying only enough force on the tubing to hold it in position.

(c) Condition the tubing and cylinder in an air oven at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. Remove the tubing and cylinder from the oven and cool at room temperature for two hours.

(d) Remove the clamps or supports from the tubing and straighten the tubing at a steady rate in a period of 4 to 8 seconds.

(e) Rebend the tubing 180 degrees around the cylinder, at the same point but in the opposite direction of the bending in S12.9(b), at a steady rate in a period of 4 to 8 seconds.

(f) Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.10   High temperature resistance test. Condition the tubing in an air oven at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. Remove the tubing and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes. Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.11   High temperature conditioning, low temperature impact resistance test. (a) Apparatus. Utilize an impact test apparatus as shown in Figure 8.

(b) Condition the tubing in an air oven at 230 degrees Fahrenheit (110 degrees Celsius) for 72 hours. Remove the tubing and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(c) Condition the tubing and the impact test apparatus in an environmental chamber at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 4 hours.

(d) With the tubing and impact test apparatus at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), place the tubing inside the apparatus and drop the impacter onto the tubing from a height of 12 inches. Remove the tubing from the chamber and allow to warm at room temperature for one hour.

(e) Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.12   Boiling water conditioning, low temperature impact resistance test. (a) Apparatus. Utilize an impact test apparatus as shown in Figure 8.

(b) Condition the tubing in boiling water using the test in S12.4 (a) through (d), except that the length of tubing shall be 12 inches.

(c) Condition the tubing and the impact test apparatus in an environmental chamber at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 4 hours.

(d) With the tubing and impact test apparatus at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), place the tubing inside the apparatus and drop the impacter onto the tubing from a height of 12 inches. Remove the tubing from the chamber and allow to warm at room temperature for one hour.

(e) Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.13   Zinc chloride resistance test. (a) Utilize a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested. The cylinder is constructed of a non-reactive material or coated to prevent chemical reaction with zinc chloride. The length of the tubing sample is long enough so that its ends will not be submerged during the immersion in zinc chloride, or the ends of the tubing are plugged to keep the zinc chloride from entering the tubing.

(b) Bend the tubing 180 degrees around the cylinder and hold in place with a clamp or other suitable support constructed of non-reactive materials, applying only enough force on the tubing to hold it in position.

(c) Immerse the tubing and cylinder in a 50 percent zinc chloride aqueous solution at room temperature for 200 hours.

(d) Remove the tubing and cylinder from the solution. While still on the test cylinder, inspect the tubing under 7-power magnification for cracks.

S12.14   Methyl alcohol resistance. (a) Utilize a cylinder having a radius equal to the supported bend radius in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested. The cylinder is constructed of a non-reactive material or coated to prevent chemical reaction with methyl alcohol.

(b) Bend the tubing 180 degrees around the cylinder and hold in place with a clamp or other suitable support constructed of non-reactive materials, applying only enough force on the tubing to hold it in position. The ends of the tubing may be shortened so that they will be fully submerged in the methyl alcohol.

(c) Immerse the tubing and cylinder in a 95 percent methyl alcohol aqueous solution at room temperature for 200 hours.

(d) Remove the tubing and cylinder from the solution. While still on the test cylinder, inspect the tubing under 7-power magnification for cracks.

S12.15   High temperature conditioning and collapse resistance test. (a) Apparatus. A holding device consisting of two vertical pins affixed to a flat, horizontal plate. Each pin projects 1 inch above the top surface of the plate. The diameter of each pin is approximately equal to the inside diameter of the tubing being tested. Using the unsupported bend radius for the size of tubing being tested from Table VIII, the distance between the pin centerlines is equal to:

[2 × unsupported bend radius] + [nominal OD of tubing]

(b) Preparation. (1) Use the unsupported bend radius for the size of tubing being tested from Table VIII and cut the tubing to the following length:

[3.14 × [unsupported bend radius]] + [10 × [nominal tubing OD]] + 2 inches

or

[3.14 × [unsupported bend radius]] + [10 × [nominal tubing OD]] + 50 mm

(2) Place a reference mark at the center of the sample. At this mark, measure the initial outside diameter of the tubing. If the tubing is slightly out-of-round, use the elliptical minor diameter as the initial outside diameter.

(3) Install the tubing completely over the pins of the holding device so that the tubing is bent 180 degrees. If the tubing has a natural curvature, the tubing shall be bent in the direction of the natural curvature.

(4) Condition the holding device and tubing in an air oven at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius) for 24 hours. Remove the holding device and tubing and allow to cool at room temperature for thirty minutes.

(5) With the tubing still mounted to the holding device, measure the elliptical minor diameter of the tubing at the reference mark to determine the final outside diameter.

(c) Calculation. Calculate the percentage collapse of the outside diameter of the tubing as follows: ([Initial Outside Diameter—Final Outside Diameter] ÷ [Initial Outside Diameter]) × 100

S12.16   Ozone resistance test. Conduct the test specified in S6.8 using plastic air brake tubing.

S12.17   Oil resistance test. (a) Utilize a plastic air brake tubing assembly or prepare a 12 inch length of tubing and install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions.

(b) Immerse the tubing in ASTM IRM 903 oil at 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius) for 70 hours. Remove and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes. Wipe any excess oil from the tubing assembly.

(c) Conduct the burst strength test in S12.5 except use 80 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII and, at the manufacturer's option, oil may be used as the test medium instead of water.

S12.18   Tensile strength test. Conduct the test in S8.9 using a plastic air brake tubing assembly or an assembly prepared from a 12 inch length of air brake tubing with end fittings installed according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions.

S12.19   Boiling water conditioning and tensile strength. (a) Apparatus. Use a tension testing machine as specified in S8.9. The lower attachment point of the machine is equipped with a heated, open-top container that is water tight. The inside of the container (lower attachment point) and upper attachment point of the machine have provisions to quickly attach a brake hose assembly for tensile testing.

(b) Preparation. Prepare an air brake tubing assembly with a free length of 6 inches (six inches of exposed tubing between the end fittings), with the end fittings installed in accordance with the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. If necessary install adapters on the end fittings to permit quick attachment to the machine, to keep water from entering the tubing assembly, and to ensure that the tubing assembly is in a straight position when installed on the machine. Fill the container with distilled water such that the lower 4 inches of exposed tubing will be submerged when the brake tubing assembly is installed on the machine. Heat the water until it boils. Then quickly install the plastic air brake tubing assembly on the machine with the lower end of the tubing assembly in the boiling water. After the water has boiled continuously for 5 minutes, apply tension to the tubing assembly at a rate of 1 inch per minute travel of the moving head until either the conditioned tensile load in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested is reached or the free length of the tubing assembly reaches 9 inches, whichever occurs first.

S12.20   Thermal conditioning and tensile strength—(a) Apparatus. Use a tension testing machine as specified in S8.9.

(b) Preparation. Prepare an air brake tubing assembly with a free length of 6 inches (six inches of exposed tubing between the end fittings), with the end fittings installed in accordance with the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. If necessary install adapters on the end fittings to permit attachment to the machine, to keep water from entering the tubing assembly, and/or to ensure that the tubing assembly is in a straight position when installed on the machine. Subject the tubing assembly to four complete cycles of the following sequence:

(1) Condition the tubing assembly in an environmental chamber at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) for 30 minutes. Remove from the chamber and allow to warm at room temperature for 30 minutes.

(2) Condition the tubing assembly by submerging it in boiling water for 15 minutes. Remove and allow to cool at room temperature for 30 minutes. Install the tubing assembly on the tension testing machine and apply tension to the tubing assembly at a rate of one inch per minute travel of the moving head until either the conditioned tensile load in Table VIII for the size of tubing being tested is reached or the free length of the tubing assembly reaches 9 inches, whichever occurs first.

S12.21   Vibration resistance test. (a) Apparatus. A vibration testing machine that supports a brake tubing assembly by its end fittings in approximately a straight line and includes the following features:

(1) One tubing assembly attachment point is fixed and the other moves in a plane perpendicular to a line projected between the attachment points. The movable attachment point moves in a linear direction and travels 12 inch total and at its midpoint of travel falls on a line projected between the attachment points. The movable attachment point has a cycle rate of 600 cycles per minute.

(2) The distance between the attachment points is adjustable to compensate for varying lengths of brake tubing assemblies.

(3) The actuating mechanism for the movable attachment point is balanced to prevent introduction of machine vibration into the brake tubing assembly.

(4) The machine has a compressed air supply system that pressurizes the air brake tubing assembly through one fitting while the other fitting is plugged. The machine's compressed air supply system includes a pressure gauge or monitoring system and an air flow meter.

(5) The machine is constructed so that an air brake tubing assembly mounted on it can be conditioned in an environmental test chamber.

(b) Preparation. (1) Prepare an air brake tubing assembly with a free length of 18 inches (18 inches of exposed tubing between the end fittings), with the end fittings installed in accordance with the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. Record the initial tightening torque for an end fitting that uses a threaded retaining nut.

(2) Install the air brake tubing assembly on the vibration testing machine and, with the movable attachment point at the midpoint of its travel, adjust the distance between the attachment points so that they are 12 inch closer together than the distance at which the tubing assembly is taut.

(3) With the tubing assembly inside the environmental chamber, apply compressed air to the tubing assembly at a regulated pressure of 120 psi and maintain the supply of air to the tubing assembly for the duration of the test. Set the temperature of the environmental chamber to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (104 degrees Celsius) and initiate cycling of the movable attachment point. After 250,000 cycles, set the temperature of the environmental chamber to minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius). After 500,000 cycles, set the temperature of the environmental chamber to 220 degrees Fahrenheit (104 degrees Celsius). After 750,000 cycles, set the temperature of the environmental chamber to minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius). Measure the air flow rate just prior to 1,000,000 cycles and if the compressed air flow rate supplied to the air brake tubing assembly exceeds 50 cubic centimeters per minute this constitutes failure of the test. Stop the cycling at 1,000,000 cycles and set the environmental chamber temperature to 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius), while air pressure is still supplied to the air brake tubing assembly. After one hour, measure the compressed air flow rate supplied to the air brake tubing assembly and if the rate exceeds 25 cubic centimeters per minute this constitutes failure of the test.

(4) For end fittings that use a threaded retaining nut, apply 20 percent of the original tightening torque as recorded in S12.21(b)(1). If the retention nut visibly moves, this constitutes a failure of the test.

S12.22   End fitting retention test. (a) Utilize an air brake tubing assembly or prepare a 12 inch length of tubing and install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions.

(b) Plug one end of the assembly, fill it with water, and connect the other end to a source of water pressure. Bleed any air from the assembly and water pressure system.

(c) Increase the pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to 50 percent of the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII. Hold the pressure constant for 30 seconds.

(d) Increase the pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to the burst strength pressure for the size of tubing being tested as specified in Table VIII.

S12.23   Thermal conditioning and end fitting retention test—(a) Apparatus. A source of hydraulic pressure that includes a pressure gauge or monitoring system, uses ASTM IRM 903 oil, and is constructed so that an air brake tubing assembly mounted to it can be conditioned in an environmental test chamber.

(b) Preparation. Utilize an air brake tubing assembly or prepare a 12 inch length of tubing and install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. Attach one end of the assembly to the hydraulic pressure supply and plug the other end of the assembly, fill the assembly with ASTM IRM 903 oil and bleed any air from the assembly, and place the tubing assembly inside an environmental chamber. Conduct the following tests:

(1) With atmospheric pressure applied to the oil inside the tubing assembly, set the environmental chamber temperature to 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius) and condition the tubing assembly for 24 hours.

(2) With the temperature maintained at 200 degrees Fahrenheit (93 degrees Celsius), increase the oil pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to 450 psi, and hold this pressure for 5 minutes.

(3) Decrease the oil pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to atmospheric pressure and set the temperature of the environmental chamber to 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius). Condition the tubing assembly at this temperature for 1 hour.

(4) Set the temperature of the environmental chamber to minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius) and condition the tubing assembly for 24 hours.

(5) With the temperature maintained at minus 40 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 40 degrees Celsius), increase the hydraulic pressure inside the tubing assembly at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to 450 psi, and hold this pressure for 5 minutes.

S12.24   End fitting serviceability—(a) Apparatus. A source of air pressure that includes a pressure gauge or monitoring system and is equipped with a mass air flow meter.

(b) Preparation. Prepare a 12-inch length of tubing and plug one end. Assemble the end fitting with the threaded retention nut on the other end of the tubing according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions, then disassemble the fitting. Repeat the assembly and disassembly sequence three more times, and then reassemble the end fitting (five total assembly steps).

(c) Attach the end fitting with the threaded retention nut to the source of air pressure. Pressurize the tubing at a rate of 3,000 psi per minute to a pressure of 120 psi. If the end fitting leaks, measure and record the leakage rate using the mass air flow meter.

S12.25   End fitting corrosion resistance. Utilize an air brake tubing assembly or prepare a 12-inch length of tubing and install end fittings according to the end fitting manufacturer's instructions. Conduct the test specified in S6.11 using a plastic air brake tubing assembly.

S13.   Test Conditions. Each hose assembly or appropriate part thereof shall be able to meet the requirements of S5, S7, S9, and S11, under the following conditions.

S13.1   The temperature of the testing room is 75 degrees Fahrenheit (24 degrees Celsius).

S13.2   The brake hoses and brake hose assemblies are at least 24 hours old, and unused.

S13.3   Specified test pressures are gauge pressures (psig).

[38 FR 31303, Nov. 13, 1973]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §571.106, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§571.107   [Reserved]

§571.108   Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

S1   Scope. This standard specifies requirements for original and replacement lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

S2   Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce traffic accidents and deaths and injuries resulting from traffic accidents, by providing adequate illumination of the roadway, and by enhancing the conspicuity of motor vehicles on the public roads so that their presence is perceived and their signals understood, both in daylight and in darkness or other conditions of reduced visibility.

S3   Application. This standard applies to:

S3.1   Passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers (except pole trailers and trailer converter dollies), and motorcycles;

S3.2   Retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors manufactured to conform to S8.2 of this standard; and

S3.3   Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment for replacement of like equipment on vehicles to which this standard applies.

S4   Definitions.

Aiming plane means a plane defined by the surface of the three aiming pads on the lens.

Aiming reference plane means a plane which is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and tangent to the forwardmost aiming pad on the headlamp.

Aiming screws are the horizontal and vertical adjusting screws with self-locking features used to aim and retain a headlamp unit in the proper position.

Axis of reference means the characteristic axis of the lamp for use as the direction of reference (H = 0°, V = 0°) for angles of field for photometric measurements and for installing the lamp on the vehicle.

Backup lamp means a lamp or lamps which illuminate the road to the rear of a vehicle and provide a warning signal to pedestrians and other drivers when the vehicle is backing up or is about to back up.

Beam contributor means an indivisible optical assembly including a lens, reflector, and light source, that is part of an integral beam headlighting system and contributes only a portion of a headlamp beam.

Cargo lamp is a lamp that is mounted on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus for the purpose of providing illumination to load or unload cargo.

Clearance lamps are lamps which show to the front or rear of the vehicle, mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as near as practicable to the upper left and right extreme edges to indicate the overall width and height of the vehicle.

Coated materials means a material which has a coating applied to the surface of the finished sample to impart some protective properties. Coating identification means a mark of the manufacturer's name, formulation designation number, and recommendations for application.

Color Fundamental definitions of color are expressed by Chromaticity Coordinates according to the CIE 1931 Standard Colorimetric System, as described in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

Color bleeding means the migration of color out of a plastic part onto the surrounding surface.

Combination clearance and side marker lamps are single lamps which simultaneously fulfill the requirements of clearance and side marker lamps.

Combination headlamp means a headlamp that is a combination of two different headlamp types chosen from a type F sealed beam headlamp, an integral beam headlamp, or a replaceable bulb headlamp.

Cracking means a separation of adjacent sections of a plastic material with penetration into the specimen.

Crazing means a network of apparent fine cracks on or beneath the surface of materials.

Cutoff means a generally horizontal, visual/optical aiming cue in the lower beam that marks a separation between areas of higher and lower luminance.

Daytime running lamps (DRLs) are steady burning lamps that are used to improve the conspicuity of a vehicle from the front and front sides when the regular headlamps are not required for driving.

Delamination means a separation of the layers of a material including coatings.

Design voltage means the voltage used for design purposes.

Direct reading indicator means a device that is mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, is part of a VHAD, and provides information about headlamp aim in an analog or digital format.

Effective light-emitting surface means that portion of a lamp that directs light to the photometric test pattern, and does not include transparent lenses, mounting hole bosses, reflex reflector area, beads or rims that may glow or produce small areas of increased intensity as a result of uncontrolled light from an area of 12 ° radius around a test point.

Effective projected luminous lens area means the area of the orthogonal projection of the effective light-emitting surface of a lamp on a plane perpendicular to a defined direction relative to the axis of reference. Unless otherwise specified, the direction is coincident with the axis of reference.

Exposed means material used in lenses or optical devices exposed to direct sunlight as installed on the vehicle.

Filament means that part of the light source or light emitting element(s), such as a resistive element, the excited portion of a specific mixture of gases under pressure, or any part of other energy conversion sources, that generates radiant energy which can be seen.

Flash means a cycle of activation and deactivation of a lamp by automatic means continuing until stopped either automatically or manually.

Fully opened means the position of the headlamp concealment device in which the headlamp is in the design open operating position.

H-V axis means the line from the center of the principal filament of a lamp to the intersection of the horizontal (H) and vertical (V) lines of a photometric test screen.

Haze means the cloudy or turbid appearance of an otherwise transparent specimen caused by light scattered from within the specimen or from its surface.

Headlamp means a lighting device providing an upper and/or a lower beam used for providing illumination forward of the vehicle.

Headlamp concealment device means a device, with its operating system and components, that provides concealment of the headlamp when it is not in use, including a movable headlamp cover and a headlamp that displaces for concealment purposes.

Headlamp mechanical axis means the line formed by the intersection of a horizontal and a vertical plane through the light source parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. If the mechanical axis of the headlamp is not at the geometric center of the lens, then the location will be indicated by the manufacturer on the headlamp.

Headlamp test fixture means a device designed to support a headlamp or headlamp assembly in the test position specified in the laboratory tests and whose mounting hardware and components are those necessary to operate the headlamp as installed in a motor vehicle.

High-mounted stop lamp means a lamp mounted high and possibly forward of the tail, stop, and rear turn signal lamps intended to give a steady stop warning through intervening vehicles to operators of following vehicles.

Identification lamps are lamps used in groups of three, in a horizontal row, which show to the front or rear or both, having lamp centers spaced not less than [6 in] 15.2 mm nor more than [12 in] 30.4 mm apart, mounted on the permanent structure as near as practicable to the vertical centerline and the top of the vehicle to identify certain types of vehicles.

Integral beam headlamp means a headlamp (other than a standardized sealed beam headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S10.13 or a replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to paragraph S10.15) comprising an integral and indivisible optical assembly including lens, reflector, and light source, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.

License plate lamp means a lamp used to illuminate the license plate on the rear of a vehicle.

Lower beam means a beam intended to illuminate the road and its environs ahead of the vehicle when meeting or closely following another vehicle.

Material means the type and grade of plastics, composition, and manufacturer's designation number and color.

Mechanically aimable headlamp means a headlamp having three pads on the lens, forming an aiming plane used for laboratory photometric testing and for adjusting and inspecting the aim of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle.

Motor driven cycle means every motorcycle, including every motor scooter, with a motor which produces not more than 5 horsepower, and every bicycle with motor attached.

Motorcycle or motor driven cycle headlamp means a major lighting device used to produce general illumination ahead of the vehicle.

Mounting ring means the adjustable ring upon which a sealed beam unit is mounted.

Mounting ring (type F sealed beam) means the adjustable ring upon which a sealed beam unit is mounted and which forces the sealed beam unit to seat against the aiming ring when assembled into a sealed beam assembly.

Multiple compartment lamp means a device which gives its indication by two or more separately lighted areas which are joined by one or more common parts, such as a housing or lens.

Multiple lamp arrangement means an array of two or more separate lamps on each side of the vehicle which operate together to give a signal.

Optically combined means a lamp having a single or two filament light source or two or more separate light sources that operate in different ways, and has its optically functional lens area wholly or partially common to two or more lamp functions.

Overall width means the nominal design dimension of the widest part of the vehicle, exclusive of signal lamps, marker lamps, outside rearview mirrors, flexible fender extensions, mud flaps, and outside door handles determined with doors and windows closed, and the wheels in the straight-ahead position. Running boards may also be excluded from the determination of overall width if they do not extend beyond the width as determined by the other items excluded by this definition.

Parking lamps are lamps on both the left and right of the vehicle which show to the front and are intended to mark the vehicle when parked or serve as a reserve front position indicating system in the event of headlamp failure.

Protected means material used in inner lenses for optical devices where such lenses are protected from exposure to the sun by an outer lens made of materials meeting the requirements for exposed plastics.

Rated voltage means the nominal circuit or vehicle electrical system voltage classification.

Reflex reflectors are devices used on vehicles to give an indication to approaching drivers using reflected light from the lamps of the approaching vehicle.

Remote reading indicator means a device that is not mounted in its entirety on a headlamp or headlamp aiming or headlamp mounting equipment, but otherwise meets the definition of a direct reading indicator.

Replaceable bulb headlamp means a headlamp comprising a bonded lens and reflector assembly and one or two replaceable light sources, except that a headlamp conforming to paragraph S10.18.8 or paragraph S10.18.9 may have a lens designed to be replaceable.

Replaceable light source means an assembly of a capsule, base, and terminals that is designed to conform to the requirements of appendix A or appendix B of 49 CFR part 564 Replaceable Light Source Information of this Chapter.

Retaining ring means the clamping ring that holds a sealed beam unit against a mounting ring.

Retaining ring (type F sealed beam) means the clamping ring that holds a sealed beam unit against a mounting ring, and that provides an interface between the unit's aiming/seating pads and the headlamp aimer adapter (locating plate).

School bus signal lamps are alternately flashing lamps mounted horizontally both front and rear, intended to identify a vehicle as a school bus and to inform other users of the highway that such vehicle is stopped on the highway to take on or discharge school children.

Sealed beam headlamp means an integral and indivisible optical assembly including the light source with “SEALED BEAM” molded in the lens.

Sealed beam headlamp assembly means a major lighting assembly which includes one or more sealed beam units used to provide general illumination ahead of the vehicle.

Seasoning means the process of energizing the filament of a headlamp at design voltage for a period of time equal to 1% of design life, or other equivalent method.

Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device is one which provides either automatic or manual control of beam switching at the option of the driver. When the control is automatic the headlamps switch from the upper beam to the lower beam when illuminated by the headlamps on an approaching vehicle and switch back to the upper beam when the road ahead is dark. When the control is manual, the driver may obtain either beam manually regardless of the conditions ahead of the vehicle.

Side marker lamps are lamps which show to the side of the vehicle, mounted on the permanent structure of the vehicle as near as practicable to the front and rear edges to indicate the overall length of the vehicle. Additional lamps may also be mounted at intermediate locations on the sides of the vehicle.

Stop lamps are lamps giving a steady light to the rear of a vehicle to indicate a vehicle is stopping or diminishing speed by braking.

Taillamps are steady burning low intensity lamps used to designate the rear of a vehicle.

Test voltage means the specified voltage and tolerance to be used when conducting a test.

Turn signal lamps are the signaling element of a turn signal system which indicates the intention to turn or change direction by giving a flashing light on the side toward which the turn will be made.

Turn signal flasher means a device which causes a turn signal lamp to flash as long as it is turned on.

Turn signal operating unit means an operating unit that is part of a turn signal system by which the operator of a vehicle causes the signal units to function.

Upper beam means a beam intended primarily for distance illumination and for use when not meeting or closely following other vehicles.

Vehicle headlamp aiming device or VHAD means motor vehicle equipment, installed either on a vehicle or headlamp, which is used for determining the horizontal or vertical aim, or both the vertical and horizontal aim of the headlamp.

Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher means a device which, as long as it is turned on, causes all the required turn signal lamps to flash.

Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit means a driver controlled device which causes all required turn signal lamps to flash simultaneously to indicate to approaching drivers the presence of a vehicular hazard.

Visually/optically aimable headlamp means a headlamp which is designed to be visually/optically aimable in accordance with the requirements of paragraph S10.18.9 of this standard.

S5   References to SAE publications. Each required lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment must be designed to conform to the requirements of applicable SAE publications as referenced and subreferenced in this standard. The words “it is recommended that,” “recommendations,” or “should be” appearing in any SAE publication referenced or subreferenced in this standard must be read as setting forth mandatory requirements.

S5.1   Each required lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment must be designed to conform to the requirements of applicable SAE publications as referenced and subreferenced in this standard. The words “it is recommended that,” “recommendations,” or “should be” appearing in any SAE publication referenced or subreferenced in this standard must be read as setting forth mandatory requirements.

S5.2   Incorporation by reference. The Director of the Federal Register approves the incorporation by reference of the following material in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR Part 51. All material is available for inspection at the NHTSA Reading Room, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590, or at NARA. For information on the availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal__register/code__of__federal__regulations/ibr__locations.html.

The material is also available at the publisher whose name and address follow the standard number:

1. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J602, revised AUG 1963, “Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

2. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J941b, revised FEB 1969, “Motor Vehicle Driver's Eye Range.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

3. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J602, revised OCT 1980, “Headlamp Aiming Device for Mechanically Aimable Sealed Beam Headlamp Units.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

4. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J2009, revised FEB 1993, “Forward Discharge Lighting Systems.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

5. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J573d, revised DEC 1968, “Lamp Bulbs and Sealed Units.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

6. Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) Standard J567b, revised APR 1964, “Bulb Sockets.” Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc., 400 Commonwealth Drive, Warrendale, PA 15096.

7. International Commission on Illumination (C.I.E.) 1931 Chromaticity Diagram. CIE Central Bureau, Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, Austria.

8. General Services Administration (GSA) Federal Specification L-S-300, approved September 1965, “Sheeting and Tape, Reflective: Nonexposed Lens, Adhesive Backing.” Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402, telephone 202-512-1800.

9. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D4956-90, published December 1990, “Standard Specification for Retroreflective Sheeting for Traffic Control.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

10. ECE 48 E/ECE/324-E/ECE/TRANS/505, Rev.1/ADD.47/Rev.1/Corr.2, 26 February 1996, “Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Vehicles with Regard to the Installation of Lighting and Light-Signaling Devices.” United Nations, Conference Services Division, Distribution and Sales Section, Office C.115-1, Palais des Nations, CH-1211, Geneva 10, http://www.unece.org/trans/main/wp29/wp29regs.html.

11. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D1003-92, published December 1992, “Standard Test Method for Haze and Luminous Transmittance of Transparent Plastics.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

12. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) E308-66, reapproved 1981, “Standard Practice for Spectrophotometry and Description of Color in CIE 1931 System.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

13. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) B117-73, reapproved 1979, “Standard Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

14. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Co. 05.04 1985, “Annual Book of ASTM Standards: Test Methods for Rating Motor, Diesel, Aviation Fuels,” Section I, parts A2.3.2, A2.3.3, and A2.7 in Annex 2. ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

15. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D362-84, published March 1984, “Standard Specification for Industrial Grade Toluene.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

16. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C150-77, published April 1977, “Standard Specification for Portland Cement.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

17. American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) C150-56, published 1956, “Standard Specifications for Portland Cement.” ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959.

18. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) LM 45, approved April 1980, “IES Approved Method for Electrical and Photometric Measurements of General Service Incandescent Filament Lamps.” Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, 345 East 47th St., New York, NY 10017.

S6   Vehicle requirements.

S6.1   Required lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment by vehicle type.

S6.1.1   Quantity. Except as provided in succeeding paragraphs of this S6.1.1 each vehicle must be equipped with at least the number of lamps, reflective devices, and items of associated equipment specified for that vehicle type and size in Table I and Section 6.6, designed to conform to the requirements of this standard. Multiple license plate lamps and backup lamps may be used to fulfill photometric requirements for those functions.

S6.1.1.1   Conspicuity systems. Each trailer of 2032 mm or more in overall width, and with a GVWR over 10,000 lbs., except a trailer designed exclusively for living or office use, and each truck tractor must be equipped with retroreflective sheeting, reflex reflectors, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and reflex reflectors as specified in S8.2.

S6.1.1.2   High-mounted stop lamps. Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, and bus required by this standard to be equipped with a high-mounted stop lamp, whose vertical centerline, when the vehicle is viewed from the rear, is not located on a fixed body panel but separates one or two moveable body sections, such as doors, which lacks sufficient space to install a single high-mounted stop lamp on the centerline above such body sections, must have two high-mounted stop lamps identical in size and shape.

S6.1.1.2.1   The two lamps must be located at the same height, with one vertical edge of each lamp on the vertical edge of the body section nearest the vehicle centerline.

S6.1.1.3   Truck tractor rear turn signal lamps. A truck tractor need not be equipped with turn signal lamps mounted on the rear if the turn signal lamps installed at or near the front are of double face construction and are located such that they meet the photometric requirements for double faced turn signal lamps specified in Footnote 6 of Table VII.

S6.1.1.3.1   The flashing signal from a double faced signal lamp must not be obliterated when subjected to external light rays from either in front or behind, at any and all angles.

S6.1.1.4   Daytime running lamps. Any pair of lamps on the front of a passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus, whether or not required by this standard, other than parking lamps or fog lamps, may be wired to be automatically activated, as determined by the manufacturer of the vehicle, in a steady burning state as daytime running lamps (DRLs) in accordance with S7.10.5.

S6.1.2   Color. The color in all lamps and reflective devices to which this standard applies must be as specified in Table I. The color identified as amber is identical to the color identified as yellow.

S6.1.3   Mounting location.

S6.1.3.1   Each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment must be securely mounted on a rigid part of the vehicle, other than glazing, that is not designed to be removed except for repair, within the mounting location and height limits as specified in Table I, and in a location where it complies with all applicable photometric requirements, effective projected luminous lens area requirements, and visibility requirements with all obstructions considered.

S6.1.3.2   When multiple lamp arrangements for rear turn signal lamps, stop lamps, or taillamps are used, with only a portion of the lamps installed on a fixed part of the vehicle, the lamp or lamps that are installed to the non-fixed part of the vehicle will be considered auxiliary lamps.

S6.1.3.3   License plate lamp. The license plate lamp or lamps installed on vehicles other than motorcycles and motor driven cycles must be mounted so as to illuminate the license plate without obstruction from any designed feature unless the lamp or lamps is (are) designed to comply with all the photometric requirements with these obstructions considered.

S6.1.3.4   High-mounted stop lamps.

S6.1.3.4.1   Interior mounting. A high-mounted stop lamp mounted inside the vehicle must have means provided to minimize reflections from the light of the lamp upon the rear window glazing that might be visible to the driver when viewed directly, or indirectly in the rearview mirror.

S6.1.3.4.2   Accessibility. Each high-mounted stop lamp must provide access for convenient replacement of bulbs without special tools.

S6.1.3.5   Headlamp beam mounting.

S6.1.3.5.1   Vertical headlamp arrangement.

S6.1.3.5.1.1   Where multiple headlamps with single light sources are installed in a vertical orientation the lower beam must be provided by the uppermost headlamp.

S6.1.3.5.1.2   Where headlamps with two vertically oriented light sources are installed the lower beam must be provided by the uppermost light source or by all light sources.

S6.1.3.5.2   Horizontal headlamp arrangement.

S6.1.3.5.2.1   Where multiple headlamps with single light sources are installed in a horizontal orientation the lower beam must be provided by the most outboard headlamp.

S6.1.3.5.2.2   Where headlamps with two horizontally oriented light sources are installed the lower beam must be provided by the outboard light source or by all light sources.

S6.1.3.6   Auxiliary lamps mounted near identification lamps. Each auxiliary lamp must be located at least twice the distance from any required identification lamp as the distance between two adjacent required identification lamps.

S6.1.4   Mounting height. The mounting height of each lamp and reflective device must be measured from the center of the item, as mounted on the vehicle at curb weight, to the road surface.

S6.1.4.1   High-mounted stop lamps.

S6.1.4.1.1   A high-mounted stop lamp mounted below the rear window must have no lens portion lower than 153 mm [6 in] below the lower edge of the rear glazing on convertibles, or 77 mm [3 in] on other passenger cars.

S6.1.5   Activation. Each lamp must be activated as specified, in the combinations specified, and in response to the inputs specified in Table I and Table II.

S6.1.5.1   Hazard warning signal. In all passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses, the activation of the vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit must cause to flash simultaneously sufficient turn signal lamps to meet, as a minimum, the turn signal photometric requirements of this standard.

S6.1.5.2   Simultaneous beam activation.

S6.1.5.2.1   On any vehicle to which this standard applies where the headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB1 of Table XVIII and LB1M or LB1V of Table XIX-a, the lamps marked “L” or “LF” may remain permanently activated when the lamps marked “U” or “UF” are activated.

S6.1.5.2.2   On any vehicle to which this standard applies where an integral beam headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB6 of Table XVIII and LB5M of Table XIX-b or LB4V of Table XIX-c, the lower beam headlamps must remain permanently activated when the upper beam headlamps are activated.

S6.1.5.2.3   On any vehicle to which this section applies where the headlighting system is designed to conform to the photometric requirements of UB2 of Table XVIII and LB2M or LB2V of Table XIX-a, a lower beam light source may remain permanently activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source contributes to the upper beam photometric compliance of the headlighting system.

S6.2   Impairment.

S6.2.1   No additional lamp, reflective device, or other motor vehicle equipment is permitted to be installed that impairs the effectiveness of lighting equipment required by this standard.

S6.2.2   If any required lamp or reflective device is obstructed by motor vehicle equipment (e.g., mirrors, snow plows, wrecker booms, backhoes, winches, etc.) including dealer installed equipment, and cannot meet the applicable photometry and visibility requirements, the vehicle must be equipped with an additional lamp or device of the same type which meet all applicable requirements of this standard, including photometry and visibility.

S6.2.3   Headlamp obstructions.

S6.2.3.1   When activated in the steady burning state, headlamps (excluding headlamps mounted on motorcycles) must not have any styling ornament or other feature, such as a translucent cover or grill, in front of the lens

S6.2.3.2   Headlamp wipers may be used in front of the lens provided that the headlamp system is designed to conform with all applicable photometric requirements with the wiper stopped in any position in front of the lens.

S6.3   Equipment combinations. Two or more lamps, reflective devices, or items of associated equipment may be combined if the requirements for each lamp, reflective device, and item of associated equipment are met with the following exceptions:

S6.3.1   No high-mounted stop lamp is permitted to be combined with any other lamp or reflective device, other than with a cargo lamp.

S6.3.2   No high-mounted stop lamp is permitted to be optically combined with any cargo lamp.

S6.3.3   No clearance lamp is permitted to be optically combined with any taillamp.

S6.4   Lens area, visibility and school bus signal lamp aiming.

S6.4.1   Effective projected luminous lens area. Each turn signal lamp, stop lamp, high-mounted stop lamp, and school bus signal lamp must meet the applicable effective projected luminous lens area requirement specified in Tables IV-a, IV-b, and IV-c.

S6.4.2   Visibility. Each backup lamp, single or combination of dual high-mounted stop lamp(s), and school bus signal lamp must meet the applicable visibility requirement specified in Table V-a.

S6.4.3   Visibility options. A manufacturer must certify compliance of each lamp function to one of the following visibility requirement options, and it may not thereafter choose a different option for that vehicle:

(a) Lens area option. When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Table V-b each such lamp must provide not less than 1250 sq mm of unobstructed effective projected luminous lens area in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Table V-b for each such lamp; or

(b) Luminous intensity option. When a vehicle is equipped with any lamp listed in Table V-c each such lamp must provide a luminous intensity of not less than that specified in Table V-c in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the corner points specified in Table V-c for each such lamp when measured in accordance with the photometry test requirements of this standard.

S6.4.4   Legacy visibility alternative. As an alternative to S6.4.3, each passenger car and motorcycle, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus that is of less than 2032 mm overall width, that is manufactured on or before September 1, 2011, and each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, and bus that is of 2032 mm or more overall width, that is manufactured on or before September 1, 2014, must have each lamp located so that it meets the visibility requirements specified in Table V-d.

S6.4.5   School bus signal lamp aiming. Each school bus signal lamp must be mounted on the vehicle with its aiming plane vertical and normal to the vehicle longitudinal axis. Aim tolerance must be no more than 5 in vertically and 10 in horizontally at 25 ft from the lamp. If the lamps are aimed or inspected by use of SAE Recommended Practice J602-1963 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), the graduation settings for aim must be 2° D and 0° sideways for aiming and the limits must be 3° U to 7° D and from 10° R to 10° L for inspection.

S6.5   Marking. A summary of the marking requirements of this standard and their location in the standard is contained in Table III.

S6.5.1   DOT marking. The lens of each original equipment and replacement headlamp, and of each original equipment and replacement beam contributor, and each replacement headlamp lens for an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, must be marked with the symbol “DOT” either horizontally or vertically to indicate certification under 49 U.S.C. 30115.

S6.5.1.1   The DOT marking requirements for conspicuity materials are specified in S8.2 of this standard.

S6.5.1.2   Each original equipment or replacement lamp or reflective device specified in Table I, except for a headlamp, or an item of associated equipment specified in S9 may be marked with the symbol “DOT” which constitutes a certification that it conforms to the requirements of this standard.

S6.5.2   DRL marking. Each original equipment and replacement lamp used as a daytime running lamp (DRL), unless optically combined with a headlamp, must be permanently marked “DRL” on its lens in letters not less than 3 mm high.

S6.5.3   Headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.1   Trademark. The lens of each original and replacement equipment headlamp, and of each original and replacement equipment beam contributor must be marked with the name and/or trademark registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office of the manufacturer of such headlamp or beam contributor, of its importer, or any manufacturer of a vehicle equipped with such headlamp or beam contributor. Nothing in this standard authorizes the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.

S6.5.3.2   Voltage and trade number. Each original and replacement equipment headlamp, and each original and replacement equipment beam contributor must be marked with its voltage and with its part or trade number.

S6.5.3.3   Sealed beam headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.3.1   Each sealed beam headlamp lens must be molded with “sealed beam” and the appropriate designation code as shown in Table II in characters no less than 6.35 mm in size.

S6.5.3.3.2   The face of any character molded on the surface of the lens must not be raised more than 0.5 mm above the lens surface.

S6.5.3.3.3   Type 1C1, 2C1, and 2D1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens between the diameters of 40 mm and 90 mm about the lens center.

S6.5.3.3.4   Type 1A1, 2A1, 2B1, and 2E1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens within a diameter of 70 mm about the lens center.

S6.5.3.3.5   Type LF, UF, 1G1, 2G1, and 2H1 headlamps must have no raised markings on the outside surface of the lens within a diameter of 35 mm about the lens center.

S6.5.3.3.6   A Type 1C1 replacement headlamp may be marked “1” rather than “1C1”. A Type 2C1 replacement headlamp may be marked “2” rather than “2C1”. A Type 2D1 replacement headlamp may be marked “TOP” or “2” rather than “2D1”.

S6.5.3.4   Replaceable bulb headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.4.1   The lens of each replaceable bulb headlamp must bear permanent marking in front of each replaceable light source with which it is equipped that states either: The HB Type, if the light source conforms to S11 of this standard for filament light sources, or the bulb marking/designation provided in compliance with Section VIII of appendix A of 49 CFR Part 564 (if the light source conforms to S11 of this standard for discharge light sources).

S6.5.3.4.1.1   No marking need be provided if the only replaceable light source in the headlamp is type HB1.

S6.5.3.5   Additional headlamp markings. Additional marking requirements for headlamps are found in, S10.14.4, S10.15.4, S10.17.2, S10.18.5, S10.18.7, and S10.18.9 of this standard.

S6.5.3.6   Each replacement headlamp lens must also be marked with the manufacturer and the part or trade number of the headlamp for which it is intended, and with the name and/or trademark of the lens manufacturer or importer that is registered with the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. Nothing in this standard authorizes the marking of any such name and/or trademark by one who is not the owner, unless the owner has consented to it.

S6.6   Associated equipment.

S6.6.1   All vehicles to which this standard applies, except trailers, must be equipped with a turn signal operating unit, a turn signal flasher, a turn signal pilot indicator, a headlamp beam switching device, and an upper beam headlamp indicator meeting the requirements of S9.

S6.6.2   All vehicles to which this standard applies except trailers and motorcycles must be equipped with a vehicular hazard warning operating unit, a vehicular hazard warning signal flasher, and a vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator meeting the requirements of S9.

S6.6.3   License plate holder. Each rear license plate holder must be designed and constructed to provide a substantial plane surface on which to mount the plate.

S6.6.3.1   For motor vehicles on which the license plate is designed to be mounted on the vehicle such that the upper edge of the license plate is 1.2 m or less from the ground, the plane of the license plate mounting surface and the plane on which the vehicle stands must be perpendicular within 30° upward (an installed plate will face above the horizon) and 15° downward (an installed plate will face below the horizon).

S6.6.3.2   For motor vehicles on which the license plate is designed to be mounted on the vehicle such that the upper edge of the license plate is more than 1.2m from the ground, the plane of the license plate mounting surface and the plane on which the vehicle stands must be perpendicular within ±15°.

S6.7   Replacement equipment.

S6.7.1   General.

S6.7.1.1   Each replacement lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, must:

(a) Be designed to conform to meet all requirements specified in this standard for that type of lamp, reflective device, or other item of equipment (in the case of a combination lamp, it must meet these requirements for each function); and

(b) Include all of the functions of the lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, it is designed to replace or is capable of replacing (other than functions not required by this standard).

S6.7.1.2   Each replacement lamp, reflective device, or item of associated equipment, including a combination lamp, which is designed or recommended for particular vehicle models must be designed so that it does not take the vehicle out of compliance with this standard when the individual device is installed on the vehicle. Except as provided in S6.7.1.3, the determination of whether a vehicle would be taken out of compliance with this standard when an individual device is installed on the vehicle is made without regard to whether additional devices, including separate lamps or reflective devices sold together with the device, would also be installed.

S6.7.1.3   In the case of a lamp or other device that is used on each side of the vehicle in pairs, the determination (for the purposes of S6.7.1.2) of whether a vehicle would be taken out of compliance with this standard when an individual device is installed on the vehicle is made assuming that the other matched paired device would be installed on the other side of the vehicle, whether or not the matched paired devices are sold together. This provision does not limit the responsibilities of manufacturers, distributors, dealers or motor vehicle repair businesses under 49 U.S.C. 30122, Making safety devices and elements inoperative.

S6.7.2   Version of this standard. The requirements of S6.7.1 must be met, at the option of the manufacturer, using either the current version of this standard or the standard in effect at the time of manufacture of the original equipment being replaced.

S7   Signal lamp requirements.

S7.1   Turn signal lamps.

S7.1.1   Front turn signal lamps.

S7.1.1.1   Number. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S7.1.1.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S7.1.1.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S7.1.1.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S7.1.1.5   Activation. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S7.1.1.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.

S7.1.1.7   Visibility. See S6.4.

S7.1.1.8   Indicator. See S9.3.

S7.1.1.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.1.1.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.1.1.10.1   Each front turn signal lamp must also be designed to comply with any additional photometry requirements based on its installed spacing to other lamps as specified by this section. Where more than one spacing relationship exists for a turn signal lamp the requirement must be the one that specifies the highest luminous intensity multiplier of Tables VI-a and VI-b.

S7.1.1.10.2   Spacing measurement for non-reflector lamps. For any front turn signal lamp that does not employ a reflector to meet photometric requirements, the spacing must be measured from the light source of the turn signal lamp to the lighted edge of any lower beam headlamp, or any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp.

S7.1.1.10.3   Spacing measurement for lamps with reflectors. For any front turn signal lamp which employs a reflector, such as a parabolic reflector, to meet photometric requirements, the spacing must be measured from the geometric centroid of the turn signal lamp effective projected luminous lens area to the lighted edge of any lower beam headlamp, or any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp.

S7.1.1.10.4   Spacing based photometric multipliers.

(a) where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lower beam headlamp is less than 100 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.5.

(b) where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is at least 75 mm but less than 100 mm the photometric multiplier of Table VI must be 1.5.

(c) where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is at least 60 mm but less than 75 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.0.

(d) where the spacing measurement of S7.1.1.10.2 or S7.1.1.10.3 between a turn signal lamp and the lighted edge of any lamp such as an auxiliary lower beam headlamp or fog lamp used to supplement the lower beam headlamp is less than 60 mm the photometric multiplier must be 2.5.

S7.1.1.11   Multiple compartment lamps and multiple lamps.

S7.1.1.11.1   A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a front turn signal lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.

S7.1.1.11.2   If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Tables VI-a or VI-b.

S7.1.1.11.3   If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Tables VI-a or VI-b

S7.1.1.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment front turn signal lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.

S7.1.1.12   Ratio to parking lamps and clearance lamps.

S7.1.1.12.1   When a parking lamp, or a clearance lamp on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus of 2032 mm or more in overall width, is combined with a front turn signal lamp, the luminous intensity of the front turn signal lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the parking lamp or clearance lamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Tables VI-a or VI-b.

S7.1.1.12.2   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the parking lamp and turn signal lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.

S7.1.1.12.3   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the parking lamp and turn signal lamp are optically combined.

S7.1.1.12.4   Where the clearance lamp is combined with the turn signal lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the clearance lamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 1.0 degree radius around a test point, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the clearance lamp luminous intensity within the generated area.

S7.1.1.13   Photometry.

S7.1.1.13.1   When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, each front turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the base photometry requirements plus any applicable multipliers as shown in Tables VI-a and VI-b for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.

S7.1.1.13.2   As an alternative to S7.1.1.13.1, a front turn signal lamp installed on a motorcycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.

S7.1.1.14   Physical tests. Each front turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.1.2   Rear turn signal lamps.

S7.1.2.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.1.2.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.1.2.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.

S7.1.2.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.1.2.5   Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.1.2.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.

S7.1.2.7   Visibility. See S6.4.

S7.1.2.8   Indicator. See S9.3.

S7.1.2.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.1.2.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.1.2.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.1.2.11.1   A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a rear turn signal lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met

S7.1.2.11.2   If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table VII.

S7.1.2.11.3   If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table VII.

S7.1.2.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment rear turn signal lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.

S7.1.2.12   Ratio to taillamps and clearance lamps.

S7.1.2.12.1   When a taillamp, or a clearance lamp on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus of 2032 mm or more in overall width, is combined with a rear turn signal lamp, the luminous intensity of the rear turn signal lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the taillamp or clearance lamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Table VII.

S7.1.2.12.2   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the taillamp and turn signal lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangement or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.

S7.1.2.12.3   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the taillamp and turn signal lamp are optically combined.

S7.1.2.12.4   Where the taillamp or clearance lamp is combined with the turn signal lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the taillamp or clearance lamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 0.5 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, or by a 1.0 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp or clearance lamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the taillamp or clearance lamp luminous intensity within the generated area.

S7.1.2.13   Photometry.

S7.1.2.13.1   Each rear turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table VII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps, the type of vehicle it is installed on, and the lamp color as specified by this section.

S7.1.2.13.2   As an alternative to S7.1.2.13.1, a rear turn signal lamp installed on a motorcycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.

S7.1.2.14   Physical tests. Each rear turn signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.1.3   Combined lamp bulb indexing.

S7.1.3.1   Each turn signal lamp optically combined with a taillamp or a parking lamp, or clearance lamp where installed on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, where a two-filament bulb is used must have a bulb with an indexing base and a socket designed so that bulbs with non-indexing bases cannot be used.

S7.1.3.2   Removable sockets must have an indexing feature so that they cannot be re-inserted into lamp housings in random positions, unless the lamp will perform its intended function with random light source orientation.

S7.2   Taillamps.

S7.2.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.2.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.2.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.

S7.2.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.2.5   Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.2.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.2.7   Visibility. See S6.4.

S7.2.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.2.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.2.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.2.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.2.11.1   A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a taillamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.

S7.2.11.2   If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used and the distance between the optical axes does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table VIII.

S7.2.11.3   If the distance between optical axes exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table VIII.

S7.2.11.4   Taillamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. A maximum of two taillamps and/or two compartments per side may be mounted closer together than 560 mm providing that each compartment and/or lamp meets the single lighted section photometric requirements specified in Table VIII. Each lamp and/or compartment utilized in this manner must meet the single lighted section requirements for all functions for which it is designed.

S7.2.12   Ratio. See S7.1.2.12 for rear turn signal lamps and S7.3.12 for stop lamps.

S7.2.13   Photometry. Each taillamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table VIII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.

S7.2.14   Physical tests. Each taillamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.3   Stop lamps.

S7.3.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.3.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.3.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.3.2.

S7.3.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.3.5   Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.3.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-a.

S7.3.7   Visibility. See S6.4.

S7.3.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.3.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.3.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.3.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.3.11.1   A multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps may be used to meet the photometric requirements of a stop lamp provided the requirements of S6.1.3.2 are met.

S7.3.11.2   If a multiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps are used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between adjacent light sources does not exceed 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements and does not exceed 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the combination of the compartments or lamps must be used to meet the photometric requirements for the corresponding number of lighted sections specified in Table IX.

S7.3.11.3   If the distance between adjacent light sources exceeds the previously stated dimensions, each compartment or lamp must comply with the photometric requirements for one lighted section specified in Table IX.

S7.3.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width. Multiple compartment stop lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width require measurement of the photometrics for the entire lamp and not for individual compartments.

S7.3.12   Ratio to taillamps.

S7.3.12.1   When a taillamp is combined with a stop lamp, the luminous intensity of the stop lamp at each identified test point must not be less than the luminous intensity of the taillamp at that same test point times the multiplier shown for that test point in Table IX.

S7.3.12.2   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, and the distance between the optical axes for both the taillamp and stop lamp is within 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartment or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed with all compartments or lamps lighted.

S7.3.12.3   If a multiple compartment or multiple lamp arrangement is used and the distance between optical axes for one of the functions exceeds 560 mm for two compartment or lamp arrangements or 410 mm for three compartments or lamp arrangements, then the ratio must be computed for only those compartments or lamps where the taillamp and stop lamp are optically combined.

S7.3.12.4   Where the taillamp is combined with the stop lamp, and the maximum luminous intensity of the taillamp is located below horizontal and within an area generated by a 0.5 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a passenger car or on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, bus, or trailer of less than 2032 mm in overall width, or by a 1.0 ° radius around a test point for a taillamp on a vehicle 2032 mm or more in overall width, the ratio for the test point may be computed using the lowest value of the taillamp luminous intensity within the generated area.

S7.3.13   Photometry.

S7.3.13.1   Each stop lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table IX, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the number of lamp compartments or individual lamps and the type of vehicle it is installed on.

S7.3.13.2   A stop lamp installed on a motor driven cycle may be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIII-b when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.

S7.3.14   Physical tests. Each stop lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.3.15   Combined lamp bulb indexing.

S7.3.15.1   Each stop lamp optically combined with a taillamp where a two-filament bulb is used must have a bulb with an indexing base and a socket designed so that bulbs with non-indexing bases cannot be used.

S7.3.15.2   Removable sockets must have an indexing feature so that they cannot be re-inserted into lamp housings in random positions, unless the lamp will perform its intended function with random light source orientation.

S7.4   Side marker lamps.

S7.4.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.4.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.4.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.4.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.4.5   Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.4.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.4.7   Visibility. No requirement.

S7.4.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.4.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.4.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.4.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.4.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.4.13   Photometry.

S7.4.13.1   Each side marker lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table X, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the lamp color as specified by this section.

S7.4.13.2   Inboard photometry. For each motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall length, the minimum photometric intensity requirements for a side marker lamp may be met for all inboard test points at a distance of 15 feet from the vehicle and on a vertical plane that is perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle and located midway between the front and rear side marker lamps.

S7.4.14   Physical tests. Each side marker lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.5   Clearance and identification lamps.

S7.5.1   Number. See Tables I-a and I-b.

S7.5.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-b.

S7.5.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-b.

S7.5.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-b.

S7.5.5   Activation. See Tables I-a and I-b.

S7.5.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.5.7   Visibility. No requirement.

S7.5.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.5.9   Markings. See S6.5.1.2.

S7.5.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.5.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.5.12   Ratio.

S7.5.12.1   Clearance lamps. See S7.1.1.12 for front turn signal lamps and S7.1.2.12 for rear turn signal lamps.

S7.5.12.2   Identification lamps. No requirement.

S7.5.13   Photometry. Each clearance or identification lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XI, for the applicable lamp color, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1.

S7.5.14   Physical tests. Each clearance and identification must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.6   Backup lamps.

S7.6.1   Number. See Table I-a and S6.1.1.

S7.6.2   Color of light.

S7.6.2.1   See Table I-a.

S7.6.2.2   A backup lamp may project incidental red, yellow, or white light through reflectors or lenses that are adjacent, close to, or a part of the lamp assembly.

S7.6.3   Mounting location. See Table I-a.

S7.6.4   Mounting height. No requirement.

S7.6.5   Activation. See Table I-a.

S7.6.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.6.7   Visibility. See Table V-a.

S7.6.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.6.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S7.6.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.6.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.6.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.6.13   Photometry. Each backup lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.

S7.6.14   Physical tests. Each backup lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.7   License plate lamps.

S7.7.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c and S6.1.1.

S7.7.2   Color of light. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.7.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.7.4   Mounting height. No requirement.

S7.7.5   Activation. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S7.7.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.7.7   Visibility. No requirement.

S7.7.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.7.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S7.7.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.7.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.7.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.7.13   Photometry.

S7.7.13.1   Each license plate lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of this section when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.2.

S7.7.13.2   An illumination value of no less than 8 lx [0.75 fc] must be met at each test station target location shown in Figure 19.

S7.7.13.3   The ratio of the average of the two highest illumination values divided by the average of the two lowest illumination values must not exceed 20:1 for vehicles other than motorcycles and motor driven cycles.

S7.7.13.4   The ratio of the highest illumination value divided by the average of the two lowest illumination values must not exceed 15:1 for motorcycles and motor driven cycles.

S7.7.14   Physical tests. Each license plate lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.7.15   Installation.

S7.7.15.1   Each license plate lamp installed on a vehicle other than a motorcycle or motor driven cycle must be of such size and design as to provide illumination on all parts of a 150 mm by 300 mm test plate.

S7.7.15.2   Each license plate lamp installed on a motorcycle or motor driven cycle must be of such size and design as to provide illumination on all parts of a 100 mm by 175 mm test plate.

S7.7.15.3   The light rays must reach all portions of an imaginary plate of the same size at least 25 mm ahead of the actual plate measured perpendicular to the plane of the plate.

S7.7.15.4   Incident light from single lamp. When a single lamp as shown in Figure 20 is used to illuminate the license plate, the lamp and license plate holder must bear such relation to each other that at no point on the plate must the incident light make an angle of less than 8° to the plane of the plate, this angle being measured from the edge of the light emitting surface of the lamp farthest from the surface of the plate.

S7.7.15.5   Incident light from multiple lamps. When two or more lamps as shown in Figure 20 are used to illuminate the license plate, the minimum 8° incident light angle must apply only to that portion of the plate which the particular lamp is designed to illuminate. The angle must be measured in the same manner as S7.7.15.4.

S7.8   Parking lamps.

S7.8.1   Number. See Table I-a.

S7.8.2   Color of light. See Table I-a.

S7.8.3   Mounting location. See Table I-a.

S7.8.4   Mounting height. See Table I-a.

S7.8.5   Activation. See Table I-a.

S7.8.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.8.7   Visibility. See S6.4.

S7.8.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.8.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S7.8.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.8.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.8.12   Ratio. See S7.1.1.12 for front turn signal lamps.

S7.8.13   Photometry. Each parking lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XIV, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.

S7.8.14   Physical tests. Each parking lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.9   High-mounted stop lamps.

S7.9.1   Number. See Table I-a and S6.1.1.2.

S7.9.2   Color of light. See Table I-a.

S7.9.3   Mounting location. See Table I-a.

S7.9.4   Mounting height. See Table I-a and S6.1.4.1.

S7.9.5   Activation. See Table I-a.

S7.9.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-b.

S7.9.7   Visibility. See Table V-a.

S7.9.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.9.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S7.9.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.9.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.9.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.9.13   Photometry. Each high-mounted stop lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XV, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, as specified by this section.

S7.9.14   Physical tests.

S7.9.14.1   Each high-mounted stop lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.9.14.2   Each high-mounted stop lamp that is not mounted inside the vehicle must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5.

S7.10   Daytime running lamps (DRLs).

S7.10.1   Number. See Table I-a.

S7.10.2   Color of light. See Table I-a.

S7.10.3   Mounting location. See Table I-a.

S7.10.4   Mounting height. See Table I-a. and S7.10.13(b).

S7.10.5   Activation. See Table I-a. and S7.10.10.1(c).

S7.10.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S7.10.7   Visibility. No requirement.

S7.10.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.10.9   Markings. See S6.5.

S7.10.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.10.10.1   Spacing to turn signal lamps. Each DRL not optically combined with a turn signal lamp must be located on the vehicle so that the distance from its lighted edge to the optical center of the nearest turn signal lamp is not less than 100 mm unless,

(a) The luminous intensity of the DRL is not more than 2,600 cd at any location in the beam and the turn signal lamp meets 2.5 times the base front turn signal photometric requirements, or

(b) The DRL is optically combined with a lower beam headlamp and the turn signal lamp meets 2.5 times the base front turn signal photometric requirements, or

(c) The DRL is deactivated when the turn signal or hazard warning signal lamp is activated.

S7.10.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.10.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.10.13   Photometry. Each DRL must have a luminous intensity not less than 500 cd at test point H-V, nor more than 3,000 cd at any location in the beam when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.4 as specified by this section, unless it is:

(a) A lower beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL at full voltage, or a voltage lower than used to operate it as a lower beam headlamp, or

(b) An upper beam headlamp intended to operate as a DRL, whose luminous intensity at test point H-V is not more than 7,000 cd, and whose mounting height is not higher than 864 mm.

S7.10.14   Physical tests. Each DRL that is not combined with another required lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S7.11   School bus signal lamps.

S7.11.1   Number. See Table I-a.

S7.11.2   Color of light. See Table I-a.

S7.11.3   Mounting location. See Table I-a.

S7.11.4   Mounting height. See Table I-a.

S7.11.5   Activation. See Table I-a.

S7.11.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. See Table IV-c.

S7.11.7   Visibility. See Table V-a.

S7.11.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S7.11.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S7.11.10   Spacing to other lamps. No requirement.

S7.11.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps. No requirement.

S7.11.12   Ratio. No requirement.

S7.11.13   Photometry. Each school bus signal lamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVII, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.1, for the lamp color as specified by this section.

S7.11.14   Physical tests. Each school bus signal lamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S8   Reflective device requirements.

S8.1   Reflex reflectors.

S8.1.1   Number. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S8.1.2   Color. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S8.1.3   Mounting location. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S8.1.4   Mounting height. See Tables I-a, I-b, and I-c.

S8.1.5   Activation. No requirement.

S8.1.6   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S8.1.7   Visibility. No requirement.

S8.1.8   Indicator. No requirement.

S8.1.9   Markings. See. S6.5.1.2.

S8.1.10   Spacing to other lamps or reflective devices. No requirement.

S8.1.11   Photometry. Each reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 for the reflex reflector color as specified by this section.

S8.1.12   Physical tests. Each reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, and the color test and plastic optical material test of S14.4.

S8.1.1P3   Alternative side reflex reflector material. Reflective material conforming to GSA Federal Specification L-S-300 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), may be used for side reflex reflectors if this material as used on the vehicle, meets the performance requirements of Table XVI-a.

S8.2   Conspicuity systems. The requirement for conspicuity systems may be met with retroreflective sheeting, conspicuity reflex reflectors, or a combination of retroreflective sheeting and conspicuity reflex reflectors.

S8.2.1   Retroreflective sheeting.

S8.2.1.1   Retroreflective sheeting must consist of a smooth, flat, transparent exterior film with retroreflective elements embedded or suspended beneath the film so as to form a non-exposed retroreflective optical system.

S8.2.1.2   Retroreflective sheeting material. Retroreflective sheeting must meet the requirements, except photometry, of ASTM D 4956-90 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) for Type V Sheeting. Sheeting of Grade DOT-C2 of no less than 50 mm wide, Grade DOT-C3 of no less than 75 mm wide, or Grade DOT-C4 of no less than 100 mm wide may be used.

S8.2.1.3   Certification marking. The letters DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, as appropriate, constituting a certification that the retroreflective sheeting conforms to the requirements of this standard, must appear at least once on the exposed surface of each white or red segment of retroreflective sheeting, and at least once every 300 mm on retroreflective sheeting that is white only. The characters must be not less than 3 mm high, and must be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.

S8.2.1.4   Application pattern.

S8.2.1.4.1   Alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.1.4.1.1   As shown in Figures 12-1 and 12-2, where alternating material is installed, except for a segment that is trimmed to clear obstructions, or lengthened to provide red sheeting near red lamps, alternating material must be installed with each white and red segment having a length of 300 ±150 mm.

S8.2.1.4.1.2   Neither white nor red sheeting must represent more than two thirds the aggregate of any continuous strip marking the width of a trailer, or any continuous or broken strip marking its length.

S8.2.1.5   Application location. Conspicuity systems need not be installed, as illustrated in Figure 12-2, on discontinuous surfaces such as outside ribs, stake post pickets on platform trailers, and external protruding beams, or to items of equipment such as door hinges and lamp bodies on trailers and body joints, stiffening beads, drip rails, and rolled surfaces on truck tractors.

S8.2.1.6   Application spacing. As illustrated in Figure 12-2, the edge of any white sheeting must not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any red or amber lamp that is required by this standard. The edge of any red sheeting must not be located closer than 75 mm to the edge of the luminous lens area of any amber lamp that is required by this standard.

S8.2.1.7   Photometry. Each retroreflective sheeting must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-c when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 for the color and grade as specified by this section.

S8.2.2   Conspicuity reflex reflectors.

S8.2.2.1   Certification marking. The exposed surface of each conspicuity reflex reflector must be marked with the letters DOT-C which constitutes a certification that the reflector conforms to the conspicuity reflex reflector requirements of this standard. The certification must be not less than 3 mm high, and must be permanently stamped, etched, molded, or printed in indelible ink.

S8.2.2.2   Application pattern.

S8.2.2.2.1   Alternating red and white materials. Conspicuity reflex reflectors must be installed in a repetitive pattern of two or three white reflectors alternating with two or three red reflectors, with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.

S8.2.2.2.2   White material. White conspicuity reflex reflectors must be installed with the center of each reflector not more than 100 mm from the center of each adjacent reflector.

S8.2.2.3   Photometry.

S8.2.2.3.1   Each red conspicuity reflex reflector must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a red reflex reflector and Table XVI-b for a red conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.

S8.2.2.3.2   Each white conspicuity reflex reflector installed in only a horizontal orientation must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a white reflex reflector and Table XVI-b for a white horizontal conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.

S8.2.2.3.3   Each white conspicuity reflex reflector installed in a vertical orientation must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVI-a for a white reflex reflector, and Table XVI-b for a white horizontal conspicuity reflex reflector and a white vertical conspicuity reflex reflector when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.3 as specified by this section.

S8.2.3   Conspicuity system installation on trailers.

S8.2.3.1   Trailer rear.

S8.2.3.1.1   Element 1—alternating red and white materials. As shown in Figure 11, a strip of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, as horizontal as practicable, must be applied across the full width of the trailer, as close to the extreme edges as practicable, and as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the strip centerline with the trailer at curb weight.

S8.2.3.1.2   Element 2—white. (not required for container chassis or for platform trailers without bulkheads).

S8.2.3.1.2.1   As shown in Figure 11, two pairs of strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long of Grade DOT-C2, DOT-C3, or DOT-C4, must be applied horizontally and vertically to the right and left upper contours of the body, as viewed from the rear, as close to the top of the trailer and as far apart as practicable.

S8.2.3.1.2.2   If the perimeter of the body, as viewed from the rear, is other than rectangular, the strips may be applied along the perimeter, as close as practicable to the uppermost and outermost areas of the rear of the body on the left and right sides.

S8.2.3.1.3   Element 3—alternating red and white materials. (not required for trailers without underride protection devices).

S8.2.3.1.3.1   As shown in Figure 11, a strip of Grade DOT-C2 sheeting no less than 38 mm wide or reflectors must be applied across the full width of the horizontal member of the rear underride protection device.

S8.2.3.2   Trailer side—alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.3.2.1   As shown in Figure 11, a strip of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors must be applied to each side, as horizontal as practicable, originating and terminating as close to the front and rear as practicable, as close as practicable to not less than 375 mm and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at the strip centerline at curb weight, except that at the location chosen the strip must not be obscured in whole or in part by other motor vehicle equipment or trailer cargo.

S8.2.3.2.2   The strip need not be continuous as long as not less than half the length of the trailer is covered and the spaces are distributed as evenly as practicable.

S8.2.3.2.3   If necessary to clear rivet heads or other similar obstructions, Grade DOT-C2 sheeting may be separated into two 25 mm wide strips of the same length and color, separated by a space of not more than 25 mm and used in place of the retroreflective sheeting that would otherwise be applied.

S8.2.4   Conspicuity system installation on truck tractors.

S8.2.4.1   Element 1—alternating red and white materials. As shown in Figure 13, two strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each not less than 600 mm long, located as close as practicable to the edges of the rear fenders, mudflaps, or the mudflap support brackets, must be applied to mark the width of the truck tractor.

S8.2.4.1.1   The strips must be mounted as horizontal as practicable, in a vertical plane facing the rear, on the rear fenders, on the mudflap support brackets, on plates attached to the mudflap support brackets, or on the mudflaps.

S8.2.4.1.2   Strips on mudflaps must be mounted not lower than 300 mm below the upper horizontal edge of the mudflap. If the vehicle is certified with temporary mudflap support brackets, the strips must be mounted on the mudflaps or on plates transferable to permanent mudflap support brackets.

S8.2.4.1.3   For a truck tractor without mudflaps, the strips may be mounted outboard of the frame on brackets behind the rear axle or on brackets ahead of the rear axle and above the top of the rear tires at unladen vehicle height, or they may be mounted directly or indirectly to the back of the cab as close to the outer edges as practicable, above the top of the tires, and not more than 1525 mm above the road surface at unladen vehicle height.

S8.2.4.1.4   If the strips are mounted on the back of the cab, no more than 25% of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.

S8.2.4.2   Element 2—white. As shown in Figure 13, two pairs of strips of sheeting or conspicuity reflex reflectors, each pair consisting of strips 300 mm long, must be applied horizontally and vertically as practicable to the right and left upper contours of the cab, as close to the top of the cab and as far apart as practicable.

S8.2.4.2.1   No more than 25% of their cumulative area may be obscured by vehicle equipment as determined in a rear orthogonal view.

S8.2.4.2.2   If one pair must be relocated to avoid obscuration by vehicle equipment, the other pair may be relocated in order to be mounted symmetrically.

S8.2.4.2.3   If the rear window is so large as to occupy all the practicable space, the material may be attached to the edge of the window itself.

S9   Associated equipment requirements.

S9.1   Turn signal operating unit.

S9.1.1   The turn signal operating unit installed on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses less than 2032 mm in overall width must be self-canceling by steering wheel rotation and capable of cancellation by a manually operated control.

S9.1.2   Physical tests. Each turn signal operating unit must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.

S9.2   Turn signal flasher.

S9.2.1   The means of producing the turn signal pilot indicator signal may be incorporated in the flasher. A means of producing an audible signal may be incorporated in the flasher.

S9.2.2   Physical tests. Each turn signal flasher must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.

S9.3   Turn signal pilot indicator.

S9.3.1   Each vehicle equipped with a turn signal operating unit where any turn signal lamp is not visible to the driver must also have an illuminated pilot indicator to provide a clear and unmistakable indication that the turn signal system is activated.

S9.3.2   The indicator must consist of one or more lights flashing at the same frequency as the turn signal lamps.

S9.3.3   The indicator must function satisfactorily under all test conditions imposed on the turn signal flasher in S14.9.

S9.3.4   Indicator size and color.

S9.3.4.1   If the indicator is located inside the vehicle it must emit a green colored light and have a minimum area equivalent to a 316 in diameter circle.

S9.3.4.2   If the indicator is located outside of the vehicle it must emit a yellow light and have a minimum projected illuminated area of 0.1 sq in.

S9.3.5   The minimum required illuminated area of the indicator must be visible to any tangent on the 95th eyellipse as defined in SAE Recommended Practice J941b (1969) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), with the steering wheel turned to a straight ahead driving position and in the design location for an adjustable wheel or column.

S9.3.6   Turn signal lamp failure. Failure of one or more turn signal lamps such that the minimum photometric performance specified in Tables VI or VII is not being met must be indicated by the turn signal pilot indicator by a “steady on”, “steady off”, or by a significant change in the flashing rate, except when a variable-load turn signal flasher is used on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus 2032 mm or more in overall width, on a truck that is capable of accommodating a slide in camper, or on any vehicle equipped to tow trailers.

S9.4   Headlamp beam switching device. Each vehicle must have a means of switching between lower and upper beams designed and located so that it may be operated conveniently by a simple movement of the driver's hand or foot. The switch must have no dead point and, except as provided by S6.1.5.2, the lower and upper beams must not be energized simultaneously except momentarily for temporary signaling purposes or during switching between beams.

S9.4.1   Semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device. As an alternative to S9.4, a vehicle may be equipped with a semi-automatic means of switching between lower and upper beams.

S9.4.1.1   Operating instructions. Each semi-automatic headlamp switching device must include operating instructions to permit a driver to operate the device correctly including; how to turn the automatic control on and off, how to adjust the provided sensitivity control, and any other specific instructions applicable to the particular device.

S9.4.1.2   Manual override. The device must include a means convenient to the driver for switching to the opposite beam from the one provided.

S9.4.1.3   Fail safe operation. A failure of the automatic control portion of the device must not result in the loss of manual operation of both upper and lower beams.

S9.4.1.4   Automatic dimming indicator. There must be a convenient means of informing the driver when the device is controlling the headlamps automatically. The device shall not affect the function of the upper beam indicator light.

S9.4.1.5   Lens accessibility. The device lens must be accessible for cleaning when the device is installed on a vehicle.

S9.4.1.6   Mounting height. The center of the device lens must be mounted no less than 24 in. above the road surface.

S9.4.1.7   Physical tests. Each semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.

S9.5   Upper beam headlamp indicator. Each vehicle must have a means for indicating to the driver when the upper beams of the headlighting system are activated.

S9.5.1   Indicator size and location. The upper beam headlamp indicator must have a minimum area equivalent to that of a 316 in diameter circle, and be plainly visible to drivers of all heights under normal driving conditions when headlamps are required.

S9.6   Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit.

S9.6.1   The unit may be an independent device or it may be combined with the turn signal operating unit. If combined with the turn signal operating unit, the actuating motion of the hazard function must differ from the actuating motion of the turn signal function.

S9.6.2   Operating unit switch. The unit must operate independently of the ignition or equivalent switch. If the actuation of the hazard function requires the operation of more than one switch, a means must be provided for actuating all switches simultaneously by a single driver action.

S9.6.3   Physical tests. Each vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.

S9.7   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher.

S9.7.1   The means of producing the hazard warning signal pilot indicator signal may be incorporated in the flasher. A means of producing an audible signal may be incorporated in the flasher.

S9.7.2   Physical tests. Each vehicular hazard warning signal flasher must be designed to conform to all applicable performance requirements of S14.9.

S9.8   Vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator.

S9.8.1   In vehicles equipped with right hand and left hand turn signal pilot indicators, both pilot indicators and /or a separate pilot indicator must flash simultaneously while the vehicle hazard warning signal operating unit is turned on.

S9.8.2   In vehicles equipped with a single turn signal pilot indicator, a separate vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator must flash and the turn signal pilot indicator may flash while the vehicle hazard warning signal operating unit is turned on.

S9.8.3   The indicator must function satisfactorily under all test conditions imposed on the vehicular hazard warning signal flasher in S14.9.

S9.8.4   Indicator size and color. If the vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator is not combined with the turn signal pilot indicator, it must emit a red color and have a minimum area equivalent to a 0.5 in diameter circle.

S10   Headlighting system requirements.

S10.1   Vehicle headlighting systems.

S10.1.1   Each passenger car, multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus must be equipped with a headlighting system conforming to the requirements of Table II and this standard.

S10.1.2   Each motorcycle must be equipped with a headlighting system conforming to S10.17 of this standard.

S10.2 [Reserved]

S10.3   Number. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S10.4   Color of light. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S10.5   Mounting location. See Tables I-a and I-c and S6.1.3.5.

S10.6   Mounting height. See Tables I-a and I-c.

S10.7   Activation. See Tables I-a and I-c, Table II, and S6.1.5.

S10.8   Effective projected luminous lens area. No requirement.

S10.9   Visibility. No requirement.

S10.10   Indicator. See S9.5.

S10.11   Markings. See S6.5.

S10.12   Spacing to other lamps. See S6.1.3.5.

S10.13   Sealed beam headlighting systems. All sealed beam headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-a. Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the specifications furnished with respect to it pursuant to appendix C of part 564 of this chapter and Table II-a of this standard. The dimensions applicable to the design of a specific type are those identified with an “I” for interchangeability specified on the applicable drawing(s) filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397.

S10.13.1   Installation. A sealed beam headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-a. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-a. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams.

S10.13.2   Simultaneous aim. Type F sealed beam headlamps may be mounted on common or parallel seating and aiming planes to permit simultaneous aiming of both headlamps provided that there is no provision for adjustment between the common or parallel aiming and seating planes of the two lamps. When tested with any conforming Type UF and LF headlamps in accordance with S14.2.5, the assembly (consisting of the Type UF and LF headlamps, mounting rings, the aiming/seating rings, and aim adjustment mechanism) must be designed to conform to the applicable photometric requirements.

S10.13.3   Photometry. Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-a for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.

S10.13.4   Physical tests.

S10.13.4.1   Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), torque deflection test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, headlamp wattage test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.

S10.13.4.2   Each sealed beam headlamp except a Type G or Type H must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the retaining ring test of S14.6.

S10.13.4.3   Each sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each sealed beam headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.

S10.14   Integral beam headlighting systems. All integral beam headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-c.

S10.14.1   Installation. An integral beam headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-c. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-c. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams.

S10.14.2   Aimability.

S10.14.2.1   A system that incorporates any headlamp or beam contributor that does not have a VHAD as an integral and indivisible part of the headlamp or beam contributor must be designed so that the applicable photometric requirements are met when any correctly aimed and photometrically conforming headlamp or beam contributor is removed from its mounting and aiming mechanism, and is replaced without reaim by any conforming headlamp or beam contributor of the same type.

S10.14.2.2   A system that incorporates more than one beam contributor providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing an upper beam, shall be designed to conform to the on-vehicle aiming requirements specified in S10.18.8.

S10.14.3   Simultaneous aim. An integral beam headlighting system consisting of four individual headlamps or beam contributors may have the headlamp units mounted in an assembly to permit simultaneous aiming of the beam(s) contributors, providing that with any complying contributor the assembly complete with all lamps meets the applicable photometric requirements when tested in accordance with S14.2.5.

S10.14.4   Markings. An integral beam headlamp with a single light source providing the lower beam must have its lens permanently marked with “L”. An integral beam headlamp with a single light source providing the upper beam must have its lens permanently marked with “U”.

S10.14.5   Additional light sources. An integral beam headlamp may incorporate light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting and are capable of being replaced.

S10.14.6   Photometry. Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-c for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.

S10.14.7   Physical tests.

S10.14.7.1   Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, temperature cycle test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.

S10.14.7.2   Each integral beam headlamp that is not designed to conform to the performance requirements of the sealing test of S14.6 must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the connector-corrosion test, dust test, and humidity test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.3   Each integral beam headlamp except those with a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the abrasion test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.4   Each integral beam headlamp except those with a nonreplaceable glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.5   Each integral beam headlamp except those with a glass lens and a non-plastic reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the internal heat test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.6   Each integral beam headlamp incorporating a replaceable lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test and the corrosion resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.7   Each integral beam headlamp capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the torque deflection test of S14.6.

S10.14.7.8   Each integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each integral beam headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.

S10.15   Replaceable bulb headlighting systems. All replaceable bulb headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-d.

S10.15.1   Installation. A replaceable bulb headlighting system must consist of either two or four headlamps as specified for the applicable system in Table II-d. The headlamps must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-d. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams and must incorporate not more than two replaceable light sources in each headlamp.

S10.15.2   Aiming restrictions. Each replaceable bulb headlamp designed to conform to the external aiming requirements of S10.18.7 must have no mechanism that allows adjustment of an individual light source, or if there are two light sources, independent adjustments of each reflector.

S10.15.3   Replacement lens reflector units. Each lens reflector unit manufactured as replacement equipment must be designed to conform to applicable photometry requirements when any replaceable light source designated for such a unit is inserted in it.

S10.15.4   Markings.

S10.15.4.1   A replaceable bulb headlamp in a four headlamp system providing lower beam must have its lens permanently marked with “L”. A replaceable bulb headlamp in a four headlamp system providing upper beam must have its lens permanently marked with “U”.

S10.15.4.1.1   No such markings are required if the light sources in the headlamp are any combination of dual filament light sources other than HB2.

S10.15.5   Additional light sources. A replaceable bulb headlamp may incorporate replaceable light sources that are used for purposes other than headlighting.

S10.15.6   Photometry. Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-d for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 using any replaceable light source designated for use in the system under test.

S10.15.7   Physical tests.

S10.15.7.1   Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the corrosion test, corrosion-connector test, dust test, temperature cycle test, humidity test, vibration test, inward force test (for lamps which are externally aimed only), headlamp connector test, and aiming adjustment tests of S14.6.

S10.15.7.2   Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the abrasion test of S14.6.

S10.15.7.3   Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a nonreplaceable glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance test of S14.6.

S10.15.7.4   Each replaceable bulb headlamp except those with a glass lens and a non-plastic reflector must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the internal heat test of S14.6.

S10.15.7.5   Each replaceable bulb headlamp incorporating a replaceable lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the chemical resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test and the corrosion resistance of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test of S14.6.

S10.15.7.6   Each replaceable bulb headlamp capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the torque deflection test of S14.6.

S10.15.7.7   Each replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the color test of S14.4. Each replaceable bulb headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.

S10.16   Combination headlighting systems. All combination headlighting systems must be of a type designated in Table II-b.

S10.16.1   Installation. A combination headlighting system must consist of the correct number of designated headlamp units as specified for the applicable system in Table II-b. The units must have their beams activated as specified in Table II-b. A system must provide in total not more than two upper beams and two lower beams. When installed on a motor vehicle, the headlamps (or parts thereof) that provide the lower beam must be of the same type, and provide a symmetrical effective projected luminous lens area when illuminated.

S10.16.2   Photometry. Each combination headlamp must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XVIII for upper beam and Table XIX for lower beam as specified in Table II-b for the specific headlamp unit and aiming method, when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.

S10.16.3   Physical tests.

S10.16.3.1   Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is a Type F sealed beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.13.4.

S10.16.3.2   Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is an integral beam headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.14.7.

S10.16.3.3   Any component headlamp of a combination headlighting system that is a replaceable bulb headlamp must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of S10.15.7.

S10.17   Motorcycle headlighting systems. A motorcycle headlighting system may consist of:

(a) One half of any headlighting system of Table II which provides both a full upper beam and full lower beam, and is designed to conform to the requirements for that headlamp type. Where more than one lamp must be used, the lamps shall be mounted vertically, with the lower beam as high as practicable, or

(b) A headlighting system designed to conform to the requirements of paragraphs S10.17.1 through S10.17.5.

S10.17.1   Installation. The headlighting system installed on a motorcycle must consist of one of the system types specified in this paragraph, and must be located on the front.

S10.17.1.1   Single headlamp.

S10.17.1.1.1   If the system consists of a single headlamp, it must be mounted on the vertical centerline of the motorcycle.

S10.17.1.1.2   If the headlamp contains more than one light source, each light source must be mounted on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height.

S10.17.1.1.3   If the light sources are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of the effective projected luminous lens area in front of the light sources must not be greater than 200 mm.

S10.17.1.2   Two headlamps with both beams.

S10.17.1.2.1   If the system consists of two headlamps, each of which provides both an upper and lower beam, the headlamps must be mounted either at the same height and symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline or mounted on the vertical centerline.

S10.17.1.2.2   If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas must not be greater than 200 mm.

S10.17.1.3   Two headlamps, upper beam and lower beam.

S10.17.1.3.1   If the system consists of two headlamps, one of which provides an upper beam and one of which provides the lower beam, the headlamps must be located on the vertical centerline with the upper beam no higher than the lower beam, or horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline and mounted at the same height.

S10.17.1.3.2   If the headlamps are horizontally disposed about the vertical centerline, the distance between the closest edges of their effective projected luminous lens areas must not be greater than 200 mm.

S10.17.2   Motorcycle replaceable bulb headlamp marking. Each replaceable bulb headlamp that is designed to conform to S10.17(b) and that is equipped with a light source other than a replaceable light source meeting the requirements of S11, must have the word “motorcycle” permanently marked on the lens in characters not less than 3 mm in height.

S10.17.3   Photometry. Each motorcycle headlamp that is not designed to conform to S10.17(a), must be designed to conform to the photometry requirements of Table XX when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5.

S10.17.4   Physical tests. Each motorcycle headlamp that is not designed to conform to S10.17(a) must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the vibration test, moisture test, dust test, and corrosion test of S14.5, the out of focus test of S14.3, the color test of S14.4, and each motorcycle headlamp that does not incorporate a glass lens must be designed to conform to the performance requirements of the plastic optical materials test of S14.4.

S10.17.5   Motorcycle headlamp modulation system. A headlamp on a motorcycle may be activated to modulate either the upper beam or the lower beam from its maximum intensity to a lesser intensity, provided that:

S10.17.5.1   Modulation.

(a) The rate of modulation must be 240 ±40 cycles per minute.

(b) The headlamp must be operated at maximum power for 50 to 70 percent of each cycle.

(c) The lowest intensity at any test point must be not less than 17 percent of the maximum intensity measured at the same point.

(d) The modulator switch must be wired in the power lead of the beam filament being modulated and not in the ground side of the circuit.

(e) Means must be provided so that both the lower beam and upper beam remain operable in the event of a modulator failure.

(f) The system must include a sensor mounted with the axis of its sensing element perpendicular to a horizontal plane. Headlamp modulation must cease whenever the level of light emitted by a tungsten filament light operating at 3000° Kelvin is either less than 270 lux of direct light for upward pointing sensors or less than 60 lux of reflected light for downward pointing sensors. The light is measured by a silicon cell type light meter that is located at the sensor and pointing in the same direction as the sensor. A Kodak Gray Card (Kodak R-27) is placed at ground level to simulate the road surface in testing downward pointing sensors.

(g) When tested in accordance with the test profile shown in Figure 9, the voltage drop across the modulator when the lamp is on at all test conditions for 12 volt systems and 6 volt systems must not be greater than 0.45 volt. The modulator must meet all the provisions of the standard after completion of the test profile shown in Figure 9.

(h) Means must be provided so that both the lower and upper beam function at design voltage when the headlamp control switch is in either the lower or upper beam position when the modulator is off.

S10.17.5.2   Replacement modulators. Each modulator not intended as original equipment, or its container, must be labeled with the maximum wattage, and the minimum wattage appropriate for its use.

S10.17.5.2.1   Replacement performance. Each modulator, not intended as original equipment, must comply with S10.17.5.1 (a) through (g) when connected to a headlamp of the maximum rated power and a headlamp of the minimum rated power, and must provide means so that the modulated beam functions at design voltage when the modulator is off.

S10.17.5.2.2   Replacement instructions. Instructions, with a diagram, must be provided for mounting the light sensor including location on the motorcycle, distance above the road surface, and orientation with respect to the light.

S10.18   Headlamp aimability performance requirements (except for motorcycles)

S10.18.1   Headlamp mounting and aiming. Except as provided in this paragraph, each headlamp must be installed on a motor vehicle with a mounting and aiming mechanism that permits aim inspection and adjustment of both vertical and horizontal aim, and is accessible for those purposes without removal of any vehicle parts, except for protective covers removable without the use of tools.

S10.18.1.1   The axis of the light beams must be adjustable to the left, right, up, or down from the designed setting, the amount of adjustability to be determined by practical operating conditions and the type of equipment.

S10.18.1.2   The adjustments must be conveniently made by one person with tools ordinarily available. When the headlamps are secured, the aim will not be disturbed under ordinary conditions of service.

S10.18.2   Headlamp aiming systems. When a headlamp system is installed on a motor vehicle, it must be aimable with at least one of the following: An externally applied aiming device, as specified in S10.18.7; an on-vehicle headlamp aiming device installed by the vehicle or lamp manufacturer, as specified in S10.18.8; or by visual/optical means, as specified in S10.18.9.

S10.18.3   Aim adjustment interaction. When installed on the vehicle, adjustment of one aim axis through its full on-vehicle range must not cause the aim of the other axis to deviate more than ±0.76°. If the performance specified is not achievable, the requirements of S10.18.3.1 apply, except that if the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs are not applicable, and the instruction must be specific to the aiming mechanism installed.

S10.18.3.1   Should the mechanism not meet the requirements of S10.18.3, a cautionary label must be placed adjacent to the mechanism stating the caution and including either the reason for the caution or the corrective action necessary. Each such label must also refer the reader to the vehicle operator's manual for complete instructions. Each such vehicle must be equipped with an operator's manual containing the complete instructions appropriate for the mechanism installed.

S10.18.4   Horizontal adjustment-visually aimed headlamp. A visually/optically aimable headlamp that has a lower beam must not have a horizontal adjustment mechanism unless such mechanism meets the requirements of this standard for on vehicle aiming as specified in S10.18.8.

S10.18.5   Optical axis marking.

S10.18.5.1   Optical axis marking-vehicle. Each motor vehicle must be equipped with headlamps or beam contributors which have a mark or markings that are visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle to identify the optical axis of the headlamp to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.

S10.18.5.2   Optical axis marking-lamp. Each headlamp or beam contributor that is not visually/optically aimable in accordance with S10.18.9 of this standard must be equipped with fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references of sufficient detail and accuracy, for determination of an appropriate vehicle plane to be used with the photometric procedures of S14.2.5 for correct alignment with the photometer axis when being tested for photometric compliance, and to serve for the aiming reference when the headlamp or beam contributor is installed on a motor vehicle. The fiducial marks, aiming pads, or similar references are protrusions, bubble vials, holes, indentations, ridges, scribed lines, or other readily identifiable marks established and described by the vehicle or headlamp manufacturer.

S10.18.5.3   Optical axis marking-visual/optical aim headlamp. There must be a mark or markings identifying the optical axis of the headlamp visible from the front of the headlamp when installed on the vehicle, to assure proper horizontal and vertical alignment of the aiming screen or optical aiming equipment with the headlamp being aimed. The manufacturer is free to choose the design of the mark or markings. The mark or markings may be on the interior or exterior of the lens or indicated by a mark or central structure on the interior or exterior of the headlamp.

S10.18.6   Moveable reflectors. Each headlamp aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, must conform with the photometric requirements applicable to it when tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 with the lens at any position relative to the reflector within the full range of vertical pitch on the vehicle on which the headlamp system is installed and a horizontal range of ±2.5°. Additionally it must comply with the aiming adjustment requirements of S14.6.

S10.18.7   External aiming. Each headlighting system that is capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied headlamp aiming devices must be mechanically aimable using the equipment specified in SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), without the removal of any ornamental trim rings, covers, wipers or other vehicle parts.

S10.18.7.1   Headlamp aiming device locating plates. Each headlighting system which is designed to use the Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates with adjustable legs for the 100 × 165 mm unit and the 142 × 200 mm unit, and which has adjustable length legs, must meet the following requirements:

S10.18.7.1.1   The lens must have three aiming pads which meet the requirements of Figure 4, Dimensional Specifications for Location of Aiming Pads on Replaceable Bulb Headlamp Units. The aiming pads need not be centered at the geometric center of the lens, or on the optical axis. Except as provided in S10.18.7.1.2, a whole number, which represents the distance in tenths of an inch (i.e. 0.3 inch = 3) from the aiming reference plane to the respective aiming pads which are not in contact with that plane, must be inscribed adjacent to each respective aiming pad on the lens. The height of these numbers must be not less than .157 inch (4 mm). If there is interference between the plane and the area of the lens between the aiming pads, the whole number represents the distance to a secondary plane. The secondary plane must be located parallel to the aiming reference plane and as close to the lens as possible without causing interference.

S10.18.7.1.2   If the most forward aiming pad is the lower inboard aiming pad, then the dimensions may be placed anywhere on the lens. The dimension for the outboard aiming pad (Dimension F in Figure 4) must be followed by the letter “H” and the dimension for the center aiming pad must be followed by the letter “V.” The dimensions must be expressed in tenths of an inch.

S10.18.7.2   Nonadjustable headlamp aiming device locating plates. Each headlamp may be designed to use the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plate for the 100 × 165 mm unit, the 142 × 200 mm unit, the 146 mm diameter unit, or the 178 mm diameter unit of SAE Recommended Practice J602-1980 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), or the 92 × 150 mm Type F unit, and incorporate lens-mounted aiming pads as specified for those units pursuant to Appendix C of part 564 of this chapter. If so designed, no additional lens marking is necessary to designate the type of plate or dimensions.

S10.18.8   On-vehicle aiming. Each headlighting system that is capable of being aimed by equipment installed on the vehicle must include a Vehicle Headlamp Aiming Device (VHAD) that conforms to the following requirements:

S10.18.8.1   Aim. The VHAD must provide for headlamp aim inspection and adjustment in both the vertical and horizontal axes.

S10.18.8.1.1   Vertical aim. The VHAD must include the necessary references and scales relative to the horizontal plane to assure correct vertical aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An off vehicle measurement of the angle of the plane of the ground is permitted. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “0” position representing angular changes in the axis in the upward and downward directions must be provided.

S10.18.8.1.1.1   Each graduation must represent a change in the vertical position of the mechanical axis not larger than 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft) to provide for variations in aim at least 1.2° above and below the horizontal, and have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1°.

S10.18.8.1.1.2   The VHAD must be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the upward and downward directions.

S10.18.8.1.1.3   Each graduation must indicate a linear movement of the scale indicator of not less than 0.05 in (1.27 mm) if a direct reading analog indicator is used. If a remote reading indicator is provided, it must represent the actual aim movement in a clear, understandable format.

S10.18.8.1.1.4   The vertical indicator must perform through a minimum range of ±1.2°.

S10.18.8.1.1.5   Means must be provided in the VHAD for compensating for deviations in floor slope less than 1.2° from the horizontal that would affect the correct positioning of the headlamp for vertical aim.

S10.18.8.1.1.6   The graduations must be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and must permit aim adjustment to within 0.19° (1 in at 25 ft).

S10.18.8.1.2   Horizontal aim. The VHAD must include references and scales relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle necessary to assure correct horizontal aim for photometry and aiming purposes. An “0” mark must be used to indicate alignment of the headlamps relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. In addition, an equal number of graduations from the “0” position representing equal angular changes in the axis relative to the vehicle axis must be provided.

S10.18.8.1.2.1   Each graduation must represent a change in the horizontal position of the mechanical axis not greater than 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft) to provide for variations in aim at least 0.76° (4 in at 25 ft) to the left and right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and must have an accuracy relative to the zero mark of less than 0.1°.

S10.18.8.1.2.2   The VHAD must be marked to indicate headlamp aim movement in the left and right directions.

S10.18.8.1.2.3   The graduations must be legible under an illumination level not greater than 30 foot candles, measured at the top of the graduation, by an observer having 20/20 vision (Snellen), and must permit aim adjustment to within 0.38° (2 in at 25 ft).

S10.18.8.1.2.4   The horizontal indicator must perform through a minimum range of ±0.76° (4 in at 25 ft); however, the indicator itself must be capable of recalibration over a movement of ±2.5° relative to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle to accommodate any adjustment necessary for recalibrating the indicator after vehicle repair from accident damage.

S10.18.8.2   Aiming instructions.

S10.18.8.2.1   The instructions for properly aiming the headlighting system using the VHAD must be provided on a label permanently affixed to the vehicle adjacent to the VHAD, or in the vehicle operator's manual. The instructions must advise that the headlighting system is properly aimed if the appropriate vertical plane (as defined by the vehicle manufacturer) is perpendicular to both the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, and a horizontal plane when the vehicle is on a horizontal surface, and the VHAD is set at “0” vertical and “0” horizontal.

S10.18.8.2.2   Should a remote indicator or a remote indicator and adjuster be provided, the instructions must be placed in the operator's manual, and may also be placed on a label adjacent to the VHAD.

S10.18.8.3   Permanent calibration. Each headlamp equipped with a VHAD must be manufactured with its calibration permanently fixed by its manufacturer. Calibration in this case means the process of accurately aligning the geometry of the VHAD devices with the beam pattern for the purposes of compliance with the standard.

S10.18.8.4   Replacement units. When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5 with any replacement headlamp unit(s) or light sources intended for use in the system under test, the VHAD and headlighting system must be designed to conform to the photometric performance requirements applicable for the system under test.

S10.18.8.5   Physical tests. Each VHAD must be designed to conform with the performance requirements of S14.8.

S10.18.9   Visual/optical aiming. Each visually/optically aimable headlamp must be designed to conform to the following requirements:

S10.18.9.1   Vertical aim, lower beam. Each lower beam headlamp must have a cutoff in the beam pattern. It may be either on the left side or the right side of the optical axis, but once chosen for a particular headlamp system's design, the side chosen for the cutoff must not be changed for any headlamps intended to be used as replacements for those system's headlamps.

S10.18.9.1.1   Vertical position of the cutoff. The headlamp must be aimed vertically so that the cutoff is on the left side, at 0.4° down from the H-H line, or on the right side, at the H-H line.

S10.18.9.1.2   Vertical gradient. The gradient of the cutoff measured at either 2.5° L or 2.0° R must be not less than 0.13 based on the procedure of S10.18.9.1.5.

S10.18.9.1.3   Horizontal position of the cutoff. The width must be not less than 2°, with not less than 2° of its actual width centered at either 2.5° L, or 2.0° R.

S10.18.9.1.4   Maximum inclination of the cutoff. The vertical location of the highest gradient at the ends of the minimum width must be within ±0.2° of the vertical location of the maximum gradient measured at the appropriate vertical line (at either 2.5° L for a left side cutoff, or 2.0° R for a right side cutoff).

S10.18.9.1.5   Measuring the cutoff parameter.

S10.18.9.1.5.1   The headlamp is mounted on a headlamp test fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed, is attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp is energized at the specified test voltage. The cutoff parameter must be measured at a distance of 10 m from a photosensor with a 10 mm diameter.

S10.18.9.1.5.2   The headlamp beam pattern is aimed with the cutoff at the H-H axis. There is no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD is adjusted to zero.

S10.18.9.1.5.3   A vertical scan of the beam pattern is conducted for a headlamp with a left side gradient by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.5° L and scanning from 1.5° U to 1.5° D. For a headlamp with a right side gradient, a vertical scan of the beam pattern is conducted by aligning the goniometer on a vertical line at 2.0° R and scanning from 1.5° U to 1.5° D.

S10.18.9.1.5.4   Determine the maximum gradient within the range of the scan by using the formula: G = log E(a)−logE(a + 0.1), where “G” is the gradient, “E” is illumination and “a” is vertical angular position. The maximum value of the gradient “G” determines the vertical angular location of the cutoff. Perform vertical scans at 1.0° L and R of the measurement point of the maximum gradient to determine the inclination.

S10.18.9.2   Horizontal aim, lower beam. There is no adjustment of horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has a VHAD, it is set to zero.

S10.18.9.3   Vertical aim, upper beam.

S10.18.9.3.1   If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam must not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1 and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.

S10.18.9.3.2   If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the vertical aim of the upper beam is adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is located on the H-H axis.

S10.18.9.4   Horizontal aim, upper beam.

S10.18.9.4.1   If the upper beam is combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, the horizontal aim of the upper beam must not be changed from the aim set using the procedures of S10.18.9.1 and S10.18.9.2 used for the lower beam.

S10.18.9.4.2   If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with the lower beam and has fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD, then the headlamp is mounted on a headlamp test fixture which simulates its actual design location on any vehicle for which the headlamp is intended. The fixture, with the headlamp installed, is attached to the goniometer table in such a way that the fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes. The headlamp must be energized at 12.8 ±0.20 mV. There is no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD. In this case the VHAD is adjusted to zero.

S10.18.9.4.3   If the upper beam is not combined in a headlamp with a lower beam, and it does not have a VHAD, the horizontal aim of the upper beam is adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is located on the V-V axis.

S10.18.9.5   Photometry. When tested according to the procedure of S14.2.5, a visually/optically aimable headlamp must be designed to conform to the lower beam requirements of columns; LB1V or LB2V of Table XIX-a, or LB3V of Table XIX-b, or LB4V of Table XIX-c.

S10.18.9.6   Visual/optical aiming identification marking. Each letter used in marking according to this paragraph must be not less than 3 mm high.

S10.18.9.6.1   The lens of a lower beam headlamp must be marked “VOL” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the left side of the lower beam pattern. The lens of a lower beam headlamp must be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is intended to be visually/optically aimed using the right side of the lower beam pattern. The lens of a headlamp that is solely an upper beam headlamp and intended to be visually/optically aimed using the upper beam must be marked “VO”.

S10.18.9.6.2   The lens of each sealed beam or integral beam headlamp must be marked “VOR” if the headlamp is of a type that was manufactured before May 1, 1997, and if such headlamp type has been redesigned since then to be visually/optically aimable.

S11   Replaceable light source requirements. Each replaceable light source must be designed to conform to the dimensions and electrical specifications furnished with respect to it pursuant to part 564 of this chapter, on file in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397, and must conform to the following requirements:

S11.1   Markings. If other than an HB Type, the light source must be marked with the bulb marking designation specified for it in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter. The base of each HB Type must be marked with its HB Type designation. Each replaceable light source must also be marked with the symbol DOT and with a name or trademark in accordance with S6.5.

S11.2   Ballast markings. If a ballast is required for operation, each ballast must bear the following permanent markings:

(a) Name or logo of ballast manufacturer;

(b) Ballast part number or unique identification;

(c) Part number or other unique identification of the light source for which the ballast is designed;

(d) Rated laboratory life of the light source/ballast combination, if the information for the light source has been filed in appendix B of part 564 of this chapter;

(e) A warning that ballast output voltage presents the potential for severe electrical shock that could lead to permanent injury or death;

(f) Ballast output power in watts and output voltage in rms volts AC or DC; and

(g) The symbol ‘DOT’.

S11.3   Gas discharge laboratory life. For light sources that use excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, the “rated laboratory life” is determined in accordance with sections 4.3 and 4.9 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 FEB93, Forward Discharge Lighting Systems (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title).

S11.4   Physical tests.

S11.4.1   Each replaceable light source must be designed to conform with the performance requirements of the deflection test and pressure test requirements of S14.7.

S11.4.2   Replaceable light sources must be designed to conform with the requirements of section VII of appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, or section IV of appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, for maximum power and luminous flux when test by the procedure of S14.7.3.

S12   Headlamp concealment device requirements.

S12.1   While the headlamp is illuminated, its fully opened headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened should any loss of power to or within the headlamp concealment device occur.

S12.2   Whenever any malfunction occurs in a component that controls or conducts power for the actuation of the concealment device, each closed headlamp concealment device must be capable of being fully opened by a means not requiring the use of any tools. Thereafter, the headlamp concealment device must remain fully opened until intentionally closed.

S12.3   Except for malfunctions covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device must be capable of being fully opened and the headlamps illuminated by actuation of a single switch, lever, or similar mechanism, including a mechanism that is automatically actuated by a change in ambient light conditions.

S12.4   Each headlamp concealment device must be installed so that the headlamp may be mounted, aimed, and adjusted without removing any component of the device, other than components of the headlamp assembly.

S12.5   Except for cases of malfunction covered by S12.2, each headlamp concealment device must, within an ambient temperature range of −20 °F to + 120 °F, be capable of being fully opened in not more than 3 seconds after the actuation of a driver-operated control.

S12.6   As an alternative to complying with the requirements of S12.1 through S12.5, a vehicle with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming in accordance with this standard may meet the requirements for Concealable lamps in paragraph 5.14 of UNECE Regulation 48 page 17 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), in the English language version.

S12.7   Certification election. Manufacturers of vehicles with headlamps incorporating VHAD or visual/optical aiming must elect to certify to S12.1 through S12.5 or to S12.6 prior to, or at the time of certification of the vehicle, pursuant to 49 CFR Part 567. The selection is irrevocable.

S13   Replaceable headlamp lens requirements.

S13.1   A replacement lens for a replaceable bulb headlamp or integral beam headlamp that is not required to have a bonded lens must be provided with a replacement seal in a package that includes instructions for the removal and replacement of the lens, the cleaning of the reflector, and the sealing of the replacement lens to the reflector assembly.

S13.2   Each replacement headlamp lens with seal, when installed according to the lens manufacturer's instructions on an integral beam or replaceable bulb headlamp, must not cause the headlamp to fail to comply with any of the requirements of this standard.

S14   Physical and photometry test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.1   General test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.1.1   Each lamp, reflective device, item of conspicuity treatment, and item of associated equipment required or permitted by this standard must be designed to conform to all applicable physical test performance requirements specified for it.

S14.1.2   Plastic optical materials. All plastic materials used for optical parts such as lenses and reflectors on lamps or reflective devices required or allowed by this standard must conform to the material test requirements of S14.4.2.

S14.1.3   All coatings used on optical materials must have added to their formulations an optical brightener, whose presence is detectable by ultraviolet light, to aid in testing for their presence. Other equivalent industry accepted methods may be used as an alternative.

S14.1.4   Samples.

S14.1.4.1   Samples submitted for laboratory test must be new, unused, manufactured from production tooling and assembled by production processes, and representative of the devices as regularly manufactured and marketed.

S14.1.4.2   Each test sample must include not only the device but also accessory equipment necessary to operate in its intended manner. Where necessary a mounting bracket shall be provided so that the device may be rigidly bolted in its operating position on the various test equipment.

S14.1.4.3   Dust and photometric tests may be made on a second set of mounted samples, if desired, to expedite completion of the tests.

S14.1.5   Laboratory facilities. The laboratory must be equipped to test the sample in accordance with the requirements of the specific device.

S14.2   Photometric test procedures. Each lamp and reflective device required or permitted by this standard must be designed to conform to the applicable photometric requirements.

S14.2.1   Photometry measurements for all lamps except license plate lamps, headlamps, and DRLs.

S14.2.1.1   Mounting. Photometry measurements are made with the sample lamp mounted in its normal operating position.

S14.2.1.2   School bus signal lamp aiming. A school bus signal lamp must be aimed with its aiming plane normal to the photometer axis and may be reaimed for photometry by ± 12 ° vertically and ±1° horizontally.

S14.2.1.3   Measurement distance. Photometric measurements are made at a distance between the light source and the point of measurement of at least 1.2 m for side marker lamps, clearance lamps, identification lamps, and parking lamps, and at least 3 m for turn signal lamps, stop lamps, taillamps, backup lamps, and school bus signal lamps.

S14.2.1.4   Location of test points. Test point location must comply with the following nomenclature:

(a) The line formed by the intersection of a vertical plane through the light source of the lamp and normal to the test screen is designated “V”.

(b) The line formed by the intersection of a horizontal plane through the light source and normal to the test screen is designated “H”.

(c) The point of intersection of these two lines is designated “H-V”.

(d) Other test points on the test screen are measured in terms of angles from the H and V lines.

(e) Angles to the right (R) and to the left (L) are regarded as being to the right and left of the V line when the observer stands behind the lamp and looks in the direction of its light beam when it is properly aimed for photometry. Similarly, the upward angles designated as U and the downward angles designated as D, refer to light directed at angles above and below the H line, respectively.

S14.2.1.5   Multiple compartment and multiple lamp photometry of turn signal lamps, stop lamps, and taillamps.

S14.2.1.5.1   When compartments of lamps or arrangements of multiple lamps are photometered together, the H-V axis intersects the midpoint between the optical axes.

S14.2.1.5.2   Luminous intensity measurements of multiple compartment lamps or multiple lamp arrangements are made either by:

(a) Measuring all compartments together, provided that a line from the optical axis of each compartment or lamp to the center of the photometer sensing device does not make an angle more than 0.6° with the H-V axis, or

(b) Measuring each compartment or lamp separately by aligning its optical axis with the photometer and adding the value at each test point.

S14.2.1.5.3   Multiple compartment turn signal lamps or stop lamps or multiple lamp arrangements of these lamps installed on multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, or buses 2032 mm or more in overall width must use the method of S14.2.1.5.2(b) only.

S14.2.1.6   Bulbs. Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ±.010 in of the nominal design position specified in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) or specified by the bulb manufacturer and operated at the bulb's rated mean spherical candela.

S14.2.1.6.1   Each lamp designed to use a type of bulb that has not been assigned a mean spherical candela rating by its manufacturer and is not listed in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when used with any bulb of the type specified by the lamp manufacturer, operated at the bulb's design voltage. A lamp that contains a sealed-in bulb must meet these requirements with the bulb operated at the bulb's design voltage.

S14.2.1.6.2   A bulb that is not listed in SAE Recommended Practice J573d (1968) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) is not required to use a socket that conforms to the requirements of SAE Recommended Practice J567b (1964) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S14.2.2   License plate lamp photometry. Photometry compliance of license plate lamps is determined by measurement of the illumination falling upon test stations located on a test plate.

S14.2.2.1   Illumination surface. All illumination measurements are made on a rectangular test plate of clean, white blotting paper mounted on the license plate holder in the position normally taken by the license plate. The face of the test plate must be 1.5 mm from the face of the license plate holder.

S14.2.2.2   Test stations. Test stations must be located on the face of the test plate as shown in Figure 19 according to the type of vehicle on which the license plate lamps are installed.

S14.2.2.3   Bulb requirements of S14.2.1.6 apply to license plate lamp photometry.

S14.2.3   Reflex reflector and retroreflective sheeting photometry.

S14.2.3.1   Mounting. Each reflex reflector is mounted for photometry with the center of the reflex area at the center of goniometer rotation and at the same horizontal level as the source of illumination.

S14.2.3.2   Illumination source. The source of illumination is a lamp with a 50 mm effective diameter and with a filament operating at 2856 °K.

S14.2.3.3   Measurement distance. The test distance is 30.5 m [100ft].

S14.2.3.4   Test setup The observation point is located directly above the source of illumination. The H-V axis of reflex reflectors is taken as parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for rear reflectors and perpendicular to a vertical plane passing through the longitudinal axis of the vehicle for side reflectors.

S14.2.3.5   Photodetector. The photodetector has an opening of not more than 13 mm vertically and 25 mm horizontally.

S14.2.3.6   Photometry surface. Reflex reflectors may have any linear or area dimensions but must have no more than 7740 sq mm projected area contained within a 254 mm diameter circle exposed for photometry.

S14.2.3.7   Procedure. Photometric measurements of reflex reflectors and retroreflective sheeting must be made at various observation and entrance angles as shown in Table XVI.

S14.2.3.7.1   The observation angle is the angle formed by a line from the observation point to the center of the reflector and a second line from the center of the reflector to the source of illumination.

S14.2.3.7.2   The entrance angle is the angle between the axis of the reflex reflector and a line from the center of the reflector to the source of illumination.

S14.2.3.7.3   The entrance angle is designated left, right, up, and down in accordance with the position of the source of illumination with respect to the axis of the reflex reflector as viewed from behind the reflector.

S14.2.3.7.4   Measurements are made of the luminous intensity which the reflex reflector is projecting toward the observation point and the illumination on the reflex reflector from the source of illumination.

S14.2.3.8   Measurements.

S14.2.3.8.1   Reflex reflectors. The required measurement for reflex reflectors at each test point as shown in Table XVI is the quotient of the projected luminous intensity divided by the illumination expressed as millicandela per lux or candela per footcandle.

S14.2.3.8.2   Retroreflective sheeting. The required measurement for retroreflective sheeting reflectors at each test point as shown in Table XVI is candela per lux per square meter of area.

S14.2.3.8.3   Reflex reflector photometry measurement adjustments.

S14.2.3.8.3.1   Reflex reflectors, which do not have a fixed rotational position on the vehicle, are rotated about their axis through 360° to find the minimum photometric value which must be reported for each test point. If the output falls below the minimum requirement at any test point, the reflector is rotated ±5° about its axis from the angle where the minimum output occurred, and the maximum value within this angle is reported as a tolerance value.

S14.2.3.8.3.2   Reflex reflectors, which by their design or construction, permit mounting on a vehicle in a fixed rotational position, are tested in this position. A visual locator, such as the word TOP is not considered adequate to establish a fixed rotational position on the vehicle.

S14.2.3.8.3.3   If uncolored reflections from the front surface interfere with photometric readings at any test point, additional readings are taken 1° above, below, right, and left of the test point, and the lowest of these readings and its location is reported provided the minimum test point requirement for the test point is met.

S14.2.4   Daytime running lamp (DRL) photometry measurements.

S14.2.4.1   Each DRL is tested to the procedure of S14.2.5 when a test voltage of 12.8 v ±20 mv is applied to the input terminals of the lamp switch module or voltage-reducing equipment, whichever is closer to the electrical source on the vehicle.

S14.2.4.2   The test distance from the lamp to the photometer is not less than 18.3 m if the lamp is optically combined with a headlamp, or is a separate lamp, and not less than 3 m if the lamp is optically combined with a lamp, other than a headlamp, that is required by this standard.

S14.2.4.3   Except for a lamp having a sealed-in bulb, a lamp must meet the applicable requirements of this standard when tested with a bulb whose filament is positioned within ±.010 in. of the nominal design position specified in SAE J573d, Lamp bulbs and Sealed Units, December 1968, (incorporated by reference, paragraph S5.2 of this section) or specified by the bulb manufacturer.

S14.2.5   Headlamp photometry measurements.

S14.2.5.1   Mounting. Photometry measurements at the applicable test points are made with the sample headlamp mounted in its normal operating position.

S14.2.5.2   Test points in the area from 10° U to 90° U must be measured from the normally exposed surface of the lens face.

S14.2.5.3   Measurement distance. Photometric measurements are made at a distance between the light source and the photometer sensor of at least 18.3 m.

S14.2.5.4   Seasoning and test voltage. All sealed beam headlamps, integral beam headlamps, beam contributors, and replaceable light sources are seasoned at design voltage for 1% of its average design life or 10 hours, whichever is less prior to a photometry test. A headlamp is tested at 12.8 v. ±20 mv, D.C. as measured at the terminals of the lamp.

S14.2.5.5   Aiming. Each headlamp is aimed prior to a photometry test in accordance with the procedure appropriate to its aiming system. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point to allow for variations in readings between laboratories for all headlamps except a Type F upper beam unit not equipped with a VHAD.

S14.2.5.5.1   Mechanically aimable headlamps using an external aimer. The headlamp is aimed mechanically with the aiming plane at the design angle(s) to the photometer axis and the mechanical axis of the headlamp on the photometer axis.

S14.2.5.5.2   Mechanically aimable headlamps equipped with a VHAD. The headlamp is aimed mechanically using the VHAD in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions as provided with the vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be used.

S14.2.5.5.3   Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-vertical aim.

S14.2.5.5.3.1   A VOL cutoff headlamp must have the location of the cutoff maximum gradient, as determined by the method of this standard, positioned at 0.4° down from the H-H line.

S14.2.5.5.3.2   A VOR cutoff headlamp must have the location of the cutoff maximum gradient, as determined by the method of this standard, positioned at the H-H line.

S14.2.5.5.4   Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-horizontal aim. There must be no adjustment of horizontal aim unless the headlamp is equipped with a horizontal VHAD. If the headlamp has a VHAD, it must be set to zero.

S14.2.5.5.5   Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-vertical aim.

S14.2.5.5.5.1   A headlamp whose upper beam is combined with a lower beam must not have its vertical aim changed from that set for the lower beam.

S14.2.5.5.5.2   A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam must have its maximum beam intensity positioned on the H-H axis.

S14.2.5.5.6   Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-horizontal aim.

S14.2.5.5.6.1   A headlamp whose upper beam is combined with a lower beam must not have its horizontal aim changed from that set for the lower beam.

S14.2.5.5.6.2   A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam and has a fixed horizontal aim or has a horizontal VHAD must be mounted in its normal operating position on a goniometer such that the mounting fixture alignment axes are coincident with the goniometer axes and must be energized at 12.8 v ±20 mv. There must be no adjustment, shimming, or modification of the horizontal axis of the headlamp or test fixture, unless the headlamp is equipped with a VHAD, in which case the VHAD must be adjusted to zero.

S14.2.5.5.6.3   A headlamp whose upper beam is not combined with a lower beam and is not equipped with a horizontal VHAD, the horizontal aim must be adjusted so that the maximum beam intensity is positioned on the V-V axis.

S14.2.5.5.7   Simultaneous aim Type F sealed beam headlamps and beam contributor integral beam headlamps.

S14.2.5.5.7.1   A headlamp system permitted to use simultaneous aim of lower beams and upper beams must be aimed mechanically for lower beam photometry by centering the lower beam unit or the geometric center of all lower beam contributors on the photometer axis and aligning the aiming plane, aiming reference plane, or other appropriate vertical plane defined by the manufacturer perpendicular to the photometer axis.

S14.2.5.5.7.2   The headlamp must be aimed for upper beam photometry by moving the assembly in a plane parallel to the established lower beam aiming plane until the upper beam unit or the geometric center of all upper beam contributors is centered in the photometric axis.

S14.2.5.5.8   Motorcycle headlamp-upper beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX. The upper beam of a multiple beam headlamp designed to comply with the requirements of Table XX must be aimed photoelectrically so that the center of the zone of highest intensity falls 0.4° vertically below the lamp axis and is centered laterally. The center of the zone of highest intensity must be established by the intersection of a horizontal plane passing through the point of maximum intensity, and the vertical plane established by balancing the photometric values at 3°L and 3°R.

S14.2.5.5.9   Motorcycle headlamp-lower beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX. The beam from a single beam headlamp designed to comply with the requirements of Table XX must be aimed straight ahead with the top of the beam aimed vertically to obtain 2000 cd at H-V.

S14.2.5.6   Positioner. The goniometer configuration, used to position the sample headlamp when making photometric measurements at specific angular test points, is horizontal rotation over elevation. The vertical axis of the goniometer must correspond to the design position vertical axis of the sample headlamp which is vertical and perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S14.2.5.7   Photometer.

S14.2.5.7.1   The photometer must be capable of measuring the luminous intensity of the sample headlamp throughout its illumination range.

S14.2.5.7.2   Sensor.

S14.2.5.7.2.1   The maximum effective area of the photometric sensor must fit within a circle whose diameter is equal to 0.009 times the actual test distance from the light source of the sample headlamp to the sensor.

S14.2.5.7.2.2   The sensor effective area is defined as the actual area of intercepted light striking the detector surface of the photometer. Sensor systems incorporating lens(es) that change the diameter of the intercepted light beam before it reaches the actual detector surface, the maximum size requirements must apply to the total area of the light actually intercepted by the lens surface.

S14.2.5.7.2.3   The sensor must be capable of intercepting all direct illumination from the largest illuminated dimension of the sample lamp at the test distance.

S14.2.5.7.3   The color response of the photometer must be corrected to that of the 1931 CIE Standard Observer (2-degree) Photopic Response Curve, as shown in the CIE 1931 Chromaticity Diagram (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S14.2.5.8   Location of test points.

S14.2.5.8.1   Test point positions are defined by the positioner. The following nomenclature applies:

S14.2.5.8.1.1   The letters “V” and “H” designate the vertical and horizontal planes intersecting both the headlamp light source and the photometer axis. “H-V” designates the zero test point angle at the intersection of the H and V planes. This intersection is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle.

S14.2.5.8.1.2   The letters “U”, “D”, “L”, and “R”, indicating up, down, left and right, respectively, designate the angular position from the H and V planes to the photometer as viewed from the headlamp.

S14.2.5.8.1.3   Horizontal angles designated L and R are defined as the plan view angle between the vertical plane and the projection of the light ray from the headlamp onto the horizontal plane.

S14.2.5.8.1.4   Vertical angles designated U and D are defined as the true angle between the horizontal plane and the light ray from the headlamp.

S14.2.5.9   Beam contributor photometry measurements. In a headlighting system where there is more than one beam contributor providing a lower beam, and/or more than one beam contributor providing an upper beam, each beam contributor must be designed to meet only the applicable photometric performance requirements based upon the following mathematical expression: conforming test point value = 2(test point value)/total number of lower or upper beam contributors for the vehicle, as appropriate.

S14.2.5.10   Moveable reflector aimed headlamp photometry measurements.

S14.2.5.10.1   A headlamp aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, or vice versa, must conform to the photometry requirements applicable to it with the lens at any position relative to the reflector.

S14.2.5.10.2   These positions include not less than the full range of vertical pitch of the vehicle on which the headlamp is installed and not less than ±2.5° from the nominal horizontal aim position for the vehicle on which the headlamp is installed unless the headlamp is visually/optically aimed with a fixed horizontal aim.

S14.3   Motorcycle headlamp out of focus test procedure and performance requirements.

S14.3.1   Procedure. The sample device must be tested for photometry using bulbs having each of four out-of-focus filament positions. Where conventional bulbs with two pin bayonet bases are used, tests must be made with the light source 0.060 in. above, below, ahead, and behind the designated position. If prefocused bulbs are used, the limiting positions at which tests are made must be 0.020 in. above, below, ahead, and behind the designated position. The sample device may be reaimed for each of the out-of-focus positions of the light source.

S14.3.2   Performance requirements. The minimum photometric values for the out-of-design position must be 80% of the in-design position.

S14.4   General test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.4.1   Color test. The requirement applies to the overall effective color of light emitted by the device and not to the color of the light from a small area of the lens. It does not apply to any pilot, indicator, or tell-tale lights. The color of the sample device must comply when tested by either the Visual Method or the Tristimulus Method.

S14.4.1.1   Samples. A test sample for a reflex reflector may be either the reflex reflector or a disc of the same material, technique of fabrication, and dye formulation as the reflex reflector. If a disc is used, the thickness must be twice the thickness of the reflector as measured from the face of the lens to the apexes of the reflecting elements.

S14.4.1.2   General procedure.

S14.4.1.2.1   The device must be operated at design voltage.

S14.4.1.2.2   Components (bulbs, caps, lenses, and the like) must be tested in a fixture or manner simulating the intended application.

S14.4.1.2.3   The lamp shall be allowed to reach operating temperature before measurements are made.

S14.4.1.2.4   The entire light emitting surface of the sample must be visible from any point on the entrance window of the test instrument.

S14.4.1.2.5   The distance between the test instrument and the sample must be large enough so that further increases in distance will not affect the results.

S14.4.1.3   Visual method.

S14.4.1.3.1   Visual method procedure. The color of light from the sample device must be compared visually with the color of the light from a standard. The standard may consist of a filter or limit glass. In the case of white, CIE Source A is used only as a color reference. The chromaticity coordinates of the color standards must be as close as possible to the limits listed. The color of the standard filters is determined spectro-photometrically.

S14.4.1.3.2   Visual method performance requirements. The color must comply with the applicable requirement.

S14.4.1.3.2.1   Red. Red is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), yellower, or bluer than the limit standards.

S14.4.1.3.2.2   Yellow (Amber). Yellow is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), greener, or redder than the limit standards.

S14.4.1.3.2.3   White. White is not acceptable if its color differs materially from that of CIE Source A.

S14.4.1.3.2.4   Green. Green is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), yellower, or bluer than the limit standards.

S14.4.1.3.2.5   Blue. Blue is not acceptable if it is less saturated (paler), greener, or redder than the limit standards.

S14.4.1.4   Tristimulus method.

S14.4.1.4.1   Tristimulus method procedure.

S14.4.1.4.1.1   The color of light from the H-V point of a sample device must be measured by photoelectric receivers with spectral responses that approximate CIE standard spectral tristimulus valves.

S14.4.1.4.1.2   A sphere may be used to integrate light from a colored source provided that the color shift that results from the spectral selectivity of the sphere paint be corrected by the use of a filter, correction factor, or an appropriate calibration.

S14.4.1.4.1.3   Where the sample device does not have uniform spectral characteristics in all useful directions, color measurements must be made at as many directions of view as are required to evaluate the color for those directions that apply to the end use of the device.

S14.4.1.4.2   Tristimulus method performance requirements. The color must comply with the applicable requirement.

S14.4.1.4.2.1   Red. The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

y = 0.33 (yellow boundary)

y = 0.98 − x (purple boundary)

S14.4.1.4.2.2   Yellow (Amber). The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

y = 0.39 (red boundary)

y = 0.79 − 0.67x (white boundary)

y = x − 0.12 (green boundary)

S14.4.1.4.2.3   White (achromatic). The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

x = 0.31 (blue boundary)

y = 0.44 (green boundary)

x = 0.50 (yellow boundary)

y = 0.15 + 0.64x (green boundary)

y = 0.38 (red boundary)

y = 0.05 + 0.75x (purple boundary)

S14.4.1.4.2.4   Green. The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

y = 0.73 − 0.73x (yellow boundary)

x = 0.63y − 0.04 (white boundary)

y = 0.50 − 0.50x (blue boundary)

S14.4.1.4.2.5   Restricted Blue. The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

y = 0.07 + 0.81x (green boundary)

x = 0.40 − y (white boundary)

x = 0.13 + 0.60y (violet boundary)

S14.4.1.4.2.6   Signal Blue. The color of light emitted must fall within the following boundaries:

y = 0.32 (green boundary)

x = 0.16 (white boundary)

x = 0.40 − y (white boundary)

x = 0.13 + 0.60y (violet boundary)

S14.4.2   Plastic optical materials tests. Accelerated weathering procedures are not permitted.

S14.4.2.1   Samples.

S14.4.2.1.1   Samples of materials shall be injection molded into polished metal molds to produce test specimens with two flat and parallel faces. Alternative techniques may be used to produce equivalent specimens.

S14.4.2.1.2   Test specimens shape may vary, but each exposed surface must contain a minimum uninterrupted area of 32 sq cm.

S14.4.2.1.3   Samples must be furnished in thicknesses of 1.6 ±0.25 mm, 2.3 ±0.25 mm, 3.2 ±0.25 mm, and 6.4 ±0.25 mm.

S14.4.2.1.4   All samples must conform to the applicable color test requirement of this standard prior to testing.

S14.4.2.1.5   A control sample, kept properly protected from influences which may change its appearance and properties of each thickness, must be retained.

S14.4.2.2   Outdoor exposure test.

S14.4.2.2.1   Outdoor exposure tests of 3 years in duration must be made on samples of all materials, including coated and uncoated versions, used for optical parts of devices covered by this standard. Tests are to be conducted in Florida and Arizona.

S14.4.2.2.2   Concentrations of polymer components and additives used in plastic materials may be changed without outdoor exposure testing provided the changes are within the limits of composition represented by higher and lower concentrations of these polymer components and additives previously tested to this section and found to meet its requirements.

S14.4.2.2.3   Procedure.

S14.4.2.2.3.1   One sample of each thickness of each material must be mounted at each exposure site so that at least a minimum uninterrupted area of 32 sq cm of the exposed upper surface of the sample is at an angle of 45° to the horizontal facing south. The sample must be mounted in the open no closer than 30 cm (11.8 in) to its background.

S14.4.2.2.3.2   During the exposure time the samples must be cleaned once every three months by washing with mild soap or detergent and water, and then rinsing with distilled water. Rubbing must be avoided.

S14.4.2.2.4   Performance requirements. Plastic lenses, other than those incorporating reflex reflectors, used for inner lenses or those covered by another material and not exposed directly to sunlight must meet the optical material test requirements when covered by the outer lens or other material.

S14.4.2.2.4.1   After completion of the outdoor exposure test the haze and loss of surface luster as measured by ASTM D1003-92 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) must not be greater than:

(a) 30% for materials used for outer lenses, other than those incorporating reflex reflectors;

(b) 7% for materials used for reflex reflectors and lenses used in front of reflex reflectors.

S14.4.2.2.4.2   After completion of the outdoor exposure test materials used for headlamp lenses must show no deterioration.

S14.4.2.2.4.3   After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials, when compared with the unexposed control samples, must not show physical changes affecting performance such as color bleeding, delamination, crazing, or cracking. Additionally materials used for reflex reflectors and lenses used in front of reflex reflectors must not show surface deterioration or dimensional changes.

S14.4.2.2.4.4   After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials, when compared with the unexposed control samples, must not have their luminous transmittance changed by more than 25% when tested in accordance with ASTM E308-66 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) using CIE Illuminant A (2856K).

S14.4.2.2.4.5   After completion of the outdoor exposure test all materials must conform to the color test of this standard in the range of thickness stated by the material manufacturer.

S14.4.2.3   Heat test.

S14.4.2.3.1   Procedure. Two samples of each thickness of each material must be supported at the bottom, with at least 51 mm of the sample above the support, in the vertical position in such a manner that, on each side, the minimum uninterrupted area of exposed surface is not less than 3225 sq mm. The samples are placed in a circulating air oven at 79 ±3 °C for two hours.

S14.4.2.3.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the heat exposure and cooling to room ambient temperature, a test specimen must show no change in shape and general appearance discernable to the naked eye when compared with an unexposed specimen and continue to conform to the applicable color test requirement of this standard.

S14.5   Signal lamp and reflective device physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.5.1   Vibration test.

S14.5.1.1   Procedure. The sample device, as mounted on the support supplied, must be bolted to the anvil end of the table of the vibration test machine of Figure 21 and vibrated approximately 750 cpm through a distance of 18 in. The table must be spring mounted at one end and fitted with steel calks on the underside of the other end. The calks are to make contact with the steel anvil once during each cycle at the completion of the fall. The rack must be operated under a spring tension of 60 to 70 lb. The test must be continued for 1 hour.

S14.5.1.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the vibration test a device showing evidence of material physical weakness, lens or reflector rotation, displacement or rupture of parts except bulb failures, must be considered to have failed, providing that the rotation of lens or reflector must not be considered as a failure when tests show compliance with specifications despite such rotation.

S14.5.2   Moisture test.

S14.5.2.1   Procedure. The sample device must be mounted in its normal operating position with all drain holes open and subjected to a precipitation of 0.1 in of water per minute, delivered at an angle of 45° from a nozzle with a solid cone spray. During the test the device must revolve about its vertical axis at a rate of 4 rpm for a period of 12 hours followed by a one hour drain period where the device does not rotate and the spray stops. After completion of the moisture test the device must be examined for moisture accumulation.

S14.5.2.2   Performance requirements. Accumulation of moisture in excess of 2 cc or any visible moisture in a sealed reflex unit must constitute a failure.

S14.5.3   Dust test.

S14.5.3.1   Samples. A sealed unit is not required to meet the requirements of this test.

S14.5.3.2   Procedure. The sample device with any drain hole closed must be mounted in its normal operating position, at least 6 in from the wall in a cubical box with inside measurements of 3 ft on each side containing 10 lb of fine powered cement in accordance with ASTM C150-56 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). At intervals of 15 minutes during a test period of 5 hours, the dust must be agitated by compressed air or fan blower by projecting blasts of air for a 2 second period in a downward direction into the dust in such a way that the dust is completely and uniformly diffused throughout the entire cube and allowed to settle. After the completion of the dust test the exterior surface of the device must be cleaned.

S14.5.3.3   Performance requirements. If after a photometry test the maximum photometric intensity of the device is not more than 10% less than the maximum photometric intensity of the same device after being cleaned both inside and outside, the device is considered to have met the requirements of the dust test.

S14.5.4   Corrosion test.

S14.5.4.1   Procedure. The sample device must be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with the latest version of ASTM B117-73 (Reapproved 1979) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), for a period of 50 hours, consisting of two periods of 24 hour exposure followed by a 1 hr drying time.

S14.5.4.2   Performance requirements. After the completion of the corrosion test there must be no evidence of excessive corrosion which would affect the proper function of the device.

S14.6   Headlamp physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.6.1   Abrasion test.

S14.6.1.1   Procedure.

S14.6.1.1.1   Abrading pad. A new, unused abrading pad constructed of 0000 steel wool not less than 2.5 ±.1 cm wide, rubber cemented to a rigid base shaped to the same vertical contour of the lens, is used for each test. The abrading pad support is equal in size to the pad and the center of the support surface is within ±2 mm of parallel to the lens surface. The “grain” of the pad is oriented perpendicular to the direction of motion. The density of the pad is such that when the pad is resting unweighted on the lens, the base of the pad is no closer than 3.2 mm to the lens at its closest point.

S14.6.1.1.2   Abrading pad alignment. A sample headlamp is mounted in the abrasion test fixture of Figure 5 with the lens facing upward. When mounted on its support and resting on the lens of the test headlamp, the abrading pad is then weighted such that a pad pressure of 14 ±1 KPa. exists at the center and perpendicular to the face of the lens.

S14.6.1.1.3   Abrasion test procedure. The pad is cycled back and forth (1 cycle) for 11 cycles at 4 ±0.8 in (10 ±2 cm) per second over at least 80% of the lens surface, including all the area between the upper and lower aiming pads, but not including lens trim rings and edges. A pivot must be used if it is required to follow the contour of the lens.

S14.6.1.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the abrasion test the sample headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.2   Chemical resistance test.

S14.6.2.1   Procedure.

S14.6.2.1.1   Test fluids. The five test fluids used in the chemical resistance test include:

(a) ASTM Reference Fuel C, which is composed of Isooctane 50% volume and Toluene 50% volume. Isooctane must conform to A2.7 in the ASTM Motor Fuels section (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), and Toluene must conform to ASTM D362-84 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). ASTM Reference Fuel C must be used as specified in: Paragraph A2.3.2 and A2.3.3 of the ASTM Motor Fuels section (incorporated by reference, see §571.5); and OSHA Standard 29 CFR 1910.106—Handling Storage and Use of Flammable Combustible Liquids;

(b) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits);

(c) Power steering fluid (as specified by the vehicle manufacturer for use in the motor vehicle on which the headlamp is intended to be installed);

(d) Windshield washer fluid consisting of 0.5% monoethanolamine with the remainder 50% concentration of methanol/distilled water by volume; and

(e) Antifreeze (50% concentration of ethylene glycol/distilled water by volume).

S14.6.2.1.2   Fluid application. The entire exterior lens surface of the sample headlamp mounted in the headlamp test fixture and top surface of the lens-reflector joint is wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6 inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of five different test fluids listed above. The lamp is wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid. A new lamp sample may be used with each fluid.

S14.6.2.1.3   Test duration. After the headlamp sample has been wiped with the test fluid, it must be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 23 °C ±4 °C and a relative humidity of 30% ±10%. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp is wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.

S14.6.2.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the chemical resistance test, the sample headlamp must have no surface deterioration, coating delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, color bleeding, or color pickup visible without magnification and the headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.3   Corrosion test.

S14.6.3.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture in designed operating position and including all accessory equipment necessary to operate in its normal manner, is subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), for 50 total hours, consisting of two periods of 24 hours exposure followed by a 1 hour drying period. If a portion of the device is completely protected in service, that portion is covered to prevent salt fog entry during exposure. After removal from the salt spray and the final 1 hour drying period the sample headlamp is examined for corrosion that affects any other applicable tests contained in S14.6. If such corrosion is found, the affected test(s) must be performed on the corrosion sample and the results recorded.

S14.6.3.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the corrosion test, the sample headlamp must not have any observed corrosion which would result in the failure of any other applicable tests contained in S14.6 and no corrosion of the headlamp mounting and aiming mechanism that would result in the failure of the aiming adjustment tests, inward force test, or torque deflection test of S14.6.

S14.6.4   Corrosion-connector test.

S14.6.4.1   Procedure.

S14.6.4.1.1   A headlamp connector test must be performed on each filament circuit of the sample headlamp prior to the test in S14.6.4.1.2 according to Figure 4 and S14.6.15. The power source is set to provide 12.8 volts and the resistance must be set to produce 10 amperes.

S14.6.4.1.2   The headlamp, with connector attached to the terminals, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, is subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5), for 240 hours, consisting of ten successive 24-hour periods.

S14.6.4.1.3   During each period, the headlamp is mounted in the middle of the chamber and exposed for 23 hours to the salt spray. The spray is not activated during the 24th hour. The bulb is removed from the headlamp and from the test chamber during the one hour of salt spray deactivation and reinserted for the start of the next test period, at the end of the first and last three 23-hour periods of salt spray exposure, and at the end of any two of the fourth through seventh 23-hour periods of salt-spray exposure.

S14.6.4.1.4   The test chamber is closed at all times except for a maximum of 2 minutes which is allowed for removal or replacement of a bulb during each period.

S14.6.4.1.5   After the ten periods, the lens-reflector unit without the bulb must be immersed in deionized water for 5 minutes, then secured and allowed to dry by natural convection only.

S14.6.4.1.6   Using the voltage, resistance and pre-test set up of S14.6.4.1.1 the current in each filament circuit must be measured after the test conducted in S14.6.4.1.2.

S14.6.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.4.2.1   After the completion of the corrosion-connector test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of external or internal corrosion or rust visible without magnification.

S14.6.4.2.2   Loss of adhesion of any applied coating must not occur more than 3.2 mm from any sharp edge on the inside or out.

S14.6.4.2.3   Corrosion may occur on terminals only if the test current produced during the test of S14.6.4.1.6 is not less than 9.7 amperes.

S14.6.5   Dust test.

S14.6.5.1   Procedure.

S14.6.5.1.1   A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, is positioned within a cubical box, with inside measurements of 900 mm on each side or larger if required for adequate wall clearance (i.e., a distance of at least 150 mm between the headlamp and any wall of the box).

S14.6.5.1.2   The box contains 4.5 kg of fine powdered cement which conforms to the ASTM C150-77 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). Every 15 minutes, the cement is agitated by compressed air or fan blower(s) by projecting blasts of air for a two-second period in a downward direction so that the cement is diffused as uniformly as possible throughout the entire box.

S14.6.5.1.3   This test is continued for five hours after which the exterior surfaces of the headlamp are wiped clean.

S14.6.5.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the dust test, the sample headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.6   Temperature cycle test and internal heat test.

S14.6.6.1   Samples. A sample headlamp with one or more replaceable light sources is tested according to the procedures of this section for a temperature cycle test and an internal heat test. The same sample headlamp is used in the temperature cycle test and then in the internal heat test.

S14.6.6.2   General procedure.

S14.6.6.2.1   Tests are made with all filaments lighted at design voltage that are intended to be used simultaneously in the headlamp and which in combination draw the highest total wattage. These include but are not limited to filaments used for turn signal lamps, fog lamps, parking lamps, and headlamp lower beams lighted with upper beams when the wiring harness is so connected on the vehicle.

S14.6.6.2.2   If a turn signal is included in the headlamp assembly, it is operated at 90 flashes a minute with a 75% ±2% current “on time.”

S14.6.6.2.3   If the lamp produces both the upper and lower beam, it is tested in both the upper beam mode and the lower beam mode under the conditions above described, except for a headlamp with a single type HB1 or type HB2 light source.

S14.6.6.3   Temperature cycle test.

S14.6.6.3.1   Procedure.

S14.6.6.3.1.1   A sample headlamp, mounted on a headlamp test fixture, is subjected to 10 complete consecutive cycles having the thermal cycle profile shown in Figure 6.

S14.6.6.3.1.2   During the hot cycle, the lamp, is energized commencing at point “A” of Figure 6 and de-energized at point “B.”

S14.6.6.3.1.3   Separate or single test chambers may be used to generate the environment of Figure 6.

S14.6.6.3.1.4   All drain holes, breathing devices or other openings or vents of the headlamps are set in their normal operating positions.

S14.6.6.3.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the temperature cycle test, the sample headlamp must:

(a) show no evidence of delamination, fractures, entry of moisture, or deterioration of bonding material, color bleeding, warp or deformation visible without magnification;

(b) show no lens warpage greater than 3 mm when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens; and

(c) meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.6.4   Internal heat test.

S14.6.6.4.1   Procedure.

S14.6.6.4.1.1   A sample headlamp lens surface that would normally be exposed to road dirt is uniformly sprayed with any appropriate mixture of dust and water or other materials to reduce the photometric output at the H-V test point of the upper beam (or the 12 °D-112 °R test point of the lower beam as applicable) to 25% ±2% of the output originally measured in the applicable photometric compliance test.

S14.6.6.4.1.2   A headlamp with a single type HB1 or type HB2 light source is tested on the upper beam only.

S14.6.6.4.1.3   Such reduction is determined under the same conditions as that of the original photometric measurement.

S14.6.6.4.1.4   After the photometric output of the lamp has been reduced as specified above, the sample lamp and its mounting hardware must be mounted in an environmental chamber in a manner similar to that indicated in Figure 7 “Dirt/Ambient Test Setup.”

S14.6.6.4.1.5   The headlamp is soaked for one hour at a temperature of 35° + 4° − 0 °C) and then the lamp is energized according to the procedure of this section for one hour in a still air condition, allowing the temperature to rise from the soak temperature.

S14.6.6.4.1.6   At the end of one hour the sample lamp is returned to a room ambient temperature of 23° + 4° − 0 °C and a relative humidity of 30% ±10% and allowed to stabilize to the room ambient temperature. The lens is then cleaned.

S14.6.6.4.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the temperature cycle test and meeting its requirements, and completion of the internal heat test, the sample headlamp must:

(a) have no lens warpage greater than 3 mm when measured parallel to the optical axis at the point of intersection of the axis of each light source with the exterior surface of the lens, and

(b) meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° reaim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.7   Humidity test.

S14.6.7.1   Procedure.

S14.6.7.1.1   The test fixture consists of a horizontal steel plate to which three threaded steel or aluminum rods of 12 inch diameter are screwed vertically behind the headlamp.

S14.6.7.1.2   The sample headlamp assembly is clamped to the vertical rods, which are behind the headlamp. All attachments to the headlamp assembly are made behind the lens and vents or openings, and are not within 2 inches laterally of a vent inlet or outlet.

S14.6.7.1.3   The mounted headlamp assembly is oriented in its design operating position, and is placed in a controlled environment at a temperature of 100° + 7°−0 °F (38° + 4°−0 °C) with a relative humidity of not less than 90%. All drain holes, breathing devices, and other openings are set in their normal operation positions for all phases of the humidity test.

S14.6.7.1.4   The headlamp is subjected to 24 consecutive 3-hour test cycles. In each cycle, the headlamp is energized for 1 hour at design voltage with the highest combination of filament wattages that are intended to be used, and then de-energized for 2 hours. If the headlamp incorporates a turn signal then the turn signal flashes at 90 flashes per minute with a 75% ±2% current “on-time.”

S14.6.7.1.5   Within 3 minutes after the completion of the 24th cycle, the air flow test will begin. The following procedure shall occur: the mounted assembly is removed, placed in an insulating box and covered with foam material so that there is no visible air space around the assembly; the box is closed, taken to the air flow test chamber, and placed within it. Inside the chamber, the assembly with respect to the air flow, is oriented in its design operating position. The assembly is positioned in the chamber so that the center of the lens is in the center of the opening of the air flow entry duct during the test. The headlamp has at least 3 inches clearance on all sides, and at least 4 inches to the entry and exit ducts at the closest points. If vent tubes are used which extend below the lamp body, the 3 inches are measured from the bottom of the vent tube or its protection. The temperature of the chamber is 73° + 7° − 0 °F (23° + 4° − 0 °C) with a relative humidity of 30% + 10% − 0%. The headlamp is not energized.

S14.6.7.1.6   Before the test specified in paragraph S14.6.7.1.7 of this section, the uniformity of the air flow in the empty test chamber at a plane 4 inches downstream of the air entry duct is measured over a 4 inch square grid. The uniformity of air flow at each grid point is ±10% of the average air flow specified in paragraph S14.6.7.1.7 of this section.

S14.6.7.1.7   The mounted assembly in the chamber is exposed, for one hour, to an average air flow of 330 + 0 −30 ft/min as measured with an air velocity measuring probe having an accuracy of ±3% in the 330 ft/min range. The average air flow is the average of the velocity recorded at six points around the perimeter of the lens. The six points are determined as follows: At the center of the lens, construct a horizontal plane. The first two points are located in the plane, 1 inch outward from the intersection of the plane and each edge of the lens. Then, trisect the distance between these two points and construct longitudinal vertical planes at the two intermediate locations formed by the trisection. The four remaining points are located in the vertical planes, one inch above the top edge of the lens, and one inch below the bottom edge of the lens.

S14.6.7.1.8   After one hour, the headlamp is removed and inspected for moisture.

S14.6.7.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the humidity test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of interior delamination or moisture, fogging or condensation visible without magnification.

S14.6.8   Vibration test.

S14.6.8.1   Samples. The mounting bracket with a sample headlamp installed must not have a resonant frequency in the 10-55 Hz. range.

S14.6.8.2   Procedure. The mounted sample headlamp is bolted to the anvil end of the table of the vibration test machine of Figure 21 and vibrated 750 cpm through a distance of 18 in. The table is spring mounted at one end and fitted with steel calks on the underside of the other end. The table is of sufficient size to completely contain the test fixture base with no overhang. The calks are to make contact with the steel anvil once during each cycle at the completion of the fall. The rack is operated under a spring tension of 60 to 70 lb. The vibration is applied in the vertical axis of the headlamp as mounted on the vehicle. Bulb filaments are not energized during the test. The test is continued for 1 hour.

S14.6.8.3   Performance requirements. After completion of the vibration test, there must be no evidence of loose or broken parts, other than filaments, visible without magnification.

S14.6.9   Sealing test.

S14.6.9.1   Procedure.

S14.6.9.1.1   An unfixtured sample headlamp in its design mounting position is placed in water at a temperature of 176° ±5 °F (80° ±3 °C) for one hour. The headlamp is energized in its highest wattage mode, with the test voltage at 12.8 ±0.1 V during immersion.

S14.6.9.1.2   The lamp is then de-energized and immediately submerged in its design mounting position into water at 32° + 5° −0 °F (0° + 3° −0 °C). The water is in a pressurized vessel, and the pressure is increased to 10 psi (70 kPa), upon placing the lamp in the water. The lamp must remain in the pressurized vessel for a period of thirty minutes.

S14.6.9.1.3   This entire procedure is repeated for four cycles.

S14.6.9.1.4   Then the lamp is inspected for any signs of water on its interior. During the high temperature portion of the cycles, the lamp is observed for signs of air escaping from its interior.

S14.6.9.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the sealing test, a sample headlamp confirmed to be sealed need not meet the corrosion test, dust test, or humidity test of this Section. If any water is on the interior or air escapes, the lamp is not a sealed lamp.

S14.6.10   Chemical resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test.

S14.6.10.1   Procedure.

S14.6.10.1.1   Test fluids. The three test fluids used in the chemical resistance test include;

(a) Tar remover (consisting by volume of 45% xylene and 55% petroleum base mineral spirits);

(b) Mineral spirits; and

(c) Fluids other than water contained in the manufacturer's instructions for cleaning the reflector.

S14.6.10.1.2   Fluid application. With a sample headlamp in the headlamp test fixture and the lens removed, the entire surface of the reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source is wiped once to the left and once to the right with a 6-inch square soft cotton cloth (with pressure equally applied) which has been saturated once in a container with 2 ounces of one of the test fluids listed in S14.6.10.1.1. The lamp is wiped within 5 seconds after removal of the cloth from the test fluid.

S14.6.10.1.3   Test duration. After the headlamp has been wiped with the test fluid, it is stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73° ±7 °F (23° ±4 °C) and a relative humidity of 30% ±10%. At the end of the 48-hour period, the headlamp is wiped clean with a soft dry cotton cloth and visually inspected.

S14.6.10.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the chemical resistance test, the sample headlamp must have no surface deterioration, coating delamination, fractures, deterioration of bonding or sealing materials, color bleeding or color pickup visible without magnification and the headlamp must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° re-aim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.11   Corrosion resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps test.

S14.6.11.1   Procedure.

S14.6.11.1.1   A sample headlamp with the lens removed, unfixtured and in its designed operating attitude with all drain holes, breathing devices or other designed openings in their normal operating positions, must be subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-73, Method of Salt Spray (Fog) Testing (incorporated by reference, see 571.108 S5.2 of this title), for 24 hours, while mounted in the middle of the chamber.

S14.6.11.1.2   Afterwards, the headlamp must be stored in its designed operating attitude for 48 hours at a temperature of 73° ±7 °F (23° ±4 °C) and a relative humidity of 30% ±10% and allowed to dry by natural convection only. At the end of the 48-hour period, the reflector must be cleaned according to the instructions supplied with the headlamp manufacturer's replacement lens, and inspected. The lens and seal must then be attached according to these instructions and the headlamp tested for photometric performance.

S14.6.11.2   Performance requirements. After the completion of the corrosion test, the sample headlamp must show no evidence of corrosion or rust visible without magnification on any part of the headlamp reflector that receives light from a headlamp light source, on any metal light or heat shield assembly, or on a metal reflector of any other lamp. The sample headlamp with the replacement lens installed must meet the requirements of the applicable photometry tests of Table XIX and Table XVIII. A 14 ° re-aim is permitted in any direction at any test point.

S14.6.12   Inward force test.

S14.6.12.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp mechanism, including the aiming adjusters, must be subjected to an inward force of 222 N directed normal to the headlamp aiming plane and symmetrically about the center of the headlamp lens face.

S14.6.12.2   Performance requirements. After the completion of the inward force test, a sample headlamp must not permanently recede by more than 2.5 mm. The aim of the headlamp must not permanently deviate by more than 3.2 mm at a distance of 7.6 m. The aim of any headlamp that is capable of being mechanically aimed by externally applied aiming devices must not change by more than 0.30°.

S14.6.13   Torque deflection test.

S14.6.13.1   Procedure.

S14.6.13.1.1   The sample headlamp assembly is mounted in designed vehicle position and set at nominal aim (H = 0, V = 0).

S14.6.13.1.2   A sealed beam headlamp, except Type G and Type H, is removed from its mounting and replaced by the applicable deflectometer. (Type C and Type D-Figure 18, Type A and Type E-Figure 16, Type B-Figure 17, and Type F-Figure 14).

S14.6.13.1.3   Sealed beam headlamps Type G and Type H have the adapter of Figure 15 and the deflectometer of Figure 14 attached to the headlamp.

S14.6.13.1.4   A torque of 2.25 Nm must be applied to the headlamp assembly through the deflectometer and a reading on the thumbwheel is taken. The torque must be removed and a second reading on the thumbwheel is taken.

S14.6.13.1.5   Headlamps other than sealed beam headlamps must have the downward force used to create the torque applied parallel to the aiming reference plane, through the aiming pads, and displaced forward using a lever arm such that the force is applied on an axis that is perpendicular to the aiming reference plane and originates at the center of the aiming pad pattern (see Figure 3).

S14.6.13.1.6   For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group I, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane is not less than 168.3 mm plus the distance from the aiming reference plane to the secondary plane, if used.

S14.6.13.1.7   For headlamps using the aiming pad locations of Group II, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming reference plane is not less than 167.9 mm plus the distance to the secondary plane, if used.

S14.6.13.1.8   For headlamps using the nonadjustable Headlamp Aiming Device Locating Plates for the 146 mm diameter, the 176 mm diameter, and the 92x150 mm sealed beam, the distance between the point of application of force and the aiming plane is not, respectively, less than 177.4 mm, 176.2 mm, and 193.7 mm.

S14.6.13.2   Performance requirements. The aim of each sample headlamp must not deviate more than 0.30° when the downward torque is removed.

S14.6.14   Retaining ring test.

S14.6.14.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp with the minimum flange thickness of: Type A-31.5 mm, Type B-10.1 mm, Type C-11.8 mm, Type D-11.8 mm, Type E-31.5 mm, and Type F-8.6 mm, is secured between the appropriate mounting ring and retaining ring (mounting ring and aiming ring for Type F).

S14.6.14.2   Performance requirements. The sample headlamp when secured per the procedure must be held tight enough that it will not rattle.

S14.6.15   Headlamp connector test.

S14.6.15.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp connected into the test circuit of Figure 4 has the power supply adjusted until 10 amperes DC are flowing through the circuit. The test is repeated for each filament circuit of the headlamp.

S14.6.15.2   Performance requirements. The voltage drop, as measured in the test circuit of Figure 4, must not exceed 40 mv DC in any applicable filament circuit of the sample headlamp.

S14.6.16   Headlamp wattage test.

S14.6.16.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp that has been seasoned is energized so as to have 12.8v ±20 mv DC applied across each filament circuit and the current flowing in each circuit is measured.

S14.6.16.2   Performance requirements. The wattage of each filament circuit of the sample headlamp must not exceed the applicable value for that type of headlamp as shown in Table II.

S14.6.17   Aiming adjustment test-laboratory.

S14.6.17.1   Procedure. A sample headlamp is mounted in design position at nominal (H = 0, V = 0) aim with an accurate measuring device such as a spot projector or other equally accurate means attached. The headlamp is adjusted to the extremes of travel in each horizontal and vertical direction.

S14.6.17.2   Performance requirements. Visually aimed lower beam headlamps without a VHAD are required not to have a horizontal adjustment mechanism and horizontal aim range requirements do not apply.

S14.6.17.2.1   A sample sealed beam headlamp, other than a Type F, tested per the procedure must provide a minimum of ±4.0° adjustment range in both the vertical and horizontal planes and if equipped with independent vertical and horizontal aiming screws, the adjustment must be such that neither the vertical nor horizontal aim must deviate more than 100 mm from horizontal or vertical planes, respectively, at a distance of 7.6 m through an angle of ±4.0°.

S14.6.17.2.2   A sample Type F sealed beam, integral beam, replaceable bulb, or combination headlamp tested per the procedure must provide a minimum of ±4.0° adjustment range in the vertical plane and ±2.5° in the horizontal plane and if equipped with independent vertical and horizontal aiming screws, the adjustment must be such that neither the vertical nor horizontal aim must deviate more than 100 mm from horizontal or vertical planes, respectively, at a distance of 7.6 m through an angle of ±2.5° and ±4.0°, respectively.

S14.6.17.2.3   A sample headlamp that is aimed by moving the reflector relative to the lens and headlamp housing, and vice versa must provide a minimum adjustment range in the vertical plane not less than the full range of the pitch on the vehicle on which it is installed and ±2.5° in the horizontal plane.

S14.6.18   Aiming adjustment test-on vehicle.

S14.6.18.1   Procedure.

S14.6.18.1.1   A sample headlamp is mounted on the vehicle at nominal (H = 0, V = 0) aim with an accurate measuring device such as a spot projector or other equally accurate means attached.

S14.6.18.1.2   The installed range of static pitch angle is, at a minimum, determined from unloaded vehicle weight to gross vehicle weight rating, and incorporates pitch angle effects from maximum trailer or trunk loadings, the full range of tire intermix sizes and suspensions recommended and/or installed by the vehicle manufacturer, and the anticipated effects of variable passenger loading.

S14.6.18.1.3   The headlamp is adjusted to the extremes of travel in each horizontal and vertical direction.

S14.6.18.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.18.2.1   A sample headlamp tested per the procedure must provide a minimum vertical adjustment range not less than the full range of pitch of the vehicle on which it is installed.

S14.6.18.2.2   The vertical aim mechanism must be continuously variable over the full range.

S14.6.18.2.3   The adjustment of one aim axis through its full on-vehicle range must not cause the aim of the other axis to deviate more than ±0.76°. If this performance is not achievable, the requirements of S10.18.3.1 apply, except that if the aiming mechanism is not a VHAD, the requirements specific to VHADs are not applicable, and the instruction must be specific to the aiming mechanism installed.

S14.7   Replaceable light source physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.7.1   Deflection test for replaceable light sources.

S14.7.1.1   Procedure.

S14.7.1.1.1   With the sample light source rigidly mounted in a fixture in a manner indicated in Figure 8, a force 4.0 ±0.1 pounds (17.8 ±0.4N) is applied at a distance “A” from the reference plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the glass capsule and parallel to the smallest dimension of the pressed glass capsule seal.

S14.7.1.1.2   The force is applied (using a rod with a hard rubber tip with a minimum spherical radius of .039 in [1 mm]) radially to the surface of the glass capsule in four locations in a plane parallel to the reference plane and spaced at a distance “A” from that plane. These force applications are spaced 90° apart starting at the point perpendicular to the smallest dimension of the pressed seal of the glass capsule.

S14.7.1.1.3.   The bulb deflection is measured at the glass capsule surface at 180° opposite to the force application. Distance “A” for a replaceable light source other than an HB Type is the dimension provided in accordance with appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, section I.A.1 if the light source has a lower beam filament, or as specified in section I.B.1 if the light source has only an upper beam filament.

S14.7.1.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the deflection test, a sample light source must have no permanent deflection of the glass envelope exceeding 0.13 mm in the direction of applied force.

S14.7.2   Pressure test for replaceable light sources.

S14.7.2.1   Procedure.

S14.7.2.1.1   The capsule, lead wires and/or terminals, and seal on each sample Type HB1, Type HB3, Type HB4, and Type HB5 light source, and on any other replaceable light source which uses a seal, is installed in a pressure chamber as shown in Figure 10 so as to provide an airtight seal. The diameter of the aperture in Figure 10 on a replaceable light source (other than an HB Type) must be that dimension furnished for such light source in compliance with appendix A or appendix B of part 564 of this chapter.

S14.7.2.1.2   The light source is immersed in water for one minute while inserted in a cylindrical aperture specified for the light source, and subjected to an air pressure of 70 KPa (10 psig) on the glass capsule side.

S14.7.2.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the pressure test, the sample light source with an airtight seal on the low pressure (connector side) must show no evidence of air bubbles on that side.

S14.7.3   Replaceable light source power and flux measurement procedure. The measurement of maximum power and luminous flux that is submitted in compliance with section VII of appendix A of part 564 of this chapter, or section IV of appendix B of part 564 of this chapter, is made in accordance with this paragraph.

S14.7.3.1   Seasoning. The filament or discharge arc is seasoned before measurement of either maximum power and luminous flux.

S14.7.3.1.1   Resistive filament source. Seasoning of a light source with a resistive element type filament is made in accordance with this S14.2.5.4 of this standard.

S14.7.3.1.2   Discharge source. For a light source using excited gas mixtures as a filament or discharge arc, seasoning of the light source system, including any ballast required for its operation, is made in accordance with section 4.0 of SAE Recommended Practice J2009 (1993) (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S14.7.3.2   Test voltage. Measurements are made with a direct current test voltage of 12.8 v regulated within one quarter of one percent.

S14.7.3.3   Luminous flux measurement. The measurement of luminous flux is made in accordance with IES LM 45 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5).

S14.7.3.3.1   Resistive filament light source setup. Luminous flux measurements are made with the black cap installed on Type HB1, Type HB2, Type HB4, and Type HB5, and on any other replaceable light source so designed; and is with the electrical conductor and light source base shrouded with an opaque white cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing. The measurement of luminous flux for the Types HB3 and HB4 is made with the base covered with a white cover as shown in the drawings for Types HB3 and HB4 filed in Docket No. NHTSA 98-3397. The white covers are used to eliminate the likelihood of incorrect lumen measurement that will occur should the reflectance of the light source base and electrical connector be low.

S14.7.3.3.2   Discharge light source setup. With the test voltage applied to the ballast input terminals, the measurement of luminous flux is made with the black cap installed, if so designed, and is made with an opaque white colored cover, except for the portion normally located within the interior of the lamp housing.

S14.8   Vehicle headlamp aiming devices (VHAD) physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.8.1   Samples. The same VHAD and associated headlamp(s) or headlamp assembly must be rigidly mounted in a headlamp test fixture with the aiming plane horizontal and vertical and with the scale on the device set at 0.

S14.8.2   Scale graduation test.

S14.8.2.1   Procedure. Check each graduation on the horizontal and vertical aim scales.

S14.8.2.2   Performance requirements. Scale graduation from correct aim must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.

S14.8.3   Cold scale graduation test.

S14.8.3.1   Procedure. The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly must then be stabilized at −7° ±3 °C in a circulating air environmental test chamber for a 30 minute temperature soak.

S14.8.3.2   Performance requirements. After completion of a 30 minute temperature soak the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.

S14.8.4   Hot scale graduation test.

S14.8.4.1   Procedure. The VHAD and the headlamp assembly with its highest wattage filament, or combination of filaments intended to be used simultaneously, energized at its design voltage, is then stabilized at 38° ±3 °C in a circulating air environmental test chamber for a 30 minute temperature soak.

S14.8.4.2   Performance requirements. After completion of a 30 minute temperature soak the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically.

S14.8.5   Thermal cycle test.

S14.8.5.1   Procedure. The VHAD and an unlighted headlamp assembly are then placed in a circulating air environmental test chamber and exposed to a temperature of 60° ±3 °C for 24 hours, followed by a temperature of −40° ±3 °C for 24 hours, and are then permitted to return to room temperature.

S14.8.5.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the thermal cycle test the variation from correct aim shown by the sample VHAD must not exceed ±0.2° horizontally and ±0.1° vertically and the VHAD and headlamp assembly must show no damage which would impair its ability to perform as specified in this standard.

S14.8.6   Corrosion test.

S14.8.6.1   Procedure. The VHAD and headlamp assembly are then tested according to the headlamp corrosion test of S14.6.3.

S14.8.6.2   Performance requirements. After completion of the corrosion test the sample VHAD and headlamp must not have any observed corrosion that would result in the failure of any other applicable tests contained in this section.

S14.8.7   Photometry test.

S14.8.7.1   Procedure. The VHAD and headlamp assembly are then tested for photometric compliance according to the procedure of S14.2.5 and for replacement units per S10.18.8.4.

S14.8.7.2   Performance requirements. The sample headlamp must comply with the applicable photometric requirements of Table XIX and Table XVIII and with replacement units installed per S10.18.8.4.

S14.9   Associated equipment physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.9.1   Turn signal operating unit durability test.

S14.9.1.1   Power supply specifications. During the test, the unit is operated at 6.4 volts for 6 volt systems or 12.8 volts for 12 volt systems from a power supply meeting the following requirements:

(a) An output current that is at least 10 times the load current;

(b) Voltage regulation that allows a voltage change of less than 5%;

(c) Ripple voltage of not more than 5%;

(d) A response time of not more than 25 milliseconds rise time from 0 to rated current at rated voltage in a pure resistance circuit; and

(e) An output impedance of not more than 0.005 ohms dc.

S14.9.1.2   Procedure.

S14.9.1.2.1   The sample unit is operated with the maximum bulb load it will experience on the vehicle on which it will be installed. Bulbs that fail during the test are replaced. The turn signal flasher is not to be included in the test circuit. When the unit includes a self-canceling means, the test equipment is arranged so that the unit will be turned “off” in its normal operating manner.

S14.9.1.2.2   The test is conducted at a rate not to exceed 15 complete cycles per minute. One complete cycle consists of the following sequence: Off, left turn, off, right turn, and return to off.

S14.9.1.2.3   The voltage drop from the input terminal of the device to each lamp output terminal, including 3 in of 16 or 18 gage wire, is measured at the start of the test, at intervals of not more than 25,000 cycles during the test, and at the completion of the test.

S14.9.1.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.1.3.1   A turn signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing at least 100,000 cycles, and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.25 volts.

S14.9.1.3.2 A turn signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing at least 175,000 cycles for a unit installed on a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, or bus 2032 mm or more in overall width, and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.25 volts.

S14.9.1.3.3   If stop signals also operate through the turn signal operating unit, the voltage drop of any additional switch contacts must meet the same requirements as the turn signal contacts.

S14.9.2   Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit durability test.

S14.9.2.1   Procedure.

S14.9.2.1.1   The sample unit is operated at its rated voltage with the maximum bulb load it will experience on the vehicle on which it will be installed. Bulbs that fail during the test are replaced. The hazard warning signal flasher is not to be included in the test circuit.

S14.9.2.1.2   The unit is turned “on” and “off” in its normal operating manner at a rate not to exceed 15 complete cycles per minute. One complete cycle consists of the sequence: Off, on, and return to off. The test consists of 10,000 cycles at an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F followed by 1 hour constant “on” at the same temperature.

S14.9.2.1.3   The voltage drop from the input terminal of the device to each lamp output terminal, including 3 in of 16 or 18 gage wire, is measured at the start of the test and at the completion of the test.

S14.9.2.2   Performance requirements. A hazard warning signal operating unit is considered to have met the requirements of the durability test if it remains operational after completing 10,000 cycles and the 1 hour constant “on” and the voltage drop between the input contact and any output contact, including required length of wire, does not exceed 0.3 volts for either 6.4 or 12.8 line voltage both at the start and completion of the test.

S14.9.3   Turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning signal flasher tests.

S14.9.3.1   Standard test circuit. All turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning signal flasher tests use the standard test circuit of Figure 22.

S14.9.3.1.1   Test circuit setup.

S14.9.3.1.1.1   The effective series resistance in the total circuit between the power supply and the bulb sockets (excluding the flasher and bulb load(s) using shorting bars) is 0.10 ±0.01 ohm.

S14.9.3.1.1.2   The circuit resistance at A-B of Figure 22 is measured with flasher and bulb load(s) each shorted out with an effective shunt resistance not to exceed 0.005 ohms.

S14.9.3.1.1.3   The voltage to the bulbs at C-D of Figure 22 is adjusted to 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) with the flasher shorted out by an effective shunt resistance not to exceed 0.005 ohms. The load current is adjusted by simultaneously adjusting trimmer resistors, R.

S14.9.3.1.1.4   For testing fixed-load flashers at other required voltages, adjust the power supply to provide required voltages, at the required temperatures, at C-D of Figure 22, without readjustment of trimming resistors, R.

S14.9.3.1.1.5   For variable-load flashers, the circuit is first adjusted for 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) at C-D of Figure 22, with the minimum required load, and the power supply is adjusted to provide other required test voltages, at required temperatures, at C-D of Figure 22, without readjustment of trimming resistors, R (each such required voltage being set with the minimum required load in place). The required voltage tests with the maximum load are conducted without readjusting each corresponding power supply voltage, previously set with minimum bulb load.

S14.9.3.1.1.6   A suitable high impedance measuring device connected to points X-Y in Figure 22 is used for measuring flash rate, percent current “on” time, and voltage drop across the flasher. The measurement of these quantities does not affect the circuit.

S14.9.3.2   Power supply specifications.

S14.9.3.2.1   Starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent current “on” time tests. The power supply used in the standard test circuit for conducting the starting time, the voltage drop, and the flash rate and percent current “on” time tests must comply with the following specifications:

(a) Must not generate any adverse transients not present in motor vehicles;

(b) Be capable of supplying 11-16 vdc for 12 volt flashers and 5-9 vdc for 6 volt flashers to the input terminals of the standard test circuit;

(c) Be capable of supplying required design current(s) continuously and inrush currents as required by the design bulb load complement;

(d) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 2% with changes in the static load from 0 to maximum (not including inrush current) nor for static input line voltage variations;

(e) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 1.0 vdc from 0 to maximum load (including inrush current) and must recover 63% of its maximum excursion within 100 µsec; and

(f) Have a ripple voltage of 75mv, peak to peak.

S14.9.3.2.2   Durability tests. The power supply used in the standard test circuit for conducting durability tests must comply with the following specifications:

(a) Must not generate any adverse transients not present in motor vehicles;

(b) Be capable of supplying 13 vdc and 14 vdc for 12 volt flashers and 6.5 vdc and 7 vdc for 6 volt flashers to the input terminals of the standard test circuit;

(c) Be capable of supplying a continuous output current of the design load for one flasher times the number of flashers and inrush currents as required by the design bulb load complement;

(d) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 2% with changes in the static load from 0 to maximum (not including inrush current) and means must be provided to compensate for static input line voltage variations;

(e) Be capable of supplying an output voltage that does not deviate more than 1.0 vdc from 0 to maximum load (including inrush current) and must recover 63% of its maximum excursion within 5 µsec; and

(f) Have a ripple voltage of 300 mv, peak to peak.

S14.9.3.3   Turn signal flasher starting time test.

S14.9.3.3.1   Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from fifty representative samples are subjected to a starting time test using the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.3.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.3.2.1   The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75 ±10 °F with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their minimum and their maximum design load) connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.

S14.9.3.3.2.2   The time measurement starts when the voltage is initially applied. Compliance is based on an average of three starts for each sample separated by a cooling interval of 5 minutes.

S14.9.3.3.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the starting time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:

(a) A flasher having normally closed contacts must open (turn off) within 1.0 second for a device designed to operate two signal lamps, or within 1.25 seconds for a device designed to operate more than two lamps, or

(b) A flasher having normally open contacts must complete the first cycle (close the contacts and then open the contacts) within 1.5 seconds.

S14.9.3.4   Turn signal flasher voltage drop test.

S14.9.3.4.1   Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the starting time test are subjected to a voltage drop test using the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.4.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.4.2.1   The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75 ±10 °F with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their maximum design load) connected and the power source for the standard test circuit adjusted to apply 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts at the bulbs according to the flasher rating.

S14.9.3.4.2.2   The voltage drop is measured between the input and load terminals of the flasher during the “on” period after the flashers have completed at least five consecutive cycles.

S14.9.3.4.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the voltage drop test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the lowest voltage drop across any flasher not exceeding 0.80 volt.

S14.9.3.5   Turn signal flasher flash rate and percent current “on” time test.

S14.9.3.5.1   Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the voltage drop test are subjected to a flash rate and percent of current “on” time test.

S14.9.3.5.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.5.2.1   The test is conducted using the standard test circuit with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their minimum and their maximum design load) connected and design voltage applied to the bulbs.

S14.9.3.5.2.2   Compliance is determined using the following combinations of ambient temperature and bulb voltage:

(a) 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) and 75° ±10 °F,

(b) 12.0 volts (or 6.0 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,

(c) 15.0 volts (or 7.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,

(d) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F, and

(e) 14.0 volts (or 7.0 volts) and 125° ±5 °F.

S14.9.3.5.2.3   Flash rate and percent current “on” time are measured after the flashers have completed five consecutive cycles and are determined by an average of at least three consecutive cycles.

S14.9.3.5.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the flash rate and percent current “on” time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:

(a) The performance of a normally closed type flasher must be within the unshaded portion of the polygon shown in Figure 2, or

(b) The performance of a normally open type flasher must be within the entire rectangle including the shaded areas shown in Figure 2.

S14.9.3.6   Turn signal flasher durability test.

S14.9.3.6.1   Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from the thirty samples not used in the previous tests are subjected to a durability test.

S14.9.3.6.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.6.2.1   Conformance of the samples to the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) is established.

S14.9.3.6.2.2   The test is conducted on each sample with the design load (variable load flashers are tested with their maximum design load) connected and 14 volts or 7.0 volts, according to the flasher rating, applied to the input terminals of the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.6.2.3   The test cycle consists of 15 seconds on followed by 15 seconds off for a total time of 200 hours in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.

S14.9.3.6.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the durability test are considered to have been met if, after completion, 17 of 20 samples comply with the performance requirements of the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) when tested in the standard test circuit with design load and 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) applied to the bulbs.

S14.9.3.7   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher starting time test.

S14.9.3.7.1   Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from fifty representative samples are subjected to a starting time test using the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.7.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.7.2.1   The test is conducted test in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F with the minimum and maximum load connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.

S14.9.3.7.2.2   The time measurement starts when the voltage is initially applied.

S14.9.3.7.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the starting time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:

(a) A flasher having normally closed contacts must open (turn off) within 1.5 seconds after the voltage is applied, or

(b) A flasher having normally open contacts must complete the first cycle (close the contacts and then open the contacts) within 1.5 seconds after the voltage is applied.

S14.9.3.8   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher voltage drop test.

S14.9.3.8.1   Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the starting time test are subjected to a voltage drop test using the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.8.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.8.2.1   The test is conducted in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F with the maximum design load connected and the power source for the test circuit adjusted to apply design voltage at the bulbs.

S14.9.3.8.2.2   The voltage drop is measured between the input and load terminals of the flasher during the “on” period after the flashers have completed at least five consecutive cycles.

S14.9.3.8.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the voltage drop test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the lowest voltage drop across any flasher must not exceed 0.8 volt.

S14.9.3.9   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher flash rate and percent “on” time test.

S14.9.3.9.1   Samples. The same twenty sample flashers used in the voltage drop test are subjected to a flash rate and percent of current “on” time test.

S14.9.3.9.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.9.2.1   The test is conducted using the standard test circuit by and applying loads of from two signal lamps to the maximum design loading including pilot indicator.

S14.9.3.9.2.2   Compliance is determined using the following combinations of ambient temperature and bulb voltage:

(a) 12.8 volts (or 6.4 volts) and 75° ±10 °F,

(b) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F,

(c) 11.0 volts (or 5.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F,

(d) 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) and 125° ±5 °F, and

(e) 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) and 0° ±5 °F.

S14.9.3.9.2.3   Flash rate and percent current “on” time are measured after the flashers have completed five consecutive cycles and are determined by an average of at least three consecutive cycles.

S14.9.3.9.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the flash rate and percent current “on” time test are considered to have been met if 17 of 20 samples comply with the following:

(a) The performance of a normally closed type flasher must be within the unshaded portion of the polygon shown in Figure 2, or

(b) The performance of a normally open type flasher must be within the entire rectangle including the shaded areas shown in Figure 2.

S14.9.3.10   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher durability test.

S14.9.3.10.1   Samples. Twenty sample flashers chosen from random from the thirty samples not used in the previous tests are subjected to a durability test.

S14.9.3.10.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.10.2.1   Conformance of the samples to the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) is established.

S14.9.3.10.2.2   The test is conducted on each sample with the maximum design load connected and 13.0 volts (or 6.5 volts) applied to the input terminals of the standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.10.2.3   The flasher is subjected to continuous flashing for a total time of 36 hours in an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.

S14.9.3.10.3   Performance requirements. The requirements of the durability test are considered to have been met if, after completion, 17 of 20 samples comply with the performance requirements of the starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent of current “on” time tests (limited to the 12.8 volts or 6.4 volts and 75° ±10 °F test condition only) when tested in the standard test circuit with the power source adjusted to provide design voltage to the bulbs and with a minimum load of two signal lamp bulbs and the maximum design load, including pilot lamps, as specified by the manufacturer at an ambient temperature of 75° ±10 °F.

S14.9.3.11   Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device tests.

S14.9.3.11.1   Test conditions. All tests are conducted with 13 volts input to the device unless otherwise specified.

S14.9.3.11.2   Sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.2.1   Samples. The sample device is mounted in and operated in the laboratory in the same environment as that encountered on the vehicle, that is tinted glass, grille work, etc.

S14.9.3.11.2.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.2.2.1   The sample device is adjusted for sensitivity in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. It is exposed to a light source capable of providing a variable intensity of at least 1.5 cd to 150 cd at 100 feet from the sample device.

S14.9.3.11.2.2.2   The device is switched to the lower beam mode in accordance with the “dim” limits specified and switched back to the upper beam mode in accordance with the “hold” limits specified for the specified test positions.

S14.9.3.11.2.2.3   To provide more complete information on sensitivity throughout the required vertical and horizontal angles, a set of constant footcandle curves are made at “dim” sensitivities of 17, 25, and 100 cd at 100 ft.

S14.9.3.11.2.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.2.3.1   Operating limits.

Test position
(degrees)
Dim
(cd at 100 ft)
Hold
(cd at 100 ft)
H      VAdjust to 151.5 min to 3.75 max.
H      2L25 max1.5 min.
H      4L40 max1.5 min.
H      6L75 max1.5 min.
H      2R25 max1.5 min.
H      5R150 max to 40 min1.5 min.
1D      V30 max1.5 min.
1U      V30 max1.5 min.

S14.9.3.11.2.3.2   There must be no sensitivity voids shown in the constant footcandle curves within the area limited by the test positions.

S14.9.3.11.3   Voltage regulation test.

S14.9.3.11.3.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.3.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.3.1.2   The “dim” sensitivity is measured at the H-V test position at 11 volts input to the device and at 15 volts input to the device.

S14.9.3.11.3.2   Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode at between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft) with the input voltage at 11 volts and at 15 volts.

S14.9.3.11.4   Manual override test.

S14.9.3.11.4.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.4.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.4.1.2   The device is exposed to a test light that causes it to switch to the lower beam mode.

S14.9.3.11.4.1.3   The manufacturer's instructions are followed to cause the device to override the test light and switch to upper beam.

S14.9.3.11.4.1.4   In a similar manner, the test light is extinguished to cause the device to switch to the upper beam mode.

S14.9.3.11.4.1.5   Again the manufacturer's instructions are followed to cause the device to switch to lower beam.

S14.9.3.11.4.2   Performance requirements. The device, when operated in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions, must switch to the opposite beam with the test light energized and with the test light extinguished.

S14.9.3.11.5   Warmup test.

S14.9.3.11.5.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.5.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test and the test lamp extinguished.

S14.9.3.11.5.1.2   The test lamp will then be energized at a level of 25 (cd at 100 ft) at the H-V position of the device and the time for the device to switch to lower beam is measured.

S14.9.3.11.5.2   Performance requirements. If the warmup time of the device exceeds 10 seconds it shall maintain the headlamps on lower beam during warmup.

S14.9.3.11.6   Temperature test.

S14.9.3.11.6.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.6.1.1   The sample device is exposed for 1 hour in a temperature corresponding to that at the device mounting location.

S14.9.3.11.6.1.2   For a device mounted in the passenger compartment or the engine compartment, the temperature is 210 °F, mounted elsewhere, the temperature is 150 °F.

S14.9.3.11.6.1.3   After this exposure the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured over the temperature range of −30 °F to + 100 °F.

S14.9.3.11.6.2   Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft) over the temperature range of −30 °F to + 100 °F.

S14.9.3.11.7   Dust test.

S14.9.3.11.7.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.7.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.7.1.2   The device is then subjected to the dust test of S14.5.3.

S14.9.3.11.7.1.3   At the conclusion of the dust exposure the lens of the device must be wiped clean and the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured.

S14.9.3.11.7.2   Performance requirements. The device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).

S14.9.3.11.8   Corrosion test.

S14.9.3.11.8.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.8.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.8.1.2   All system components located outside the passenger compartment must be subjected to the corrosion test of S14.5.4 with the device not operating.

S14.9.3.11.8.1.3   Water is not permitted to accumulate on any connector socket.

S14.9.3.11.8.1.4   At the conclusion of the test the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device must be measured.

S14.9.3.11.8.2   Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).

S14.9.3.11.9   Vibration test.

S14.9.3.11.9.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.9.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test and the mechanical aim of the photounit determined.

S14.9.3.11.9.1.2   The sample device must be mounted in proper vehicle position and subjected to vibration of 5g constant acceleration for 12 hour in each of three directions: vertical; horizontal and parallel to the vehicle longitudinal axis; and horizontal and normal to the vehicle longitudinal axis.

S14.9.3.11.9.1.3   The vibration frequency must be varied from 30 to 200 and back to 30 cycles per second over a period of approximately 1 minute.

S14.9.3.11.9.1.4   The device must be operating during the test.

S14.9.3.11.9.1.5   At the conclusion of the test the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device and the mechanical aim of the photounit must be measured.

S14.9.3.11.9.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.9.2.1   The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).

S14.9.3.11.9.2.2   The mechanical aim of the device photounit must not have changed by more than 0.25° from the initial value.

S14.9.3.11.10   Sunlight test.

S14.9.3.11.10.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.10.1.1   The sample device must be exposed for 1 hour in bright noonday sunlight (5000 fc minimum illumination with a clear sky) with the photounit aimed as it would be in service and facing an unobstructed portion of the horizon in the direction of the sun.

S14.9.3.11.10.1.2   The device must then be rested for 1 hour in normal room light at room temperature and the H-V “dim” sensitivity of the sample device is measured.

S14.9.3.11.10.2   Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).

S14.9.3.11.11   Durability test.

S14.9.3.11.11.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.11.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.11.1.2   The device photounit operated at a 13.0 input voltage on a cycle of 90 minutes on and 30 minutes off must be activated by a 60 cd light source at 100 ft, or equivalent, which is cycled on and off 4 times per minute for a period of 200 hours.

S14.9.3.11.11.1.3   The device must then rest for 2 hours in a lighted area of 50 to 150 fc after which the H-V “dim” sensitivity must be measured.

S14.9.3.11.11.2   Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to the lower beam mode between 8 (cd at 100 ft) and 25 (cd at 100 ft).

S14.9.3.11.12   Return to upper beam test.

S14.9.3.11.12.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.12.1.1   The sensitivity of the sample device is adjusted so that it complies with the sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.12.1.2   The lens of the photounit must be exposed to light of 100 fc for 10 seconds.

S14.9.3.11.12.2   Performance requirements. The sample device must switch to upper beam mode within 2 seconds after the 100 fc light is extinguished.

Table I-a—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices

Lighting
device
Number and colorMounting
location
Mounting heightDevice activation
All Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses
Lower Beam HeadlampsWhite, of a headlighting system listed in Table IIOn the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm)The wiring harness or connector assembly of each headlighting system must be designed so that only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the upper beam position, except for certain systems listed in Table II.
Steady burning, except that may be flashed for signaling purposes.
Upper Beam HeadlampsWhite, of a headlighting system listed in Table IIOn the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm)
Turn Signal Lamps2 AmberAt or near the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inchesFlash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
   2 Amber or red Truck tractor exception, see S6.1.1.3On the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable
Taillamps2 RedOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning. Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
May be activated when the headlamps are activated at less than full intensity as Daytime Running Lamps (DRL).
Stop Lamps2 RedOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
Must be activated upon application of the service brakes. When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing.
May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Side Marker Lamps2 AmberOn each side as far to the front as practicableNot less than 15 inchesSteady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes. Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
   2 Red (not required on truck tractor).On each side as far to the rear as practicable
Reflex Reflectors2 AmberOn each side as far to the front as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inchesNot applicable.
   2 Red (not required on truck tractor).On each side as far to the rear as practicable
   2 RedOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable
On a truck tractor may be mounted on the back of the cab not less than 4 inches above the height of the rear tires.
Backup Lamp1 White Additional lamps permitted to meet requirementsOn the rearNo requirementSteady burning.
Must be activated when the ignition switch is energized and reverse gear is engaged.
Must not be energized when the vehicle is in forward motion.
License Plate Lamp1 White Additional lamps permitted to meet requirementsOn the rear to illuminate license plate from top or sidesNo requirementSteady burning.
Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or when the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
Additional Lamps Required on All Passenger Cars, and on Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, Less Than 2032 MM in Overall Width
Parking lamps2 Amber or whiteOn the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
Additional Lamp(s) Required on All Passenger Cars, and on Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, Less Than 2032 MM in Overall Width and With a GVWR of 10,000 Lbs or Less
High mounted stop lamp1 Red, or 2 red where exceptions apply. See Section 6.1.1.2On the rear including glazing, with the lamp center on the vertical centerline as viewed from the rearNot less than 34 inches except for passenger cars. See Section 6.1.4.1Steady burning.
Must only be activated upon application of the service brakes or may be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Additional Lamps and Reflective Devices Required on All Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, 30 Feet or Longer
Intermediate side marker lamps2 AmberOn each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lampsNot less than 15 inchesSteady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.
Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state or when the parking lamps on passenger cars and MPVs, trucks, and buses less than 80 inches in overall width are activated.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors2 AmberOn each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectorsNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inchesNot applicable.
Additional Lamps Required on All Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses, 2032 MM or More in Overall Width
Clearance lamps2 AmberOn the front to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or width of cab on truck tractor, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline
May be located at a location other than the front if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle.
As near the top as practicableSteady burning.
   2 Red
(not required on truck tractor)
On the rear to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline
May be located at a location other than the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle.
As near the top as practicable, except where the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of the vehicle.
Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors.
Steady burning.
Identification lamps3 AmberOn the front, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apartAs near the top of the vehicle or top of the cab as practicableSteady burning.
   3 Red (not required on truck tractor)On the rear, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apartAs near the top as practicable
Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors.
Steady burning.
Additional Lamps Required on All School Buses Except Multifunction School Activity Buses
Signal warning lamps2 Red plus 2 amber optionalOn the front of the cab as far apart as practicable, but in no case shall the spacing between lamps be less than 40 inches
Amber lamps, when installed, at the same height as and just inboard of the red lamp.
As high as practicable but at least above the windshieldFlashing alternately between 60 to 120 cycles per minute, with an activation period sufficient to allow the lamp to reach full brightness, when actuated by a manual switch.
Amber lamps, when installed, may only be activated by manual or foot operation, and must be automatically deactivated and the red lamps must be automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
   2 Red plus 2 amber optionalOn the rear cab as far apart as practicable, but in no case shall the spacing between lamps be less than 40 inches
Amber lamps, when installed, at the same height as and just inboard of the red lamp.
As high as practicable but at least above the top of any side window openingFlashing alternately between 60 to 120 cycles per minute, with an activation period sufficient to allow the lamp to reach full brightness, when actuated by a manual switch.
Amber lamps, when installed, may only be activated by manual or foot operation, and must be automatically deactivated and the red lamps must be automatically activated when the bus entrance door is opened.
Daytime Running Lamps Permitted But Not Required on Passenger Cars, Multipurpose Passenger Vehicles (MPV), Trucks, and Buses
Daytime running lamp (DRL)2 identically colored either white, white to yellow, white to selective yellow, selective yellow, or yellowOn the front, symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline if not a pair of lamps required by this standard or if not optically combined with a pair of lamps required by this standardNot more than 1.067 meters above the road surface if not a pair of lamps required by this standard or if not optically combined with a pair of lamps required by this standard
See S7.10.13(b) for additional height limitation.
Steady burning.
Automatically activated as determined by the vehicle manufacturer and automatically deactivated when the headlamp control is in any “on” position.
Each DRL optically combined with a turn signal lamp must be automatically deactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is activated, and automatically reactivated as a DRL when the turn signal lamp or hazard warning lamp is deactivated.
See S7.10.10.1(c) for additional activation requirements when mounted close to, or combined with, a turn signal lamp.

Table I-b—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices

Lighting deviceNumber and colorMounting locationMounting heightDevice activation
ALL TRAILERS
Turn Signal Lamps2 Red or amberOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inchesFlash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
Taillamps2 Red or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wideOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. When a single lamp is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerlineNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
Stop Lamps2 Red, or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wideOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. When a single lamp is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerlineNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
Must be activated upon application of the service brakes.
When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing. May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Side Marker Lamps2 Amber
None required on trailers less than 1829 mm [6 ft] in overall length including the trailer tongue
On each side as far to the front as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongueNot less than 15 inchesSteady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.
   2 RedOn each side as far to the rear as practicableNot less than 15 inches. Not more than 60 inches on trailers 2032 mm or more in overall width
Reflex Reflectors. A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with S8.2 of this standard need not be equipped with reflex reflectors if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the required reflex reflectors2 Amber
None required on trailers less than 1829 mm [6 ft] in overall length including the trailer tongue
On each side as far to the front as practicable exclusive of the trailer tongueNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inchesNot applicable.
   2 RedOn each side as far to the rear as practicable
   2 Red or 1 red on trailers less than 30 inches wideOn the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable
When a single reflector is installed it must be mounted at or near the vertical centerline.
License Plate Lamp1 White
Additional lamps permitted to meet requirements
On the rear to illuminate license plate from top or sidesNo requirementSteady burning.
Additional Lamps and Reflective Devices Required on all Trailers 30 Feet or Longer
Intermediate side marker lamps2 AmberOn each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side marker lampsNot less than 15 inchesSteady burning except may be flashed for signaling purposes.
Intermediate side reflex reflectors
A trailer equipped with a conspicuity treatment in conformance with S8.2 of this standard need not be equipped with reflex reflectors if the conspicuity material is placed at the locations of the required reflex reflectors
2 AmberOn each side located at or near the midpoint between the front and rear side reflex reflectorsNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inchesNot applicable.
Additional Lamps Required on all Trailers 2032 MM or More in Overall Width
Clearance lamps2 AmberOn the front to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline
May be located at a location other than the front if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle
As near the top as practicableSteady burning.
   2 RedOn the rear to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline
May be located at a location other than the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle
As near the top as practicable, except where the rear identification lamps are mounted at the extreme height of the vehicle. Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doorsSteady burning.
   2 Amber to front and red to rearOn a boat trailer the requirement for front and rear clearance lamps may be met by installation at or near the midpoint on each side of a dual facing lamp so as to indicate the extreme width. May be located at a location other than the front and the rear if necessary to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicleAs near the top as practicableSteady burning.
Identification lamps3 RedOn the rear, at the same height, as close as practicable to the vertical centerline, with lamp centers spaced not less than 6 inches or more than 12 inches apartAs near the top as practicable
Practicability of locating lamps on the vehicle header is presumed when the header extends at least 25 mm (1 inch) above the rear doors
Steady burning.

Table I-c—Required Lamps and Reflective Devices

Lighting deviceNumber and colorMounting locationMounting heightDevice activation
All Motorcycles
Lower Beam HeadlampsWhite, of a headlighting system listed in S10.17On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. See additional requirements in S10.17.1.1, S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm)The wiring harness or connector assembly of each headlighting system must be designed so that only those light sources intended for meeting lower beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the lower beam position, and that only those light sources intended for meeting upper beam photometrics are energized when the beam selector switch is in the upper beam position, except for certain systems listed in Table II.
Upper Beam HeadlampsWhite, of a headlighting system listed in S10.17On the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, as far apart as practicable. See additional requirements in S10.17.1.1, S10.17.1.2, and S10.17.1.3Not less than 22 inches (55.9 cm) nor more than 54 inches (137.2 cm)Steady burning, except that may be flashed for signaling purposes.
   The upper beam or the lower beam, but not both, may be wired to modulate from a higher intensity to a lower intensity in accordance with S10.17.5
Turn Signal Lamps2 Amber. None required on a motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or lessAt or near the front, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline of lamps) of 16 inches. Minimum edge to edge separation distance between a turn signal lamp and headlamp is 4 inchesNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 83 inchesFlash when the turn signal flasher is actuated by the turn signal operating unit.
   2 Amber or red. None required on a motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or lessAt or near the rear, at the same height, symmetrically about the vertical centerline, and having a minimum horizontal separation distance (centerline to centerline of lamps) of 9 inches
      Minimum edge to edge separation distance between the turn signal lamp and the taillamp or stop lamp is 4 inches, when a single stop and taillamp is installed on the vertical centerline and the turn signal lamps are red
Taillamps1 RedOn the rear, on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerlineNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
            Must be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
Stop Lamps1 RedOn the rear, on the vertical centerline except that if two are used, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerlineNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 72 inchesSteady burning.
            Must be activated upon application of the service brakes.
            When optically combined with a turn signal lamp, the circuit must be such that the stop signal cannot be activated if the turn signal lamp is flashing. May also be activated by a device designed to retard the motion of the vehicle.
Reflex Reflectors2 AmberOn each side as far to the front as practicableNot less than 15 inches, nor more than 60 inchesNot applicable.
   2 RedOn each side as far to the rear as practicable
   1 RedOn the rear, on the vertical centerline except that, if two are used on the rear, they must be symmetrically disposed about the vertical centerline
License Plate Lamp1 WhiteOn the rear to illuminate license plateNo requirementSteady burning.
   Additional lamps permitted to meet requirementsMust be activated when the headlamps are activated in a steady burning state.
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Table II-b—Headlighting Systems—Combination

System designation System composition Photometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aimLower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
2 LAMP SYSTEMA COMBINATION OF TWO DIFFERENT HEADLAMPS CHOSEN FROM; TYPE F, AN INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMP, OR A REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPUB2(1)LB2M(1)LB2V(1)
4 LAMP SYSTEMANY COMBINATION OF FOUR DIFFERENT HEADLAMPS CHOSEN FROM; TYPE F, AN INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMP(3), OR A REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPUB1LB1M(2)LB1V(2)

(1)Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.

(2)Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.

(3)Beam contributor photometric allocation formula of S14.2.5.9 may apply.

Table II-c—Headlighting Systems—Integral Beams

System designation Beam composition Photometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aimLower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
2 LAMP SYSTEMUPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAMUB2(1) OR UB3LB2M(1) OR LB3MLB2V(1) OR LB3V
4 LAMP SYSTEMUPPER BEAMUB4N.A.N.A.
   UPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAMUB5LB4MLB2V
4 LAMP SYSTEMUPPER BEAM (U)UB1N.A.N.A.
   LOWER BEAM (L)N.A.(2)LB1M(2)LB1V(2)
4 LAMP SYSTEMUPPER BEAMUB6N.A.N.A.
   LOWER BEAMN.A.(3)LB5M(3)LB4V(3)
BEAM CONTRIBUTORUPPER BEAM & LOWER BEAMUB1(4)LB1M(2)(4)LB1V(2)(4)

(1)Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.

(2)Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.

(3)Lower beams must remain activated when upper beams are activated.

(4)Beam contributor photometric allocation formula of S14.2.5.9 applies.

Table II-d—Headlighting Systems—Replaceable Bulb

System designation Light source compositionPhotometry requirements reference
Table XVIII Tables XIX-a, XIX-b, XIX-c
Upper beam mechanical and visual aimLower beam mech aim Lower beam visual aim
2 LAMP SYSTEMANY DUAL FILAMENT TYPE, OTHER THAN HB2, USED ALONE OR WITH ANOTHER DUAL FILAMENT TYPE OTHER THAN HB2UB2(1) OR UB3LB2M(1) OR LB3MLB2V(1) OR LB3V
2 LAMP SYSTEMHB2 OR ANY SINGLE FILAMENT TYPE USED ALONE OR WITH ANY OTHER SINGLE OR DUAL FILAMENT TYPEUB2(1) OR UB3LB2M(1)LB2V(1)
4 LAMP SYSTEMANY DUAL FILAMENT TYPE, OTHER THAN HB2, USED ALONE OR WITH ANOTHER DUAL FILAMENT TYPE OTHER THAN HB2UB1(2) OR UB3LB1M(2) OR LB3MLB1V(2) OR LB3V
4 LAMP SYSTEMHB2 OR ANY SINGLE FILAMENT TYPE USED ALONE OR WITH ANY OTHER SINGLE OR DUAL FILAMENT TYPE. (U & L)UB1(2)LB1M(2)LB1V(2)

(1)Headlamps designed to conform to the photometry requirements of UB2 and LB2M or LB2V may allow the lower beam light source(s) to remain activated when an upper beam light source is activated if the lower beam light source(s) contribute to upper beam photometric compliance.

(2)Lower beams may remain activated when upper beams are activated.

Table III—Marking Requirements Location

Lamp, reflective device, or other
component
MarkingMarking locationRequirement
HEADLAMPS, BEAM CONTRIBUTORS, OR HEADLAMP REPLACEABLE LENS
   “DOT”LensS6.5.1
   Optical axis markingSee requirementS10.18.5
   Manufacturer name and/or trademarkLensS6.5.3
   VoltageSee requirementS6.5.3
   Part number or trade numberSee requirementS6.5.3
HEADLAMP REPLACEABLE LENSManufacturer identificationLensS6.5.3
   Headlamp identification
REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPS“U” or “L” (4 lamp system)LensS10.15.4
   Replaceable bulb typeLensS6.5.3.4
SEALED BEAM HEADLAMPS“sealed beam”LensS6.5.3.3
   Type designationSee requirementsS6.5.3.3
INTEGRAL BEAM HEADLAMPS“U” or “L” (4 lamp system)LensS10.14.4
MOTORCYCLE REPLACEABLE BULB HEADLAMPS“motorcycle”LensS10.17.2
VISUALLY/OPTICALLY AIMED HEADLAMPS“VOR” or “VOL” or “VO”LensS10.18.9.6
EXTERNALLY AIMED HEADLAMPSAim pad location & “H” or “V“LensS10.18.7.1
VEHICLE HEADLAMP AIMING DEVICES (VHAD)Aiming scale(s)See requirementS10.18.8
(HEADLAMP) REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCES“DOT”See requirementS11.1
   Replaceable light source designationSee requirement
   Manufacturer name and/or trademarkSee requirement
REPLACEABLE LIGHT SOURCE BALLASTSManufacturer name or logoSee requirementS11.2
   Part number
   Light source identification
   Rated laboratory life
   High voltage warning
   Output in watts and volts
   “DOT”
LAMPS (OTHER THAN HEADLAMPS), REFLECTIVE DEVICES, AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT“DOT”See requirementS6.5.1.2
DAYTIME RUNNING LAMPS (DRL)“DRL”LensS6.5.2
CONSPICUITY REFLEX REFLECTORS“DOT-C”Exposed surfaceS8.2.2.1
RETROREFLECTIVE SHEETING“DOT-C2” or “DOT-C3” or “DOT-C4”Exposed surfaceS8.2.1.3

Table IV-a—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements

Lighting devicePassenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall width
minimum effective projected luminous lens area
(sq mm)
Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, trailers, and buses 2032 mm or more in overall width
minimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp
(sq mm)
Motorcycles
minimum effective projected luminous lens area (sq mm)
Single compartment lampMultiple compartment lamp or multiple lampsMultiple compartment lamp or multiple lamps
Each compartment or lampCombined compartments or lampsEach compartment or lampSingle or combined compartments or lamps
Front turn signal lamp22002200750022002258
Rear turn signal lamp500022005000750022002258
Stop lamp5000220050007500220015000

1A motor driven cycle whose speed attainable in 1 mile is 30 mph or less may be equipped with a stop lamp whose minimum effective projected luminous lens area is not less than 2258 sq mm.

Table IV-b—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements

Lighting devicePassenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall width and with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less using a single lamp minimum effective projected luminous lens area (sq mm)Multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses of less than 2032 mm in overall width and with a GVWR of 10,000 lbs or less using dual lamps of identical size and shape minimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp (sq mm)
High-mounted stop lamp29031452

Table IV-c—Effective Projected Luminous Lens Area Requirements

Lighting deviceSchool bus
minimum effective projected luminous lens area each lamp (sq mm)
School bus signal lamp12,258

Table V-a—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices

Lighting deviceRequired visibility
Backup lampLamps must be mounted so that the optical center of at least one lamp is visible from any eye point elevation from at least 1828 mm (6 ft) to 610 mm (2 ft) above the horizontal plane on which the vehicle is standing; and from any position in the area, rearward of a vertical plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, 914 mm (3 ft), to the rear of the vehicle and extending 914 mm (3 ft) beyond each side of the vehicle.
High-mounted stop lampSignal must be visible to the rear through a horizontal angle from 45° to the left to 45° to the right of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle. (Single lamp or two lamps together where required by S6.1.1.2 of this standard).
School bus signal lampSignal of front lamps to the front and rear lamps to the rear must be unobstructed within area bounded by 5° up to 10° down and 30° left to 30° right.

Table V-b—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices—Lens Area Visibility Option

Lighting deviceCorner points1 2Required visibility
   MotorcycleAll other
Turn signal lamp315° UP-20° IB15° UP-45° OB15° UP-45° IB15° UP-45° OBUnobstructed minimum
   15° DOWN-20° IB15° DOWN-45° OB15° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-45° OB   effective projected
Stop lamp15° UP-45° RIGHT415° UP-45° LEFT415° UP-45° IB15° UP-45° OB   luminous lens area
   15° DOWN-45° RIGHT415° DOWN-45° LEFT415° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-45° OB   of 1,250 sq mm in any
Taillamp15° UP-45° RIGHT515° UP-45° LEFT515° UP-45° IB15° UP-45° OB   direction throughout
   15° DOWN-45° RIGHT515° DOWN-45° LEFT515° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-45° OB   the pattern defined by
Parking lampNo RequirementNo Requirement15° UP-45° IB15° UP-45° OB   the specified corner
   No RequirementNo Requirement15° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-45° OB   points.

1IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.

2Where a lamp is mounted with its axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, the vertical test point angles located below the horizontal plane subject to visibility requirements may be reduced to 5° down.

3Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted at the front on each side of a multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck, trailer, or bus, of 2032 mm or more overall width, only one such area need comply.

4If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.

5If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.

Table V-c—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices—Luminous Intensity Visibility Option

Lighting deviceCorner points1 2Required visibility Minimum luminous intensity in any direction throughout the pattern defined by the specified corner points.
   MotorcycleAll OtherCandela
Turn signal lamp15° UP-20° IB15° UP-80° OB15° UP-45° IB15° UP-80° OB  0.3  
   15° DOWN-20° IB15° DOWN-80° OB15° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-80° OB
Stop lamp15° UP-45° RIGHT415° UP-45° LEFT415° UP-45° IB15° UP-45° OB  0.3  
   15° DOWN-45° RIGHT415° DOWN-45° LEFT415° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-45° OB
Taillamp315° UP-80° RIGHT515° UP-80° LEFT515° UP-45° IB15° UP-80° OB0.05
   15° DOWN-80° RIGHT515° DOWN-80° LEFT515° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-80° OB
Parking lampNo RequirementNo Requirement15° UP-45° IB15° UP-80° OB0.05
   No RequirementNo Requirement15° DOWN-45° IB15° DOWN-80° OB

1IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.

2Where a lamp is mounted with its axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, the vertical test point angles located below the horizontal plane subject to visibility requirements may be reduced to 5° down

3Inboard and outboard corner points are 80° for a single taillamp installed on a motorcycle

4If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle stop lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 10 degrees.

5If a multiple lamp arrangement is used for a motorcycle tail lamp, the inboard angle for each lamp shall be 45 degrees.

Table V-d—Visibility Requirements of Installed Lighting Devices (Legacy Visibility Alternative)

Lighting deviceRequired visibility1
Turn signal lampAll passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, motorcycles, and trailers of less than 2032 mm overall widthUnobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1250 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-V to H-45° OB.
   All multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and trailers of 2032 mm or more overall widthUnobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1300 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-V to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.
Stop lampUnobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 1250 sq mm through horizontal angle of H-45° IB to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.
TaillampUnobstructed minimum effective projected luminous lens area of 2 sq in through horizontal angle of H-45° IB to H-45° OB. Where more than one lamp or optical area is lighted on each side of the vehicle, only one such area on each side need comply.

1IB indicates an inboard direction (toward the vehicle's longitudinal centerline) and OB indicates an outboard direction.

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Table X—Side Marker Lamp Photometry Requirements

Test point
(degrees)
Minimum photometric intensity (cd)(2)
red lamps
Minimum photometric intensity (cd)(2)
amber lamps
10U:
45L(1)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(1)0.250.62
H:
45L(1)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(1)0.250.62
10D:(3)
45L(1)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(1)0.250.62

(1)Where a side marker lamp installed on a motor vehicle less than 30 feet in overall length has the lateral angle nearest the other required side marker lamp on the same side of the vehicle reduced from 45° by design as specified by S7.4.13.2, the photometric intensity measurement may be met at the lesser angle.

(2)The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.

(3)Where side marker lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.

Table XI—Clearance and Identification Lamps Photometry Requirements

Test point
(degrees)
Minimum photometric intensity (cd)(2)
red lamps
Minimum photometric intensity (cd)(2)
amber lamps
10U:
45L(4)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(4)0.250.62
H:
45L(4)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(4)0.250.62
10D:(1)
45L(4)0.250.62
V0.250.62
45R(4)0.250.62
Maximum photometric intensity(3) (cd) red lamps15

(1)Where clearance lamps or identification lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.

(2)The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.

(3)When optically combined with a stop lamp or turn signal lamp, this maximum applies on or above the horizontal.

(4)Where clearance lamps are installed at locations other than on the front and rear due to the necessity to indicate the overall width of the vehicle, or for protection from damage during normal operation of the vehicle, they need not meet the photometric intensity requirement at any test point that is 45° inboard.

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Table XVI-a—Reflex Reflector Photometry Requirements

Observation angle
(degrees)
Entrance angle
(degrees)
Minimum performance
Red reflectors Amber reflectorsWhite reflectors
(cd/incident ft-c)(mcd/lux) (cd/incident ft-c) (mcd/lux)(cd/incident ft-c) (mcd/lux)
0.204.542011.251050181680
   10U3.02807.5700121120
   10D(1)3.02807.5700121120
   20L1.51403.753506560
   20R1.51403.753506560
1.500.0760.175150.2824
   10U0.0550.12512.50.220
   10D(1)0.0550.12512.50.220
   20L0.0330.0757.50.1212
   20R0.0330.0757.50.1212

(1)Where reflex reflectors are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the required specified downward angle.

Table XVI-b—Additional Photometry Requirements for Conspicuity Reflex Reflectors

Observation angle
(degrees)
Entrance angle
(degrees)
Minimum performance
Red
(mcd/lux)
White horizontal orientation
(mcd/lux)
White vertical orientation
(mcd/lux)
0.2030012501680
   20L TO 20R560
   30L TO 30R3001250
   45L TO 45R75300
   10U TO 10D1120

Table XVI-c—Retroreflective Sheeting Photometry Requirements

Observation angle
(degrees)
Entrance angle
(degrees)
Minimum performance
Grade dot-C2 Grade dot-C3 Grade dot-C4
White RedWhite RedWhite Red
(cd/lux/sq m)(cd/lux/sq m)(cd/lux/sq m)(cd/lux/sq m)(cd/lux/sq m)(cd/lux/sq m)
0.2−4250601654012530
   30250601654012530
   4560154010308
0.5−465154310338
   3065154310338
   4515410382

Table XVII—School Bus Signal Lamp Photometry Requirements

Test point
(degrees)
Minimum photometric intensity (cd)(2) red lamps Minimum photometric intensity (cd) amber lamps
5U:
20L150375
10L300750
5L300750
V300750
5R300750
10R300750
20R150375
H:
30L3075
20L180450
10L4001000
5L5001250
V6001500
5R5001250
10R4001000
20R180450
30R3075
5D:
30L3075
20L200500
10L300750
5L4501125
V4501125
5R4501125
10R300750
20R200500
30R3075
10D:(1)
5L40100
V40100
5R40100

(1)Where school bus signal lamps are mounted with their axis of reference less than 750 mm above the road surface, photometry requirements below 5° down may be met at 5° down rather than at the specified required downward angle.

(2)The photometric intensity values between test points must not be less than the lower specified minimum value of the two closest adjacent test points on a horizontal or vertical line.

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Appendix to §571.108   Table of Contents

Sec.

571.108   Standard No. 108; Lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment.

S1   Scope.

S2   Purpose.

S3   Application.

S4   Definitions.

S5   References to SAE publications.

S5.2   Incorporation by reference.

S6   Vehicle requirements.

S6.1   Required lamps, reflective devices, and associated equipment by vehicle type.

S6.1.1   Quantity.

S6.1.1.1   Conspicuity systems.

S6.1.1.2   High-mounted stop lamps.

S6.1.1.3   Truck tractor rear turn signal lamps.

S6.1.1.4   Daytime running lamps.

S6.1.2   Color.

S6.1.3   Mounting location.

S6.1.3.3   License plate lamp.

S6.1.3.4   High-mounted stop lamp.

S6.1.3.4.1   Interior mounting.

S6.1.3.4.2   Accessibility.

S6.1.3.5   Headlamp beam mounting.

S6.1.3.5.1   Vertical headlamp arrangement.

S6.1.3.5.2   Horizontal headlamp arrangement.

S6.1.3.6   Auxiliary lamps mounted near identification lamps.

S6.1.4   Mounting height.

S6.1.4.1   High-mounted stop lamps.

S6.1.5   Activation.

S6.1.5.1   Hazard warning signal.

S6.1.5.2   Simultaneous beam activation.

S6.2   Impairment.

S6.2.3   Headlamp obstructions.

S6.3   Equipment combinations.

S6.4   Lens area, visibility and school bus signal lamp aiming.

S6.4.1   Effective projected luminous lens area requirements.

S6.4.2   Visibility.

S6.4.3   Visibility options.

S6.4.3(a)   Lens area option.

S6.4.3(b)   Luminous intensity option.

S6.4.4   Legacy visibility alternative.

S6.4.5   School bus signal lamp aiming.

S6.5   Marking.

S6.5.1   DOT marking.

S6.5.2   DRL marking.

S6.5.3   Headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.1   Trademark.

S6.5.3.2   Voltage and trade number.

S6.5.3.3   Sealed beam headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.4   Replaceable bulb headlamp markings.

S6.5.3.5   Additional headlamp markings.

S6.6   Associated equipment.

S6.6.3   License plate holder.

S6.7   Replacement equipment.

S6.7.1   General.

S6.7.2   Version of this standard.

S7   Signal lamp requirements.

S7.1   Turn signal lamps.

S7.1.1   Front turn signal lamps.

S7.1.1.1   Number.

S7.1.1.2   Color of light.

S7.1.1.3   Mounting location.

S7.1.1.4   Mounting height.

S7.1.1.5   Activation.

S7.1.1.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.1.1.7   Visibility.

S7.1.1.8   Indicator.

S7.1.1.9   Markings.

S7.1.1.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.1.1.10.2   Spacing measurement for non-reflector lamps.

S7.1.1.10.3   Spacing measurement for lamps with reflectors.

S7.1.1.10.4   Spacing based photometric multipliers.

S7.1.1.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.1.1.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.

S7.1.1.12   Ratio to parking lamps and clearance lamps.

S7.1.1.13   Photometry.

S7.1.1.14   Physical tests.

S7.1.2   Rear turn signal lamps.

S7.1.2.1   Number.

S7.1.2.2   Color of light.

S7.1.2.3   Mounting location.

S7.1.2.4   Mounting height.

S7.1.2.5   Activation.

S7.1.2.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.1.2.7   Visibility.

S7.1.2.8   Indicator.

S7.1.2.9   Markings.

S7.1.2.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.1.2.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.1.2.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.

S7.1.2.12   Ratio to taillamps and clearance lamps.

S7.1.2.13   Photometry.

S7.1.2.14   Physical tests.

S7.1.3   Combined lamp bulb indexing.

S7.2   Taillamps.

S7.2.1   Number.

S7.2.2   Color of light.

S7.2.3   Mounting location.

S7.2.4   Mounting height.

S7.2.5   Activation.

S7.2.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.2.7   Visibility.

S7.2.8   Indicator.

S7.2.9   Markings.

S7.2.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.2.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.2.11.4   Taillamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.

S7.2.12   Ratio.

S7.2.13   Photometry.

S7.2.14   Physical tests.

S7.3   Stop lamps.

S7.3.1   Number.

S7.3.2   Color of light.

S7.3.3   Mounting location.

S7.3.4   Mounting height.

S7.3.5   Activation.

S7.3.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.3.7   Visibility.

S7.3.8   Indicator.

S7.3.9   Markings.

S7.3.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.3.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.3.11.4   Lamps installed on vehicles 2032 mm or more in overall width.

S7.3.12   Ratio to taillamps.

S7.3.13   Photometry.

S7.3.14   Physical tests.

S7.3.15   Combined lamp bulb indexing.

S7.4   Side marker lamps.

S7.4.1   Number.

S7.4.2   Color of light.

S7.4.3   Mounting location.

S7.4.4   Mounting height.

S7.4.5   Activation.

S7.4.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.4.7   Visibility.

S7.4.8   Indicator.

S7.4.9   Markings.

S7.4.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.4.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.4.12   Ratio.

S7.4.13   Photometry.

S7.4.13.2   Inboard photometry.

S7.4.14   Physical tests.

S7.5   Clearance and identification lamps.

S7.5.1   Number.

S7.5.2   Color of light.

S7.5.3   Mounting location.

S7.5.4   Mounting height.

S7.5.5   Activation.

S7.5.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.5.7   Visibility.

S7.5.8   Indicator.

S7.5.9   Markings.

S7.5.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.5.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.5.12   Ratio.

S7.5.12.1   Clearance lamps.

S7.5.12.2   Identification lamps.

S7.5.13   Photometry.

S7.5.14   Physical tests.

S7.6   Backup lamps.

S7.6.1   Number.

S7.6.2   Color of light.

S7.6.3   Mounting location.

S7.6.4   Mounting height.

S7.6.5   Activation.

S7.6.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.6.7   Visibility.

S7.6.8   Indicator.

S7.6.9   Markings.

S7.6.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.6.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.6.12   Ratio.

S7.6.13   Photometry.

S7.6.14   Physical tests.

S7.7   License plate lamps.

S7.7.1   Number.

S7.7.2   Color of light.

S7.7.3   Mounting location.

S7.7.4   Mounting height.

S7.7.5   Activation.

S7.7.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.7.7   Visibility.

S7.7.8   Indicator.

S7.7.9   Markings.

S7.7.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.7.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.7.12   Ratio.

S7.7.13   Photometry.

S7.7.14   Physical tests.

S7.7.15   Installation.

S7.7.15.4   Incident light from single lamp.

S7.7.15.5   Incident light from multiple lamps.

S7.8   Parking lamps.

S7.8.1   Number.

S7.8.2   Color of light.

S7.8.3   Mounting location.

S7.8.4   Mounting height.

S7.8.5   Activation.

S7.8.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.8.7   Visibility.

S7.8.8   Indicator.

S7.8.9   Markings.

S7.8.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.8.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.8.12   Ratio.

S7.8.13   Photometry.

S7.8.14   Physical tests.

S7.9   High-mounted stop lamps.

S7.9.1   Number.

S7.9.2   Color of light.

S7.9.3   Mounting location.

S7.9.4   Mounting height.

S7.9.5   Activation.

S7.9.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.9.7   Visibility.

S7.9.8   Indicator.

S7.9.9   Markings.

S7.9.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.9.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.9.12   Ratio.

S7.9.13   Photometry.

S7.9.14   Physical tests.

S7.10   Daytime running lamps (DRLs).

S7.10.1   Number.

S7.10.2   Color of light.

S7.10.3   Mounting location.

S7.10.4   Mounting height.

S7.10.5   Activation.

S7.10.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.10.7   Visibility.

S7.10.8   Indicator.

S7.10.9   Markings.

S7.10.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.10.10.1   Spacing to turn signal lamps.

S7.10.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.10.12   Ratio.

S7.10.13   Photometry.

S7.10.14   Physical tests.

S7.11   School bus signal lamps.

S7.11.1   Number.

S7.11.2   Color of light.

S7.11.3   Mounting location.

S7.11.4   Mounting height.

S7.11.5   Activation.

S7.11.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S7.11.7   Visibility.

S7.11.8   Indicator.

S7.11.9   Markings.

S7.11.10   Spacing to other lamps.

S7.11.11   Multiple compartments and multiple lamps.

S7.11.12   Ratio.

S7.11.13   Photometry.

S7.11.14   Physical tests.

S8   Reflective device requirements.

S8.1   Reflex reflectors.

S8.1.1   Number.

S8.1.2   Color.

S8.1.3   Mounting location.

S8.1.4   Mounting height.

S8.1.5   Activation.

S8.1.6   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S8.1.7   Visibility.

S8.1.8   Indicator.

S8.1.9   Markings.

S8.1.10   Spacing to other lamps or reflective devices.

S8.1.11   Photometry.

S8.1.12   Physical tests.

S8.1.13   Alternative side reflex reflector material.

S8.2   Conspicuity systems.

S8.2.1   Retroreflective sheeting.

S8.2.1.2   Retroreflective sheeting material.

S8.2.1.3   Certification marking.

S8.2.1.4   Application pattern.

S8.2.1.4.1   Alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.1.5   Application location.

S8.2.1.6   Application spacing.

S8.2.1.7   Photometry.

S8.2.2   Conspicuity reflex reflectors.

S8.2.2.1   Certification marking.

S8.2.2.2   Application pattern.

S8.2.2.2.1   Alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.2.2.2   White material.

S8.2.2.3   Photometry.

S8.2.3   Conspicuity system installation on trailers.

S8.2.3.1   Trailer rear.

S8.2.3.1.1   Element 1-alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.3.1.2   Element 2-white.

S8.2.3.1.3   Element 3-alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.3.2   Trailer side-alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.4   Conspicuity system installation on truck tractors.

S8.2.4.1   Element 1-alternating red and white materials.

S8.2.4.2   Element 2-white.

S9   Associated equipment requirements.

S9.1   Turn signal operating unit.

S9.1.2   Physical tests.

S9.2   Turn signal flasher.

S9.2.2   Physical tests.

S9.3   Turn signal pilot indicator.

S9.3.4   Indicator size and color.

S9.3.6   Turn signal lamp failure.

S9.4   Headlamp beam switching device.

S9.4.1   Semi-automatic headlamp beam switching device.

S9.4.1.1   Operating instructions.

S9.4.1.2   Manual override.

S9.4.1.3   Fail safe operation.

S9.4.1.4   Automatic dimming indicator.

S9.4.1.5   Lens accessibility.

S9.4.1.6   Mounting height.

S9.4.1.7   Physical tests.

S9.5   Upper beam headlamp indicator.

S9.5.1   Indicator size and location.

S9.6   Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit.

S9.6.2   Operating unit switch.

S9.6.3   Physical tests.

S9.7   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher.

S9.7.2   Physical tests.

S9.8   Vehicular hazard warning signal pilot indicator.

S9.8.4   Indicator size and color.

S10   Headlighting system requirements.

S10.1   Vehicle headlighting systems.

S10.2   Aiming.

S10.3   Number.

S10.4   Color of light.

S10.5   Mounting location.

S10.6   Mounting height.

S10.7   Activation.

S10.8   Effective projected luminous lens area.

S10.9   Visibility.

S10.10   Indicator.

S10.11   Markings.

S10.12   Spacing to other lamps.

S10.13   Sealed beam headlighting systems.

S10.13.1   Installation.

S10.13.2   Simultaneous aim.

S10.13.3   Photometry.

S10.13.4   Physical tests.

S10.14   Integral beam headlighting systems.

S10.14.1   Installation.

S10.14.2   Aimability.

S10.14.3   Simultaneous aim.

S10.14.4   Markings.

S10.14.5   Additional light sources.

S10.14.6   Photometry.

S10.14.7   Physical tests.

S10.15   Replaceable bulb headlighting systems.

S10.15.1   Installation.

S10.15.2   Aiming restrictions.

S10.15.3   Replacement lens reflector units.

S10.15.4   Markings.

S10.15.5   Additional light sources.

S10.15.6   Photometry.

S10.15.7   Physical tests.

S10.16   Combination headlighting systems.

S10.16.1   Installation.

S10.16.2   Photometry.

S10.16.3   Physical tests.

S10.17   Motorcycle headlighting systems.

S10.17.1   Installation.

S10.17.1.1   Single headlamp.

S10.17.1.2   Two headlamps with both beams.

S10.17.1.3   Two headlamps, upper beam and lower beam.

S10.17.2   Motorcycle replaceable bulb headlamp marking.

S10.17.3   Photometry.

S10.17.4   Physical tests.

S10.17.5   Motorcycle headlamp modulation system.

S10.17.5.1.   Modulation.

S10.17.5.2   Replacement modulators.

S10.17.5.2.1   Replacement performance.

S10.17.5.2.2   Replacement instructions.

S10.18   Headlamp aimability performance requirements.

S10.18.1   Headlamp mounting and aiming.

S10.18.2   Headlamp aiming systems.

S10.18.3   Aim adjustment interaction.

S10.18.4   Horizontal adjustment-visually aimed headlamp.

S10.18.5   Optical axis marking.

S10.18.5.1   Optical axis marking-vehicle.

S10.18.5.2   Optical axis marking-lamp.

S10.18.5.3   Optical axis marking-visual aim headlamp.

S10.18.6   Moveable reflectors.

S10.18.7   External aiming.

S10.18.7.1   Headlamp aiming device locating plates.

S10.18.7.2   Nonadjustable headlamp aiming device locating plates.

S10.18.8   On-vehicle aiming.

S10.18.8.1   Aim.

S10.18.8.1.1   Vertical aim.

S10.18.8.1.2   Horizontal aim.

S10.18.8.2   Aiming instructions.

S10.18.8.3   Permanent calibration.

S10.18.8.4   Replacement units.

S10.18.8.5   Physical tests.

S10.18.9   Visual/optical aiming.

S10.18.9.1   Vertical aim, lower beam.

S10.18.9.1.1   Vertical position of the cutoff.

S10.18.9.1.2   Vertical gradient.

S10.18.9.1.3   Horizontal position of the cutoff.

S10.18.9.1.4   Maximum inclination of the cutoff.

S10.18.9.1.5   Measuring the cutoff parameter.

S10.18.9.2   Horizontal aim, lower beam.

S10.18.9.3   Vertical aim, upper beam.

S10.18.9.4   Horizontal aim, upper beam.

S10.18.9.5   Photometry.

S10.18.9.6   Visual/optical identification marking.

S11   Replaceable light source requirements.

S11.1   Markings.

S11.2   Ballast markings.

S11.3   Gas discharge laboratory life.

S11.4   Physical tests.

S12   Headlamp concealment device requirements.

S12.7   Certification election.

S13   Replaceable headlamp lens requirements.

S14   Physical and photometry test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.1   General test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.1.2   Plastic optical materials.

S14.1.4   Samples.

S14.1.5   Laboratory facilities.

S14.2   Photometric test procedures.

S14.2.1   Photometry measurements for all lamps except license lamps, headlamps, and DRLs.

S14.2.1.1   Mounting.

S14.2.1.2   School bus signal lamp aiming.

S14.2.1.3   Measurement distance.

S14.2.1.4   Location of test points.

S14.2.1.5   Multiple compartment and multiple lamp photometry of turn signal lamps, stop lamps, and taillamps.

S14.2.1.6   Bulbs.

S14.2.2   License plate lamp photometry.

S14.2.2.1   Illumination surface.

S14.2.2.2   Test stations.

S14.2.3   Reflex reflector and retroreflective sheeting photometry.

S14.2.3.1   Mounting.

S14.2.3.2   Illumination source.

S14.2.3.3   Measurement distance.

S14.2.3.4   Test setup.

S14.2.3.5   Photodetector .

S14.2.3.6   Photometry surface.

S14.2.3.7   Procedure.

S14.2.3.8   Measurements.

S14.2.3.8.1   Reflex reflectors.

S14.2.3.8.2   Retroreflective sheeting.

S14.2.3.8.3   Reflex reflector photometry measurement adjustments.

S14.2.4   Daytime running lamp (DRL) photometry measurements.

S14.2.5   Headlamp photometry measurements.

S14.2.5.1   Mounting.

S14.2.5.3   Measurement distance.

S14.2.5.4   Seasoning and test voltage.

S14.2.5.5   Aiming.

S14.2.5.5.1   Mechanically aimable headlamps using an external aimer.

S14.2.5.5.2   Mechanically aimable headlamps equipped with a VHAD.

S14.2.5.5.3   Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-vertical aim.

S14.2.5.5.4   Visually aimable lower beam headlamps-horizontal aim.

S14.2.5.5.5   Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-vertical aim.

S14.2.5.5.6   Visually aimable upper beam headlamps-horizontal aim.

S14.2.5.5.7   Simultaneous aim Type F sealed beam headlamps and beam contributor integral beam headlamps.

S14.2.5.5.8   Motorcycle headlamp-upper beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX.

S14.2.5.5.9   Motorcycle headlamp-lower beam headlamps designed to comply with Table XX.

S14.2.5.6   Positioner.

S14.2.5.7   Photometer.

S14.2.5.7.2   Sensor.

S14.2.5.8   Location of test points.

S14.2.5.9   Beam contributor photometry measurements.

S14.2.5.10   Moveable reflector aimed headlamp photometry measurements.

S14.3   Motorcycle headlamp out of focus test procedure and performance requirements.

S14.3.1   Procedure.

S14.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.4   General test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.4.1   Color test.

S14.4.1.1   Samples.

S14.4.1.2   General procedure.

S14.4.1.3   Visual method.

S14.4.1.3.1   Visual method procedure.

S14.4.1.3.2   Visual method performance requirements.

S14.4.1.3.2.1   Red.

S14.4.1.3.2.2   Yellow (Amber).

S14.4.1.3.2.3   White.

S14.4.1.4   Tristimulus method.

S14.4.1.4.1   Tristimulus method procedure.

S14.4.1.4.2   Tristimulus method performance requirements.

S14.4.1.4.2.1   Red.

S14.4.1.4.2.2   Yellow (Amber).

S14.4.1.4.2.3   White (achromatic).

S14.4.2   Plastic optical materials tests.

S14.4.2.1   Samples.

S14.4.2.2   Outdoor exposure test.

S14.4.2.2.3   Procedure.

S14.4.2.2.4   Performance requirements.

S14.4.2.3   Heat test.

S14.4.2.3.1   Procedure.

S14.4.2.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.5   Signal lamp and reflective device physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.5.1   Vibration test.

S14.5.1.1   Procedure.

S14.5.1.2   Performance requirements.

S14.5.2   Moisture test.

S14.5.2.1   Procedure.

S14.5.2.2   Performance requirements.

S14.5.3   Dust test.

S14.5.3.1   Samples.

S14.5.3.2   Procedure.

S14.5.3.3   Performance requirements.

S14.5.4   Corrosion test.

S14.5.4.1   Procedure.

S14.5.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6   Headlamp physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.6.1   Abrasion test.

S14.6.1.1   Procedure.

S14.6.1.1.1   Abrading pad.

S14.6.1.1.2   Abrading pad alignment.

S14.6.1.1.3   Abrasion test procedure.

S14.6.1.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.2   Chemical resistance test.

S14.6.2.1   Procedure.

S14.6.2.1.1   Test fluids.

S14.6.2.1.2   Fluid application.

S14.6.2.1.3   Test duration.

S14.6.2.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.3   Corrosion test.

S14.6.3.1   Procedure.

S14.6.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.4   Corrosion-connector test.

S14.6.4.1   Procedure.

S14.6.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.5   Dust test.

S14.6.5.1   Procedure.

S14.6.5.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.6   Temperature cycle test and internal heat test.

S14.6.6.1   Samples.

S14.6.6.2   General procedure.

S14.6.6.3   Temperature cycle test.

S14.6.6.3.1   Procedure.

S14.6.6.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.6.4   Internal heat test.

S14.6.6.4.1   Procedure.

S14.6.6.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.7   Humidity test.

S14.6.7.1   Procedure.

S14.6.7.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.8   Vibration test.

S14.6.8.1   Samples.

S14.6.8.2   Procedure.

S14.6.8.3   Performance requirements.

S14.6.9   Sealing test.

S14.6.9.1   Procedure.

S14.6.9.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.10   Chemical resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps.

S14.6.10.1   Procedure.

S14.6.10.1.1   Test fluids.

S14.6.10.1.2   Fluid application.

S14.6.10.1.3   Test duration.

S14.6.10.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.11   Corrosion resistance test of reflectors of replaceable lens headlamps.

S14.6.11.1   Procedure.

S14.6.11.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.12   Inward force test.

S14.6.12.1   Procedure.

S14.6.12.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.13   Torque deflection test.

S14.6.13.1   Procedure.

S14.6.13.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.14   Retaining ring test.

S14.6.14.1   Procedure.

S14.6.14.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.15   Headlamp connector test.

S14.6.15.1   Procedure.

S14.6.15.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.16   Headlamp wattage test.

S14.6.16.1   Procedure.

S14.6.16.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.17   Aiming adjustment test-laboratory.

S14.6.17.1   Procedure.

S14.6.17.2   Performance requirements.

S14.6.18   Aiming adjustment test-on vehicle.

S14.6.18.1   Procedure.

S14.6.18.2   Performance requirements.

S14.7   Replaceable light source physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.7.1   Deflection test for replaceable light sources.

S14.7.1.1   Procedure.

S14.7.1.2   Performance requirements.

S14.7.2   Pressure test for replaceable light sources.

S14.7.2.1   Procedure.

S14.7.2.2   Performance requirements.

S14.7.3   Replaceable light source power and flux measurement procedure.

S14.7.3.1   Seasoning.

S14.7.3.1.1   Resistive filament source.

S14.7.3.1.2   Discharge source.

S14.7.3.2   Test voltage.

S14.7.3.3   Luminous flux measurement.

S14.7.3.3.3.2   Discharge light source setup.

S14.8   Vehicle headlamp aiming devices (VHAD) physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.8.1   Samples.

S14.8.2   Scale graduation test.

S14.8.2.1   Procedure.

S14.8.2.2   Performance requirements.

S14.8.3   Cold scale graduation test.

S14.8.3.1   Procedure.

S14.8.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.8.4   Hot scale graduation test.

S14.8.4.1   Procedure.

S14.8.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.8.5   Thermal cycle test.

S14.8.5.1   Procedure.

S14.8.5.2   Performance requirements.

S14.8.6   Corrosion test.

S14.8.6.1   Procedure.

S14.8.6.2   Performance requirements.

S14.8.7   Photometry test.

S14.8.7.1   Procedure.

S14.8.7.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9   Associated equipment physical test procedures and performance requirements.

S14.9.1   Turn signal operating unit durability test.

S14.9.1.1   Power supply specifications.

S14.9.1.2   Procedure.

S14.9.1.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.2   Vehicular hazard warning signal operating unit durability test.

S14.9.2.1   Procedure.

S14.9.2.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3   Turn signal flasher and vehicular hazard warning flasher tests.

S14.9.3.1   Standard test circuit.

S14.9.3.1.1   Test circuit setup.

S14.9.3.2   Power supply specifications.

S14.9.3.2.1   Starting time, voltage drop, and flash rate and percent current “on” time tests.

S14.9.3.2.2   Durability tests.

S14.9.3.3   Turn signal flasher starting time test.

S14.9.3.3.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.3.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.3.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.4   Turn signal flasher voltage drop test.

S14.9.3.4.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.4.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.4.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.5   Turn signal flasher flash rate and percent current “on” time test.

S14.9.3.5.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.5.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.5.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.6   Turn signal flasher durability test.

S14.9.3.6.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.6.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.6.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.7   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher starting time test.

S14.9.3.7.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.7.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.7.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.8   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher voltage drop test.

S14.9.3.8.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.8.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.8.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.9   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher flash rate and percent “on” time test.

S14.9.3.9.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.9.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.9.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.10   Vehicular hazard warning signal flasher durability test.

S14.9.3.10.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.10.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.10.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11   Semiautomatic headlamp beam switching device tests.

S14.9.3.11.1   Test conditions.

S14.9.3.11.2   Sensitivity test.

S14.9.3.11.2.1   Samples.

S14.9.3.11.2.2   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.2.3   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.2.3.1   Operating limits.

S14.9.3.11.3   Voltage regulation test.

S14.9.3.11.3.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.3.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.4   Manual override test.

S14.9.3.11.4.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.4.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.5   Warmup test.

S14.9.3.11.5.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.5.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.6   Temperature test.

S14.9.3.11.6.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.6.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.7   Dust test.

S14.9.3.11.7.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.7.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.8   Corrosion test.

S14.9.3.11.8.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.8.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.9   Vibration test.

S14.9.3.11.9.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.9.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.10   Sunlight test.

S14.9.3.11.10.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.10.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.11   Durability test.

S14.9.3.11.11.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.11.2   Performance requirements.

S14.9.3.11.12   Return to upper beam test.

S14.9.3.11.12.1   Procedure.

S14.9.3.11.12.2   Performance requirements.

Table I-a   Required lamps and reflective devices   All passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPV), trucks, and buses

Table I-b   Required lamps and reflective devices   All trailers

Table I-c   Required lamps and reflective devices   All motorcycles

Table II-a   Headlighting systems   Sealed beams

Table II-b   Headlighting systems   Combination

Table II-c   Headlighting systems   Integral beams

Table II-d   Headlighting systems   Replaceable bulb

Table III   Marking requirements location

Table IV-a   Effective projected luminous lens area requirements

Table IV-b   Effective projected luminous lens area requirements

Table IV-c   Effective projected luminous lens area requirements

Table V-a   Visibility requirements of installed lighting devices

Table V-b   Visibility requirements of installed lighting devices   Lens area visibility option

Table V-c   Visibility requirements of installed lighting devices   Luminous intensity visibility option

Table V-d   Visibility requirements of installed lighting devices (Legacy visibility alternative)

Table VI-a   Front turn signal lamp photometry requirements

Table VI-b   Front turn signal lamp photometry requirements

Table VII   Rear turn signal lamp photometry requirements

Table VIII   Taillamp photometry requirements

Table IX   Stop lamp photometry requirements

Table X   Side marker lamp photometry requirements

Table XI   Clearance and identification lamps photometry requirements

Table XII   Backup lamp photometry requirements

Table XIII-a   Motorcycle turn signal lamp alternative photometry requirements

Table XIII-b   Motor driven cycle stop lamp alternative photometry requirements

Table XIV   Parking lamp photometry requirements

Table XV   High-mounted stop lamp photometry requirements

Table XVI-a   Reflex reflector photometry requirements

Table XVI-b   Additional photometry requirements for conspicuity reflex reflectors

Table XVI-c   Retroreflective sheeting photometry requirements

Table XVII   School bus signal lamp photometry requirements

Table XVIII   Headlamp upper beam photometry requirements

Table XIX-a   Headlamp lower beam photometry requirements

Table XIX-b   Headlamp lower beam photometry requirements

Table XIX-c   Headlamp lower beam photometry requirements

Table XX   Motorcycle and motor driven cycle headlamp photometry requirements

Figure 1   Chromaticity diagram

Figure 2   Flasher performance chart

Figure 3   Replaceable bulb headlamp aim pads

Figure 4   Headlamp connector test setup

Figure 5   Headlamp abrasion test fixture

Figure 6   Thermal cycle test profile

Figure 7   Dirt/Ambient test setup

Figure 8   Replaceable light source deflection test setup

Figure 9   Environmental test profile

Figure 10   Replaceable light source pressure test setup

Figure 11   Trailer conspicuity treatment examples

Figure 12-1   Trailer conspicuity detail I

Figure 12-2   Trailer conspicuity detail II

Figure 13   Tractor conspicuity treatment examples

Figure 14   92x150 Headlamp aim deflection test setup

Figure 15   Types G and H headlamp aim deflection test setup

Figure 16   Types A and E headlamp aim deflection test setup

Figure 17   Type B headlamp aim deflection test setup

Figure 18   Types C and D headlamp aim deflection test setup

Figure 19   License plate lamp target locations

Figure 20   License plate lamp measurement of incident light angle

Figure 21   Vibration test machine

Figure 22   Flasher standard test circuit

[72 FR 68269, Dec. 4, 2007, as amended at 76 FR 23510, Apr. 27, 2011; 76 FR 48023, Aug. 8, 2011; 77 FR 757, Jan. 6, 2012; 77 FR 71720, Dec. 4, 2012; 80 FR 78669, Dec. 17, 2015; 81 FR 6458, Feb. 8, 2016]

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§571.109   Standard No. 109; New pneumatic and certain specialty tires.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies tire dimensions and laboratory test requirements for bead unseating resistance, strength, endurance, and high speed performance; defines tire load ratings; and specifies labeling requirements for passenger car tires.

S2   Application. This standard applies to new pneumatic radial tires for use on passenger cars manufactured before 1975, new pneumatic bias ply tires, T-type spare tires, ST, FI, and 8-12 rim diameter and below tires for use on passenger cars manufactured after 1948. However, it does not apply to any tire that has been so altered so as to render impossible its use, or its repair for use, as motor vehicle equipment.

S3. Definitions.

Bead means that part of the tire made of steel wires, wrapped or reinforced by ply cords, that is shaped to fit the rim.

Bead separation means a breakdown of bond between components in the bead area.

Bias ply tire means a pneumatic tire in which the ply cords that extend to the beads are laid at alternate angles substantially less than 90° to the centerline of the tread.

Carcass means the tire structure, except tread and sidewall rubber.

Chunking means the breaking away of pieces of the tread or sidewall.

Cord means the strands forming the plies in the tire.

Cord separation means cords parting away from adjacent rubber compounds.

Cracking means any parting within the tread, sidewall, or innerliner of the tire extending to cord material.

Groove means the space between two adjacent tread ribs.

Innerliner means the layer(s) forming the inside surface of a tubeless tire that contains the inflating medium within the tire.

Innerliner separation means the parting of the innerliner from cord material in the carcass.

Load rating means the maximum load a tire is rated to carry for a given inflation pressure.

Maximum permissible inflation pressure means the maximum cold inflation pressure to which a tire may be inflated.

Maximum load rating means the load rating at the maximum permissible inflation pressure for that tire.

Open splice means any parting at any junction of tread, sidewall, or innerliner that extends to cord material.

Overall width means the linear distance between the exteriors of the sidewalls of an inflated tire, including elevations due to labeling, decorations, or protective bands or ribs.

Ply means a layer of rubber-coated parallel cords.

Ply separation means a parting of rubber compound between adjacent plies.

Pneumatic tire means a mechanical device made of rubber, chemicals, fabric and steel or other materials, which, when mounted on an automotive wheel, provides the traction and contains the gas or fluid that sustains the load.

Radial ply tire means a pneumatic tire in which the ply cords which extend to the beads are laid at substantially 90° to the centerline of the tread.

Rim means a metal support for a tire or a tire and tube assembly upon which the tire beads are seated.

Section width means the linear distance between the exteriors of the sidewalls of an inflated tire, excluding elevations due to labeling, decoration, or protective bands.

Sidewall means that portion of a tire between the tread and the bead.

Sidewall separation means the parting of the rubber compound from the cord material in the sidewall.

Test rim means, with reference to a tire to be tested, any rim that is listed as appropriate for use with that tire in accordance with S4.4. For purposes of this section and §571.110, each rim listing shall include dimensional specifications and a diagram of the rim.

Tread means that portion of a tire that comes into contact with the road.

Tread rib means a tread section running circumferentially around a tire.

Tread separation means pulling away of the tread from the tire carcass.

S4. Requirements.

S4.1   Size and construction. Each tire shall be designed to fit each rim specified for its size designation in each reference cited in the definition of test rim in S3.

S4.2   Performance requirements.

S4.2.1   General. Each tire shall conform to each of the following:

(a) It shall meet the requirements specified in S4.2.2 for its tire size designation, type, and maximum permissible inflation pressure.

(b) Its maximum permissible inflation pressure shall be either 32, 36, 40, or 60 psi, or 240, 280, 300, 340, or 350 kPa.

(c) Its load rating shall be that specified in a submission made by an individual manufacturer, pursuant to S4.4.1(a), or in one of the publications described in S4.4.1(b) for its size designation, type and each appropriate inflation pressure. If the maximum load rating for a particular tire size is shown in more than one of the publications described in S4.4.1(b), each tire of that size designation shall have a maximum load rating that is not less than the published maximum load rating, or if there are differing maximum load ratings for the same tire size designation, not less than the lowest published maximum load rating.

(d) It shall incorporate a tread wear indicator that will provide a visual indication that the tire has worn to a tread depth of 1.6 mm ( 116 inch).

(e) It shall, before being subjected to either the endurance test procedure specified in S5.4 or the high speed performance procedure specified in S5.5, exhibit no visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords, cracking, or open splices.

(f) It shall meet the requirements of S4.2.2.5 and S4.2.2.6 when tested on a test wheel described in S5.4.2.1 either alone or simultaneously with up to 5 other tires.

S4.2.2   Test requirements.

S4.2.2.1   Test sample. For each test sample use:

(a) One tire for physical dimensions, resistance to bead unseating, and strength, in sequence;

(b) Another tire for tire endurance; and

(c) A third tire for high speed performance.

S4.2.2.2   Physical dimensions. The actual section width and overall width for each tire measured in accordance with S5.1, shall not exceed the section width specified in a submission made by an individual manufacturer, pursuant to S4.4.1(a) or in one of the publications described in S4.4.1(b) for its size designation and type by more than:

(a) (For tires with a maximum permissible inflation pressure of 32, 36, or 40 psi) 7 percent, or

(b) (For tires with a maximum permissible inflation pressure of 240, 280, 300, 340 or 350 kPa, or 60 psi) 7 percent or 10 mm (0.4 inches), whichever is larger.

S4.2.2.3   Tubeless tire resistance to bead unseating.

S4.2.2.3.1   When a tubeless tire that has a maximum inflation pressure other than 420 kPa (60 psi) is tested in accordance with S5.2, the applied force required to unseat the tire bead at the point of contact shall be not less than:

(a) 6,670 N (1,500 pounds) for tires with a designated section width of less than 160 mm (6 inches);

(b) 8,890 N (2,000 pounds) for tires with a designated section width of 160 mm (6 inches) or more but less than 205 mm (8 inches);

(c) 11,120 N (2,500 pounds) for tires with a designated section width of 205 mm (8 inches) or more, using the section width specified in a submission made by an individual manufacturer, pursuant to S4.4.1(a), or in one of the publications described in S4.4.1(b) for the applicable tire size designation and type.

S4.2.2.3.2   When a tire that has a maximum inflation pressure of 420 kPa (60 psi) is tested in accordance with S5.2, the applied force required to unseat the bead at the point of contact shall be not less than:

(a) 6,670 N (1,500 pounds) for tires with a maximum load rating of less than 399 kg (880 pounds);

(b) 8,890 N (2,000 pounds) for tires with a maximum load rating of 399 kg (880 pounds) or more but less than 635 kg (1,400 pounds);

(c) 11,120 N (2,500 pounds) for tires with a maximum load rating of 635 kg (1,400 pounds) or more, using the maximum load rating marked on the sidewall of the tire.

S4.2.2.4   Tire strength. Each tire shall meet the requirements for minimum breaking energy specified in Table 1 when tested in accordance with S5.3.

S4.2.2.5   Tire endurance. When the tire has been subjected to the laboratory endurance test specified in S5.4, using a test rim that undergoes no permanent deformation and allows no loss of air through the portion that it comprises of the tire-rim pressure chamber:

(a) There shall be no visual evidence of tread, sidewall, ply, cord, innerliner, or bead separation, chunking, broken cords, cracking, or open splices.

(b) The tire pressure at the end of the test shall be not less than the initial pressures specified in S5.4.1.1.

S4.2.2.6   High speed performance. When the tire has been subjected to the laboratory high speed performance test specified in S5.5, using a test rim that undergoes no permanent deformation and allows no loss of air through the portion that it comprises of the tire-rim pressure chamber, the tire shall meet the requirements set forth in S4.2.2.5 (a) and (b).

S4.3   Labeling Requirements. Except as provided in S4.3.1 and S4.3.2 of this standard, each tire, except for those certified to comply with S5.5 of §571.139, shall have permanently molded into or onto both sidewalls, in letters and numerals not less than 0.078 inches high, the information shown in paragraphs S4.3 (a) through (g) of this standard. On at least one sidewall, the information shall be positioned in an area between the maximum section width and bead of the tire, unless the maximum section width of the tire falls between the bead and one-fourth of the distance from the bead to the shoulder of the tire. For tires where the maximum section width falls in that area, locate all required labeling between the bead and a point one-half the distance from the bead to the shoulder of the tire. However, in no case shall the information be positioned on the tire so that it is obstructed by the flange or any rim designated for use with that tire in Standards Nos. 109 and 110 (Sec. 571.109 and Sec. 571.110 of this part).

(a) One size designation, except that equivalent inch and metric size designations may be used;

(b) Maximum permissible inflation pressure;

(c) Maximum load rating;

(d) The generic name of each cord material used in the plies (both sidewall and tread area) of the tire;

(e) Actual number of plies in the sidewall, and the actual number of plies in the tread area if different;

(f) The words “tubeless” or “tube type” as applicable; and

(g) The word “radial” if the tire is a radial ply tire.

S4.3.1   Each tire shall be labeled with the symbol DOT in the manner specified in part 574 of this chapter, which shall constitute a certification that the tire conforms to applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

S4.3.2   Each tire shall be labeled with the name of the manufacturer, or brand name and number assigned to the manufacturer in the manner specified in part 574.

S4.3.3 [Reserved]

S4.3.4 If the maximum inflation pressure of a tire is 240, 280, 300, 340, or 350 kPa, then:

(a) Each marking of that inflation pressure pursuant to S4.3(b) shall be followed in parenthesis by the equivalent inflation pressure in psi, rounded to the next higher whole number; and

(b) Each marking of the tire's maximum load rating pursuant to S4.3(c) in kilograms shall be followed in parenthesis by the equivalent load rating in pounds, rounded to the nearest whole number.

S4.3.5   If the maximum inflation pressure of a tire is 420 kPa (60 psi), the tire shall have permanently molded into or onto both sidewalls, in letters and numerals not less than 12.7 mm ( 12 inch), the words “Inflate to 420 kPa (60 psi)”. On both sidewalls, the words shall be positioned in an area between the tire shoulder and the bead of the tire. However, in no case shall the words be positioned on the tire so that they are obstructed by the flange of any rim designated for use with that tire in this standard or in Standard No. 110 (§571.110 of this part).

S4.4   Tire and rim matching information.

S4.4.1   Each manufacturer of tires not certified to comply with S4 of §571.139 shall ensure that a listing of the rims that may be used with each tire that he produces is provided to the public. A listing compiled in accordance with paragraph (a) of S4.4.1 of this standard need not include dimensional specifications or diagram of a rim if the rim's dimensional specifications and diagram are contained in each listing published in accordance with paragraph (b) of S4.4.1 of this standard. The listing shall be in one of the following forms:

(a) Listed by manufacturer name or brand name in a document furnished to dealers of the manufacturer's tires, to any person upon request, and in duplicate to the Docket Section (No: NHTSA-2009-0117), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, West Building, 1200 New Jersey Ave SE., Washington, DC 20590; or

(b) Contained in publications, current at the date of manufacture of the tire or any later date, of at least one of the following organizations:

Tire and Rim Association

The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organization

Japan Automobile Tyre Manufacturers Association, Inc.

Tyre and Rim Association of Australia

Associacao Latino Americana de Pneus e Aros (Brazil)

South African Bureau of Standards

S4.4.2   Information contained in any publication specified in S4.4.1(b) of this standard which lists general categories of tires and rims by size designation, type of construction and/or intended use, shall be considered to be manufacturer's information pursuant to S4.4.1 of this standard for the listed tires and rims, unless the publication itself or specific information provided according to S4.4.1(a) of this standard indicates otherwise.

S5. Test procedures.

S5.1   Physical Dimensions. Determine tire physical dimensions under uniform ambient conditions as follows:

(a) Mount the tire on a test rim having the test rim width specified in a submission made by an individual manufacturer, pursuant to S4.4.1(a), or in one of the publications described in S4.4.1(b) for that tire size designation and inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Table II.

(b) Condition it at ambient room temperature for at least 24 hours.

(c) Readjust pressure to that specified in (a).

(d) Caliper the section width and overall width at six points approximately equally spaced around the tire circumference.

(e) Record the average of these measurements as the section width and overall width, respectively.

(f) Determine tire outer diameter by measuring the maximum circumference of the tire and dividing this dimension by pi (3.14).

S5.2   Tubeless tire bead unseating resistance.

S5.2.1   Preparation of tire-wheel assembly.

S5.2.1.1   Wash the tire, dry it at the beads, and mount it without lubrication or adhesives on a clean, painted test rim.

S5.2.1.2   Inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Table II at ambient room temperature.

S5.2.1.3   Mount the wheel and tire in a fixture shown in Figure 1, and force the bead unseating block shown in Figure 2 or Figure 2A against the tire sidewall as required by the geometry of the fixture. However, in testing a tire that has an inflation pressure of 60 psi, only use the bead unseating block described in Figure 2A.

S5.2.2   Test procedure.

S5.2.2.1   Apply a load through the block to the tire's outer sidewall at the distance specified in Figure 1 for the applicable wheel size at a rate of 50 mm (2 inches) per minute, with the load arm substantially parallel to the tire and rim assembly at the time of engagement.

S5.2.2.2   Increase the load until the bead unseats or the applicable value specified in S4.2.2.3 is reached.

S5.2.2.3   Repeat the test at least four places equally spaced around the tire circumference.

S5.3   Tire strength.

S5.3.1   Preparation of tire.

S5.3.1.1   Mount the tire on a test rim and inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Table II.

S5.3.1.2   Condition it at room temperature for at least 3 hours; and

S5.3.1.3   Readjust its pressure to that specified in S5.3.1.1.

S5.3.2   Test procedure.

S5.3.2.1   Force a 19 mm ( 34 inch) diameter cylindrical steel plunger with a hemispherical end perpendicularly into the tread rib as near to the centerline as possible, avoiding penetration into the tread groove, at the rate of 50 mm (2 inches) per minute.

S5.3.2.2   Record the force and penetration at five test points equally spaced around the circumference of the tire. If the tire fails to break before the plunger is stopped by reaching the rim, record the force and penetration as the rim is reached and use these values in S5.3.2.3.

S5.3.2.3   Compute the breaking energy for each test point by means of one of the two following formulas:

W=[(F × P)/2] × 10×3 (joules)

Where

W = Energy, in joules;

F = Force, Newtons; and

P = Penetration, mm; or

W=[(F × P)/2]

Where

W = Energy, inch-pounds;

F = Force, pounds; and

P = Penetration, inches.

S5.3.2.4   Determine the breaking energy value for the tire by computing the average of the five values obtained in accordance with S5.3.2.3.

S5.4   Tire endurance.

S5.4.1   Preparation of tire.

S5.4.1.1   Mount a new tire on a test rim and inflate it to the applicable pressure specified in Table II.

S5.4.1.2   Condition the tire assembly to 38° ±3 °C (100° ±5 °F) for at least three hours.

S5.4.1.3   Readjust tire pressure to that specified in S5.4.1.1 immediately before testing.

S5.4.2   Test procedure.

S5.4.2.1   Mount the tire and wheel assembly on a test axle and press it against a flat-faced steel test wheel 1708 mm (67.23 inches) in diameter and at least as wide as the section width of the tire to be tested or an approved equivalent test wheel, with the applicable test load specified in the table in S5.4.2.3 for the tire's size designation, type and maximum permissible inflation pressure.

S5.4.2.2   During the test, the air surrounding the test area shall be 38° ±3 °C (100° ±5 °F).

S5.4.2.3   Conduct the test at 80 kilometers per hour (km/h)(50 miles per hour) in accordance with the following schedule without pressure adjustment or other interruptions:

The loads for the following periods are the specified percentage of the maximum load rating marked on the tire sidewall:

   Percent
4 hours85
6 hours90
24 hours100

S5.4.2.4   Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure its inflation pressure. Allow the tire to cool for one hour. Then deflate the tire, remove it from the test rim, and inspect it for the conditions specified in S4.2.2.5(a).

S5.5   High speed performance.

S5.5.1   After preparing the tire in accordance with S5.4.1, mount the tire and wheel assembly in accordance with S5.4.2.1, and press it against the test wheel with a load of 88 percent of the tire's maximum load rating as marked on the tire sidewall.

S5.5.2   Break in the tire by running it for 2 hours at 80 km/h (50 mph).

S5.5.3   Allow to cool to 38° ±3 °C (100° ±5 °F) and readjust the inflation pressure to the applicable pressure specified in Table II.

S5.5.4   Without readjusting inflation pressure, test at 121 km/h (75 mph) for 30 minutes, 129 km/h (80 mph) for 30 minutes, and 137 km/h (85 mph) for 30 minutes.

S5.5.5   Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure its inflation pressure. Allow the tire to cool for one hour. Then deflate the tire, remove it from the test rim, and inspect it for the conditions specified in S4.2.2.5(a).

S6. Nonconforming tires. No tire that is designed for use on passenger cars and manufactured on or after October 1, 1972, but does not conform to all the requirements of this standard, shall be sold, offered for sale, introduced or delivered for introduction into interstate commerce, or imported into the United States, for any purpose.

eCFR graphic er27my98.013.gif

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Figures for FMVSS No. 109

Wheel size Dimension “A” for tires with maximum inflation pressure
Other than 60 psi (in) Other than 420 kPa 60 psi (in) 420 kPa
2013.50345
1913.0033012.00305
1812.5031811.40290
1712.0030510.60269
1611.502929.90251
1511.002799.40239
1410.502678.90226
1310.002548.40213
129.50241
119.00229
108.50216
3208.50216
3409.00229
3459.25235
3659.75248
37010.00254
39011.00279
41511.50292
eCFR graphic er27my98.014.gif

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eCFR graphic er27my98.015.gif

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Appendix A—Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 109

The following tables list tire sizes and tire constructions with proper load and inflation values. The tables group tires of related constructions and load/inflation values. Persons requesting the addition of new tire sizes to the tables or the addition of tables for new tire constructions may, when the additions requested are compatible with existent groupings, or when adequate justification for new tables exists, submit five (5) copies of information and data supporting the request to the Vehicle Dynamics Division, Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 20590.

The information should contain the following:

1. The tire size designation, and a statement either that the tire is an addition to a category of tires listed in the tables or that it is in a new category for which a table has not been deloped.

2. The tire dimensions, including aspect ratio, size factor, section width, overall width, and test rim size.

3. The load-inflation schedule of the tire.

4. A statement as to whether the tire size designation and load inflation schedule has been coordinated with the Tire and Rim Association, the European Tyre and Rim Technical Organisation, the Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers' Association, Inc., the Deutsche Industrie Norm, the British Standards Institution, the Scandinavian Tire and Rim Organization, and the Tyre and Rim Association of Australia.

5. Copies of test data sheets showing test conditions, results and conclusions obtained for individual tests specified in §571.109.

6. Justification for the additional tire sizes.

Table I-A—For Bias Ply Tires With Designated Section Width of 152 mm (6 Inches) and Above

Cord material32 psi36 psi40 psi240 kPa280 kPa300 kPa340 kPa
Rayon:
(in-lbs)1,6502,5743,3001,6503,3001,6503,300
(joules)186291373186373186373
Nylon or polyester:
(in-lbs)2,6003,9005,2002,6005,2002,6005,200
(joules)294441588294588294588

Table I-B—For Bias Ply Tires With Designated Section Width Below 152 mm (6 Inches)

Cord material32 psi36 psi40 psi240 kPa280 kPa300 kPa340 kPA
Rayon:
(in-lbs)1,0001,8752,5001,0002,5001,0002,500
(joules)113212282113282113282
Nylon or polyester:
(in-lbs)1,9502,9253,9001,9503,9001,9503,900
(joules)220330441220441220441

Table I-C—For Radial Ply Tires

Size designationMaximum permissible inflation
PSIkPa
323640240280300340350
Below 160 mm:
(in-lbs)1,9502,9253,9001,9503,9001,9503,9001,950
(joules)220330441220441220441220
160 mm or above:
(in-lbs)2,6003,9005,2002,6005,2002,6005,2002,600
(joules)294441588294588294588294

Table I-D—For Tires With 420 kPa (60 psi) Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure and Maximum Load Rating 399 kg (880 lb) and Above

Cord materialInch-pounds joules (J)
Rayon1,650 inch pounds 186 joules (J).
Nylon or Polyester2,600 inch pounds 294 joules (J).

Table I-E—For Tires With 420 kPa (60 psi) Maximum Permissible Inflation Pressure and Maximum Load Rating Below 399 kg (880 lb)

Cord materialInch-pounds joules (J)
Rayon1,000 inch pounds 113 joules (J).
Nylon or Polyester1,950 inch pounds 220 joules (J).

Table II—Test Inflation Pressures

[Maximum permissible inflation pressure to be used for the following test]

Test typepsikPa
32364060240280300340350
Physical dimensions24283260180220180220180
Bead unseating, tire strength, and tire endurance24283252180220180220180
High speed performance30343858220260220260220

Appendix to §571.109

Persons requesting the addition of new tire sizes not included in S4.4.1(b) organizations may, upon approval, submit five (5) copies of information and data supporting the request to the Vehicle Dynamics Division, Office of Crash Avoidance Standards, National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, West Building, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., Washington, DC 20590.

The information should contain the following:

1. The tire size designation, and a statement either that the tire is an addition to a category of tires listed in the tables or that it is in a new category for which a table has not been developed.

2. The tire dimensions, including aspect ratio, size factor, section width, overall width, and test rim size.

3. The load-inflation schedule of the tire.

4. A statement as to whether the tire size designation and load inflation schedule has been coordinated with the Tire and Rim Association, the European Tyre and Rim Technical Organization, the Japan Automobile Tyre Manufacturers Association, Inc., the Tyre and Rim Association of Australia, the Associacao Latino Americana de Pneus e Aros (Brazil), or the South African Bureau of Standards.

5. Copies of test data sheets showing test conditions, results and conclusions obtained for individual tests specified in §571.109.

6. Justification for the additional tire sizes.

[38 FR 30235, Nov. 1, 1973]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §571.109, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§571.110   Tire selection and rims and motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information for motor vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less.

S1. Purpose and scope. This standard specifies requirements for tire selection to prevent tire overloading and for motor home/recreation vehicle trailer load carrying capacity information.

S2. Application. This standard applies to motor vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR or 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less, except for motorcycles, and to non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies for those vehicles.

S3. Definitions.

Accessory weight means the combined weight (in excess of those standard items which may be replaced) of automatic transmission, power steering, power brakes, power windows, power seats, radio, and heater, to the extent that these items are available as factory-installed equipment (whether installed or not).

Curb weight means the weight of a motor vehicle with standard equipment including the maximum capacity of fuel, oil, and coolant, and, if so equipped, air conditioning and additional weight optional engine.

Maximum loaded vehicle weight means the sum of—

(a) Curb weight;

(b) Accessory weight;

(c) Vehicle capacity weight; and

(d) Production options weight.

Light truck (LT) tire means a tire designated by its manufacturer as primarily intended for use on lightweight trucks or multipurpose passenger vehicles.

Non-pneumatic rim is used as defined in §571.129.

Non-pneumatic spare tire assembly means a non-pneumatic tire assembly intended for temporary use in place of one of the pneumatic tires and rims that are fitted to a passenger car in compliance with the requirements of this standard.

Non-pneumatic tire and non-pneumatic tire assembly are used as defined in §571.129.

Normal occupant weight means 68 kilograms times the number of occupants specified in the second column of Table I.

Occupant distribution means distribution of occupants in a vehicle as specified in the third column of Table I.

Passenger car tire means a tire intended for use on passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks, that have a gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of 10,000 pounds or less.

Production options weight means the combined weight of those installed regular production options weighing over 2.3 kilograms in excess of those standard items which they replace, not previously considered in curb weight or accessory weight, including heavy duty brakes, ride levelers, roof rack, heavy duty battery, and special trim.

Rim is used as defined in §571.109.

Rim diameter means nominal diameter of the bead seat.

Rim size designation means rim diameter and width.

Rim type designation means the industry of manufacturer's designation for a rim by style or code.

Rim width means nominal distance between rim flanges.

Vehicle capacity weight means the rated cargo and luggage load plus 68 kilograms times the vehicle's designated seating capacity.

Vehicle maximum load on the tire means that load on an individual tire that is determined by distributing to each axle its share of the maximum loaded vehicle weight and dividing by two.

Vehicle normal load on the tire means that load on an individual tire that is determined by distributing to each axle its share of the curb weight, accessory weight, and normal occupant weight (distributed in accordance with Table I) and dividing by 2.

Wheel center member is used as defined in §571.129.

S4. Requirements.

S4.1 General (a) Subject to the exceptions set forth in S4.1(b), vehicles shall be equipped with tires that meet the requirements of §571.139.

(b) Notwithstanding the requirement in S4.1(a),

(1) Passenger cars may be equipped with pneumatic T-type temporary spare tire assemblies that meet the requirements of §571.109 or non-pneumatic spare tire assemblies that meet the requirements of §571.129 and S6 and S8 of this standard. Passenger cars equipped with a non-pneumatic spare tire assembly shall also meet the requirements of S4.3(e), S5, and S7 of this standard.

(2) Trailers may be equipped with ST tires, FI tires, or tires with a rim diameter code of 12 or below that meet the requirements of §571.109 or §571.119.

S4.2   Tire load limits.

S4.2.1   Tire load limits for passenger cars.

S4.2.1.1   The vehicle maximum load on the tire shall not be greater than the applicable maximum load rating as marked on the sidewall of the tire.

S4.2.1.2   The vehicle normal load on the tire shall not be greater than 94 percent of the load rating at the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure for that tire.

S4.2.2   Tire load limits for multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and trailers.

S4.2.2.1   Except as provided in S4.2.2.2, the sum of the maximum load ratings of the tires fitted to an axle shall not be less than the GAWR of the axle system as specified on the vehicle's certification label required by 49 CFR part 567. If the certification label shows more than one GAWR for the axle system, the sum shall be not less than the GAWR corresponding to the size designation of the tires fitted to the axle.

S4.2.2.2   When passenger car tires are installed on an MPV, truck, bus, or trailer, each tire's load rating is reduced by dividing it by 1.10 before determining, under S4.2.2.1, the sum of the maximum load ratings of the tires fitted to an axle.

S4.2.2.3   (a) For vehicles, except trailers with no designated seating positions, equipped with passenger car tires, the vehicle normal load on the tire shall be no greater than 94 percent of the derated load rating at the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure for that tire.

(b) For vehicles, except trailers with no designated seating positions, equipped with LT tires, the vehicle normal load on the tire shall be no greater than 94 percent of the load rating at the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure for that tire.

S4.3   Placard. Each vehicle, except for a trailer or incomplete vehicle, shall show the information specified in S4.3 (a) through (g), and may show, at the manufacturer's option, the information specified in S4.3 (h) and (i), on a placard permanently affixed to the driver's side B-pillar. In each vehicle without a driver's side B-pillar and with two doors on the driver's side of the vehicle opening in opposite directions, the placard shall be affixed on the forward edge of the rear side door. If the above locations do not permit the affixing of a placard that is legible, visible and prominent, the placard shall be permanently affixed to the rear edge of the driver's side door. If this location does not permit the affixing of a placard that is legible, visible and prominent, the placard shall be affixed to the inward facing surface of the vehicle next to the driver's seating position. This information shall be in the English language and conform in color and format, not including the border surrounding the entire placard, as shown in the example set forth in Figure 1 in this standard. At the manufacturer's option, the information specified in S4.3 (c), (d), and, as appropriate, (h) and (i) may be shown, alternatively to being shown on the placard, on a tire inflation pressure label which must conform in color and format, not including the border surrounding the entire label, as shown in the example set forth in Figure 2 in this standard. The label shall be permanently affixed and proximate to the placard required by this paragraph. The information specified in S4.3 (e) shall be shown on both the vehicle placard and on the tire inflation pressure label (if such a label is affixed to provide the information specified in S4.3 (c), (d), and, as appropriate, (h) and (i)) may be shown in the format and color scheme set forth in Figures 1 and 2. If the vehicle is a motor home and is equipped with a propane supply, the weight of full propane tanks must be included in the vehicle's unloaded vehicle weight. If the vehicle is a motor home and is equipped with an on-board potable water supply, the weight of such on-board water must be treated as cargo.

(a) Vehicle capacity weight expressed as “The combined weight of occupants and cargo should never exceed XXX kilograms or XXX pounds”;

(b) Designated seated capacity (expressed in terms of total number of occupants and number of occupants for each front and rear seat location);

(c) Vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure for front, rear and spare tires, subject to the limitations of S4.3.4. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's option replace manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure. If no spare tire is provided, the word “none” must replace the manufacturer's recommended cold tire inflation pressure.

(d) Tire size designation, indicated by the headings “size” or “original tire size” or “original size,” and “spare tire” or “spare,” for the tires installed at the time of the first purchase for purposes other than resale. For full size spare tires, the statement “see above” may, at the manufacturer's option replace the tire size designation. If no spare tire is provided, the word “none” must replace the tire size designation;

(e) On the vehicle placard, “Tire and Loading Information and, on the tire inflation pressure label, “Tire Information”;

(f) “See Owner's Manual for Additional Information”;

(g) For a vehicle equipped with a non-pneumatic spare tire assembly, the tire identification code with which that assembly is labeled pursuant to the requirements of S4.3(a) of 571.129, New Non-Pneumatic Tires for Passenger Cars;

(h) At the manufacturer's option, identifying information provided in any alphanumeric and or barcode form, located vertically, along the right edge or the left edge of the placard or the label, or horizontally, along the bottom edge of the placard or the label; and

(i) At the manufacturer's option, the load range identification symbol, load index, and speed rating, located immediately to the right of the tire size designation listed in accordance with S4.3(d) above.

S4.3.1   Requirements for vehicles manufactured in two or more stages. A placard or placard and label shall be affixed to the completed vehicle by the final-stage manufacturer in accordance with S4.3 and with the vehicle capacity weight and seating designations as finally manufactured.

S4.3.2   Requirements for altered vehicles. Except as provided in S10, a new placard or placard and label shall be affixed, so as to obscure the original placard, to an altered vehicle that has previously been certified in accordance with §567.4 or §567.5, other than by the addition, substitution, or removal of readily attachable components such as mirrors or tire and rim assemblies, or minor finishing operations such as painting, or who alters the vehicle in such a manner that its stated weight ratings are no longer valid, before the first purchase of the vehicle in good faith for purposes other than resale, containing accurate information for the altered vehicle, in accordance with S4.3.

S4.3.3   Additional labeling information for vehicles other than passenger cars. Each vehicle shall show the size designation and, if applicable, the type designation of rims (not necessarily those on the vehicle) appropriate for the tire appropriate for use on that vehicle, including the tire installed as original equipment on the vehicle by the vehicle manufacturer, after each GAWR listed on the certification label required by §567.4 or §567.5 of this chapter. This information shall be in the English language, lettered in block capitals and numerals not less than 2.4 millimeters high and in the following format:

Truck Example—Suitable Tire-Rim Choice

GVWR: 2,441 kilograms (5381 pounds).

GAWR: Front—1,299 kilograms (2,864 pounds) with P265/70R16 tires, 16 × 8.0 rims at 248 kPa (36 psi) cold single.

GAWR: Rear—1,299 kilograms (2,864 pounds) with P265/70R16 tires, 16 × 8.00 rims, at 248 kPa (36 psi) cold single.

S4.3.4   No inflation pressure other than the maximum permissible inflation pressure may be shown on the placard and, if any, tire inflation pressure label unless—

(a) It is less than the maximum permissible inflation pressure;

(b) It is appropriate for the load limits as calculated in accordance with S4.2; and

(c) The tire load rating specified in a submission by an individual manufacturer, pursuant to S4.1.1(a) of §571.139 or contained in one of the publications described in S4.1.1(b) of §571.139, for the tire size at that inflation pressure is not less than the vehicle maximum load and the vehicle normal load on the tire for those vehicle loading conditions.

S4.3.5 Requirements for trailers. Each trailer, except for an incomplete vehicle, must show the information specified in S4.3 (c) through (g), and may show the information specified in S4.3 (h) and (i), on a placard permanently affixed proximate to the certification label specified in 49 CFR part 567. Additionally, each trailer must on its placard contain a cargo capacity statement expressed as “The weight of cargo should never exceed XXX kilograms or XXX pounds” in the same location on the placard specified for the “vehicle capacity weight” statement required by this standard. At the manufacturer's option, the information specified in S4.3 (c), (d), (h) and (i) may be shown, alternatively, on a tire inflation pressure label, and conform in color and format, not including the border surrounding the entire label, as specified in the example set forth in Figure 2 in this standard. The label shall be permanently affixed and proximate to the placard required by this paragraph. The information specified in S4.3 (e) shall be shown on both the vehicle placard and on the tire inflation pressure label (if such a label is affixed to provide the information specified in S4.3 (c), (d), (h) and (i)) in the format and color scheme set forth in Figures 1 and 2. If the vehicle is a recreation vehicle trailer and is equipped with a propane supply, the weight of full propane tanks must be included in the vehicle's unloaded vehicle weight. If the vehicle is a recreation vehicle trailer and is equipped with an on-board potable water supply, the weight of such on-board water must be treated as cargo.

S4.4   Rims.

S4.4.1   Requirements. Each rim shall:

(a) Be constructed to the dimensions of a rim that is listed by the manufacturer of the tires as suitable for use with those tires, in accordance with S4 of §571.139.

(b) Except for trailers, in the event of rapid loss of inflation pressure with the vehicle traveling in a straight line at a speed of 97 km/h (60 mph), retain the deflated tire until the vehicle can be stopped with a controlled braking application.

Table I—Occupant Loading and Distribution for Vehicle Normal Load for Various Designated Seating Capacities

Designated seating capacity, number of occupants Vehicle normal load, number of occupants Occupant distribution in a normally loaded vehicle
2 through 422 in front.
5 through 1032 in front, 1 in second seat.
11 through 1552 in front, 1 in second seat, 1 in third seat, 1 in fourth seat.
16 through 2272 in front, 2 in second seat, 2 in third seat, 1 in fourth seat.

S4.4.2. Rim markings for vehicles other than passenger cars. Each rim or, at the option of the manufacturer in the case of a single-piece wheel, each wheel disc shall be marked with the information listed in S4.4.2 (a) through (e), in lettering not less than 3 millimeters in height, impressed to a depth or, at the option of the manufacturer, embossed to a height of not less than 0.125 millimeters. The information listed in S4.4.2 (a) through (c) shall appear on the outward side. In the case of rims of multi piece construction, the information listed in S4.4.2 (a) through (e) shall appear on the rim base and the information listed in S4.4.2 (b) and (d) shall also appear on each other part of the rim.

(a) A designation that indicates the source of the rim's published nominal dimensions, as follows:

(1) “T” indicates The Tire and Rim Association.

(2) “E” indicates The European Tyre and Rim Technical Organization.

(3) “J” indicates Japan Automobile Tire Manufacturers” Association, Inc.

(4) “L” indicates ABPA (Brazil), a.k.a. Associacao Latino Americana De Pneus E Aros.

(5) “F” indicates Tire and Rim Engineering Data Committee of South Africa (Tredco).

(6) “S” indicates Scandinavian Tire and Rim Organization (STRO).

(7) “A” indicates The Tyre and Rim Association of Australia.

(8) “I” indicates Indian Tyre Technical Advisory Committee (ITTAC).

(9) “R” indicates Argentine Institute of Rationalization of Materials, a.k.a. Instituto Argentino de Racionalización de Materiales, (ARAM).

(10) “N” indicates an independent listing pursuant to S4.1 of §571.139 or S5.1(a) of §571.119.

(b) The rim size designation, and in case of multipiece rims, the rim type designation. For example: 20 × 5.50, or 20 × 5.5.

(c) The symbol DOT, constituting a certification by the manufacturer of the rim that the rim complies with all applicable Federal motor vehicle safety standards.

(d) A designation that identifies the manufacturer of the rim by name, trademark, or symbol.

(e) The month, day and year or the month and year of manufacture, expressed either numerically or by use of a symbol, at the option of the manufacturer. For example: “September 4, 2001” may be expressed numerically as: “90401”, “904, 01” or “01, 904”; “September 2001” may be expressed as: “901”, “9, 01” or “01, 9”.

(1) Any manufacturer that elects to express the date of manufacture by means of a symbol shall notify NHTSA in writing of the full names and addresses of all manufacturers and brand name owners utilizing that symbol and the name and address of the trademark owner of that symbol, if any. The notification shall describe in narrative form and in detail how the month, day, and year or the month and year are depicted by the symbol. Such description shall include an actual size graphic depiction of the symbol, showing and/or explaining the interrelationship of the component parts of the symbol as they will appear on the rim or single piece wheel disc, including dimensional specifications, and where the symbol will be located on the rim or single piece wheel disc. The notification shall be received by NHTSA not less than 60 calendar days before the first use of the symbol. The notification shall be mailed to the Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance (NVS-222), National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 400 Seventh Street SW., Washington, DC 20590. All information provided to NHTSA under this paragraph will be placed in the public docket.

(2) Each manufacturer of wheels shall provide an explanation of its date of manufacture symbol to any person upon request.

S5. Load Limits for Non-Pneumatic Spare Tires. The highest vehicle maximum load on the tire for the vehicle shall not be greater than the load rating for the non-pneumatic spare tire.

S6  Labeling Requirements for Non-Pneumatic Spare Tires or Tire Assemblies. Each non-pneumatic tire or, in the case of a non-pneumatic tire assembly in which the non-pneumatic tire is an integral part of the assembly, each non-pneumatic tire assembly shall include, in letters or numerals not less than 4 millimeters high, the information specified in paragraphs S6 (a) and (b). The information shall be permanently molded, stamped, or otherwise permanently marked into or onto the non-pneumatic tire or non-pneumatic tire assembly, or shall appear on a label that is permanently attached to the tire or tire assembly. If a label is used, it shall be subsurface printed, made of material that is resistant to fade, heat, moisture and abrasion, and attached in such a manner that it cannot be removed without destroying or defacing the label on the non-pneumatic tire or tire assembly. The information specified in paragraphs S6 (a) and (b) shall appear on both sides of the non-pneumatic tire or tire assembly, except, in the case of a non-pneumatic tire assembly which has a particular side that must always face outward when mounted on a vehicle, in which case the information specified in paragraphs S6 (a) and (b) shall only be required on the outward facing side. The information shall be positioned on the tire or tire assembly such that it is not placed on the tread or the outermost edge of the tire and is not obstructed by any portion of any non-pneumatic rim or wheel center member designated for use with that tire in this standard or in Standard No. 129.

(a) FOR TEMPORARY USE ONLY; and

(b) MAXIMUM 80 KM/H (50 M.P.H.).

S7. Requirements for Passenger Cars Equipped with Non-Pneumatic Spare Tire Assemblies

S7.1   Vehicle Placarding Requirements. A placard, permanently affixed to the inside of the vehicle trunk or an equally accessible location adjacent to the non-pneumatic spare tire assembly, shall display the information set forth in S6 in block capitals and numerals not less than 6 millimeters high preceded by the words “IMPORTANT—USE OF SPARE TIRE” in letters not less than 9 millimeters high.

S7.2   Supplementary Information. The owner's manual of the passenger car shall contain, in writing in the English language and in not less than 10 point type, the following information under the heading “IMPORTANT—USE OF SPARE TIRE”:

(a) A statement indicating the information related to appropriate use for the non-pneumatic spare tire including at a minimum the information set forth in S6 (a) and (b) and either the information set forth in S4.3(g) or a statement that the information set forth in S4.3(g) is located on the vehicle placard and on the non-pneumatic tire;

(b) An instruction to drive carefully when the non-pneumatic spare tire is in use, and to install the proper pneumatic tire and rim at the first reasonable opportunity; and

(c) A statement that operation of the passenger car is not recommended with more than one non-pneumatic spare tire in use at the same time.

S8. Non-Pneumatic Rims and Wheel Center Members

S8.1   Non-Pneumatic Rim Requirements. Each non-pneumatic rim that is part of a separable non-pneumatic spare tire assembly shall be constructed to the dimensions of a non-pneumatic rim that is listed pursuant to S4.4 of §571.129 for use with the non-pneumatic tire, designated by its non-pneumatic tire identification code, with which the vehicle is equipped.

S8.2   Wheel Center Member Requirements. Each wheel center member that is part of a separable non-pneumatic spare tire assembly shall be constructed to the dimensions of a wheel center member that is listed pursuant to S4.4 of §571.129 for use with the non-pneumatic tire, designated by its non-pneumatic tire identification code, with which the vehicle is equipped.

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S9. Each motor home and recreation vehicle (RV) trailer must meet the applicable requirements in S9.

S9.1   On motor homes, the sum of the gross axle weight ratings (GAWR) of all axles on the vehicle must not be less than the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR).

S9.2   On RV trailers, the sum of the GAWRs of all axles on the vehicle plus the vehicle manufacturer's recommended tongue weight must not be less than the GVWR. If tongue weight is specified as a range, the minimum value must be used.

S9.3   Each motor home and RV trailer single stage or final stage manufacturer must affix either a motor home occupant and cargo carrying capacity (OCCC) label (Figure 3) or a RV trailer cargo carrying capacity (CCC) label (Figure 4) to its vehicles that meets the following criteria:

S9.3.1   The RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) and the RV supplemental labels (Figures 5 and 6) required by S9.3.3(b) must be legible, visible, moisture resistant, presented in the English language, have a minimum print size of 2.4 millimeters (3/32 inches) high and be printed in black print on a yellow background.

S9.3.2   The weight value for load carrying capacity on the RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) must be displayed to the nearest kilogram with conversion to the nearest pound and must be such that the vehicle does not exceed its GVWR when loaded with the stated load carrying capacity. The UVW and the GVWR used to determine the RV's load carrying capacity must reflect the weights and design of the motor home or RV trailer as configured for delivery to the dealer/service facility. If applicable, the weight of full propane tanks must be included in the RV's UVW and the weight of on-board potable water must be treated as cargo.

S9.3.3   An RV load carrying capacity label (Figures 3 or 4) must be:

(a) Permanently affixed and must be visibly located on the interior of the forward-most exterior passenger door on the right side of the vehicle or; at the option of the manufacturer,

(b) A temporary version of the RV load carrying capacity label (Figures 3 or 4) must be visibly located on the interior of the forward-most exterior passenger door on the right side of the vehicle. A permanent motor home or RV trailer supplemental label (Figures 5 or 6) must be permanently affixed within 25 millimeters of the placard specified in S4.3 for motor homes and S4.3.5 for RV trailers.

S9.3.4   Permanent and temporary motor home OCCC labels must contain the following information in accordance with Figure 3:

(a) The statement: “MOTOR HOME OCCUPANT AND CARGO CARRYING CAPACITY” in block letters.

(b) The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN).

(c) The statement “THE COMBINED WEIGHT OF OCCUPANTS AND CARGO SHOULD NEVER EXCEED: XXX kg or XXX lbs” in block letters with appropriate values included.

(d) The statement “Safety belt equipped seating capacity: XXX” with the appropriate value included. This is the total number of safety belt equipped seating positions.

(e) The statement “CAUTION: A full load of water equals XXX kg or XXX lbs of cargo @ 1 kg/L (8.3 lb/gal) and the tongue weight of a towed trailer counts as cargo” with appropriate values included.

S9.3.5   Permanent and temporary RV trailer CCC labels must contain the following information in accordance with Figure 4:

(a) The statement: “RECREATION VEHICLE TRAILER CARGO CARRYING CAPACITY” in block letters.

(b) The Vehicle Identification Number (VIN).

(c) The statement “THE WEIGHT OF CARGO SHOULD NEVER EXCEED: XXX kg or XXX lbs” in block letters with appropriate values included.

(d) The statement “CAUTION: A full load of water equals XXX kg or XXX lbs of cargo @ 1 kg/L (8.3 lb/gal)” with appropriate values included.

S9.3.6   For RVs, the vehicle capacity weight values and the seating capacity values (motor homes only) on the placard required by S4.3 or S4.3.5 must agree with the load carrying capacity weight values and the safety belt equipped seating capacity (motor homes only) on the RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4).

S9.3.7   The permanent motor home supplemental label must contain the following information in accordance with Figure 5:

(a) The statement “CAUTION: A full load of water equals XXX kg or XXX lbs of cargo @ 1 kg/L (8.3 lb/gal) and the tongue weight of a towed trailer counts as cargo” with appropriate values included.

S9.3.8   The permanent RV trailer supplemental label must contain the following information in accordance with Figure 6:

(a) The statement “CAUTION: A full load of water equals XXX kg or XXX lbs of cargo @ 1 kg/L (8.3 lb/gal)” with appropriate values included.

S10. Weight added to vehicles between final vehicle certification and first retail sale of the vehicle.

S10.1   If weight exceeding the lesser of 1.5 percent of GVWR or 45.4 kg (100 pounds) is added to a vehicle between final vehicle certification and first retail sale of the vehicle, the vehicle capacity weight values on the placard required by S4.3 or S4.3.5 and the load carrying capacity weight values on the RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) required by S9.3 must be corrected using one or a combination of the following methods:

(a) Permanently affix load carrying capacity modification labels (Figure 7), which display the amount the load carrying capacity is reduced to the nearest kilogram with conversion to the nearest pound, within 25 millimeters of the original, permanent RV load carrying capacity label (Figure 3 or 4) and the original placard (Figure 1). The load carrying capacity modification labels must be legible, visible, permanent, moisture resistant, presented in the English language, have a minimum print size of 2.4 millimeters (3/32 inches) high and be printed in black print on a yellow background, or

(b) If the manufacturer selects S9.3.3(b), apply a temporary version of the load carrying capacity modification label (Figure 7) within 25 millimeters of the original, temporary RV load carrying capacity label (Figure 3 or 4) on the interior of the forward-most exterior passenger door on the right side of the vehicle, in addition to applying a permanent version of the same label within 25 mm of the placard required by S4.3 or S4.3.5. Both temporary and permanent versions of the load carrying capacity modification label (Figure 7) may be printed without values and values may be legibly applied to the label with a black, fine point, indelible marker. The label must contain the statements “CAUTION—LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY REDUCED” in block letters and “Modifications to this vehicle have reduced the original load carrying capacity by XXX kg or XXX lbs” in accordance with Figure 7. If two load carrying capacity modification labels are required (one permanent and one temporary), the weight values on each must agree, or

(c) Modify the original, permanent RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) and the placard (Figure 1) with correct vehicle capacity weight values. If the manufacturer selects S9.3.3(b), the temporary RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) must also be modified with correct vehicle capacity weight values. Modification of labels requires a machine printed overlay with printed corrected values or blanks for corrected values that may be entered with a black, fine-point, indelible marker. Crossing out old values and entering corrected values on the original label is not permissible, or

(d) Replace the original, permanent RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) and the placard (Figure 1) with the same labels/placard containing correct vehicle capacity weight values. If the manufacturer selects S9.3.3(b), the temporary RV load carrying capacity labels (Figures 3 and 4) must also be replaced with the same labels containing correct vehicle capacity weight values.

S10.2   Corrected load carrying capacity weight values or the weight amount the load carrying capacity is reduced, must reflect the total weight added between final vehicle certification and first retail sale and must be accurate within one percent of the actual added weight. No action is required if the weight of the vehicle is reduced between final vehicle certification and first retail sale.

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[36 FR 22902, Dec. 2, 1971]

Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting §571.111, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed volume and at www.govinfo.gov.

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§571.111   Standard No. 111; Rear visibility.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for rear visibility devices and systems.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce the number of deaths and injuries that occur when the driver of a motor vehicle does not have a clear and reasonably unobstructed view to the rear.

S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, school buses, motorcycles and low-speed vehicles.

S4. Definitions.

Backing event means an amount of time which starts when the vehicle's direction selector is placed in reverse, and ends at the manufacturer's choosing, when the vehicle forward motion reaches:

(a) a speed of 10 mph,

(b) a distance of 10 meters traveled, or

(c) a continuous duration of 10 seconds.

Convex mirror means a mirror having a curved reflective surface whose shape is the same as that of the exterior surface of a section of a sphere.

Effective mirror surface means the portions of a mirror that reflect images, excluding the mirror rim or mounting brackets.

Environmental test fixture means a device designed to support the external components of the rear visibility system for testing purposes, using any factory seal which would be used during normal vehicle operation, in a manner that simulates the on-vehicle component orientation during normal vehicle operation, and prevents the exposure of any test conditions to portions of the external component which are not exposed to the outside of the motor vehicle.

External component means any part of the rear visibility system which is exposed to the outside of the motor vehicle.

Key means a physical device or an electronic code which, when inserted into the starting system (by physical or electronic means), enables the vehicle operator to activate the engine or motor.

Limited line manufacturer means a manufacturer that sells three or fewer carlines, as that term is defined in 49 CFR 583.4, in the United States during a production year, as that term is defined in S15.

Rearview image means a visual image, detected by means of a single source, of the area directly behind a vehicle that is provided in a single location to the vehicle operator and by means of indirect vision.

Rear visibility system means the set of devices or components which together perform the function of producing the rearview image as required under this standard.

Small manufacturer means an original vehicle manufacturer that produces or assembles fewer than 5,000 vehicles annually for sale in the United States.

Starting system means the vehicle system used in conjunction with the key to activate the engine or motor.

Unit magnification mirror means a plane or flat mirror with a reflective surface through which the angular height and width of the image of an object is equal to the angular height and width of the object when viewed directly at the same distance except for flaws that do not exceed normal manufacturing tolerances. For the purposes of this regulation a prismatic day-night adjustment rearview mirror one of whose positions provides unit magnification is considered a unit magnification mirror.

S5. Requirements for passenger cars.

S5.1   Inside rearview mirror. Each passenger car shall have an inside rearview mirror of unit magnification.

S5.1.1   Field of view. Except as provided in S5.3, the mirror shall provide a field of view with an included horizontal angle measured from the projected eye point of at least 20 degrees, and a sufficient vertical angle to provide a view of a level road surface extending to the horizon beginning at a point not greater than 61 m to the rear of the vehicle when the vehicle is occupied by the driver and four passengers or the designated occupant capacity, if less, based on an average occupant weight of 68 kg. The line of sight may be partially obscured by seated occupants or by head restraints. The location of the driver's eye reference points shall be those established in Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 104 (§571.104) or a nominal location appropriate for any 95th percentile male driver.

S5.1.2   Mounting. The mirror mounting shall provide a stable support for the mirror, and shall provide for mirror adjustment by tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions. If the mirror is in the head impact area, the mounting shall deflect, collapse or break away without leaving sharp edges when the reflective surface of the mirror is subjected to a force of 400 N in any forward direction that is not more than 45° from the forward longitudinal direction.

S5.2   Outside rearview mirror—driver's side.

S5.2.1   Field of view. Each passenger car shall have an outside mirror of unit magnification. The mirror shall provide the driver a view of a level road surface extending to the horizon from a line, perpendicular to a longitudinal plane tangent to the driver's side of the vehicle at the widest point, extending 2.4 m out from the tangent plane 10.7 m behind the driver's eyes, with the seat in the rearmost position. The line of sight may be partially obscured by rear body or fender contours. The location of the driver's eye reference points shall be those established in Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 104 (§571.104) or a nominal location appropriate for any 95th percentile male driver.

S5.2.2   Mounting. The mirror mounting shall provide a stable support for the mirror, and neither the mirror nor the mounting shall protrude farther than the widest part of the vehicle body except to the extent necessary to produce a field of view meeting or exceeding the requirements of S5.2.1. The mirror shall not be obscured by the unwiped portion of the windshield, and shall be adjustable by tilting in both horizontal and vertical directions from the driver's seated position. The mirror and mounting shall be free of sharp points or edges that could contribute to pedestrian injury.

S5.3   Outside rearview mirror passenger's side. Each passenger car whose inside rearview mirror does not meet the field of view requirements of S5.1.1 shall have an outside mirror of unit magnification or a convex mirror installed on the passenger's side. The mirror mounting shall provide a stable support and be free of sharp points or edges that could contribute to pedestrian injury. The mirror need not be adjustable from the driver's seat but shall be capable of adjustment by tilting in both horizontal and vertical directions.

S5.4   Convex mirror requirements. Each motor vehicle using a convex mirror to meet the requirements of S5.3 shall comply with the following requirements:

S5.4.1   When each convex mirror is tested in accordance with the procedures specified in S12. of this standard, none of the radii of curvature readings shall deviate from the average radius of curvature by more than plus or minus 12.5 percent.

S5.4.2   Each convex mirror shall have permanently and indelibly marked at the lower edge of the mirror's reflective surface, in letters not less than 4.8 mm nor more than 6.4 mm high the words “Objects in Mirror Are Closer Than They Appear.”

S5.4.3   The average radius of curvature of each such mirror, as determined by using the procedure in S12., shall be not less than 889 mm and not more than 1,651 mm.

S5.5 Rear visibility.

(a) Phase-in period requirements. For passenger cars with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less manufactured on or after May 1, 2016, but not later than April 30, 2018, a percentage of each manufacturer's production, as specified in S15, shall display a rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1.

(b) Final requirements. Each passenger car with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less manufactured on or after May 1, 2018, shall display a rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1 through S5.5.7.

S5.5.1 Field of view. When tested in accordance with the procedures in S14.1, the rearview image shall include:

(a) A minimum of a 150-mm wide portion along the circumference of each test object located at positions F and G specified in S14.1.4; and

(b) The full width and height of each test object located at positions A through E specified in S14.1.4.

S5.5.2 Size. When the rearview image is measured in accordance with the procedures in S14.1, the calculated visual angle subtended by the horizontal width of

(a) All three test objects located at positions A, B, and C specified in S14.1.4 shall average not less than 5 minutes of arc; and

(b) Each individual test object (A, B, and C) shall not be less than 3 minutes of arc.

S5.5.3 Response time. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1 and S5.5.2, when tested in accordance with S14.2, shall be displayed within 2.0 seconds of the start of a backing event.

S5.5.4 Linger time. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1 and S5.5.2 shall not be displayed after the backing event has ended.

S5.5.5 Deactivation. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1 and S5.5.2 shall remain visible during the backing event until either, the driver modifies the view, or the vehicle direction selector is removed from the reverse position.

S5.5.6 Default view. The rear visibility system must default to the rearview image meeting the requirements of S5.5.1 and S5.5.2 at the beginning of each backing event regardless of any modifications to the field of view the driver has previously selected.

S5.5.7 Durability. The rear visibility system shall meet the field of view and image size requirements of S5.5.1 and S5.5.2 after each durability test specified in S14.3.1, S14.3.2, and S14.3.3.

S6. Requirements for multipurpose passenger vehicles, low-speed vehicles, trucks, buses, and school buses with GVWR of 4,536 kg or less.

S6.1   Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, truck and bus, other than a school bus, with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less shall have either—

(a) Mirrors that conform to the requirements of S5.; or

(b) Outside mirrors of unit magnification, each with not less than 126 cm2 of reflective surface, installed with stable supports on both sides of the vehicle, located so as to provide the driver a view to the rear along both sides of the vehicle, and adjustable in both the horizontal and vertical directions to view the rearward scene.

S6.2 Rear visibility.

(a) Phase-in period requirements. For multipurpose passenger vehicles, low-speed vehicles, trucks, buses, and school buses with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less manufactured on or after May 1, 2016, but not later than April 30, 2018, a percentage of each manufacturer's production, as specified in S15, shall display a rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1.

(b) Final requirements. Each multipurpose passenger vehicle, low-speed vehicle, truck, bus, and school bus with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less manufactured on or after May 1, 2018, shall display a rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1 through S6.2.7.

S6.2.1 Field of view. When tested in accordance with the procedures in S14.1, the rearview image shall include:

(a) A minimum of a 150-mm wide portion along the circumference of each test object located at positions F and G specified in S14.1.4; and

(b) The full width and height of each test object located at positions A through E specified in S14.1.4.

S6.2.2 Size. When the rearview image is measured in accordance with the procedures in S14.1, the calculated visual angle subtended by the horizontal width of

(a) All three test objects located at positions A, B, and C specified in S14.1.4 shall average not less than 5 minutes of arc; and

(b) Each individual test object (A, B, and C) shall not be less than 3 minutes of arc.

S6.2.3 Response time. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1 and S6.2.2, when tested in accordance with S14.2, shall be displayed within 2.0 seconds of the start of a backing event.

S6.2.4 Linger time. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1 and S6.2.2 shall not be displayed after the backing event has ended.

S6.2.5 Deactivation. The rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1 and S6.2.2 shall remain visible during the backing event until either, the driver modifies the view, or the vehicle direction selector is removed from the reverse position.

S6.2.6 Default view. The rear visibility system must default to the rearview image meeting the requirements of S6.2.1 and S6.2.2 at the beginning of each backing event regardless of any modifications to the field of view the driver has previously selected.

S6.2.7 Durability. The rear visibility system shall meet the field of view and image size requirements of S6.2.1 and S6.2.2 after each durability test specified in S14.3.1, S14.3.2, and S14.3.3.

S7. Requirements for multipurpose passenger vehicles and trucks with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg and less than 11,340 kg and buses, other than school buses, with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg.

S7.1   Each multipurpose passenger vehicle and truck with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg and less than 11,340 kg and each bus, other than a school bus, with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kg shall have outside mirrors of unit magnification, each with not less than 323 cm2 of reflective surface, installed with stable supports on both sides of the vehicle. The mirrors shall be located so as to provide the driver a view to the rear along both sides of the vehicle and shall be adjustable both in the horizontal and vertical directions to view the rearward scene.

S8. Requirements for multipurpose passenger vehicles and trucks with a GVWR of 11,340 kg or more.

S8.1   Each multipurpose passenger vehicle and truck with a GVWR of 11,340 kg or more shall have outside mirrors of unit magnification, each with not less than 323 cm2 of reflective surface, installed with stable supports on both sides of the vehicle. The mirrors shall be located so as to provide the driver a view to the rear along both sides of the vehicle and shall be adjustable both in the horizontal and vertical directions to view the rearward scene.

S9. Requirements for School Buses. When a school bus is tested in accordance with the procedures of S13, it shall meet the requirements of S9.1 through S9.4.

S9.1   Outside Rearview Mirrors. Each school bus shall have two outside rearview mirror systems: System A and System B.

S9.2. System A shall be located with stable supports so that the portion of the system on the bus's left side, and the portion on its right side, each:

(a) Includes at least one mirror of unit magnification with not less than 323 cm2 of reflective surface; and

(b) Includes one or more mirrors which together provide, at the driver's eye location, a view of:

(1) For the mirror system on the right side of the bus, the entire top surface of cylinder N in Figure 2, and that area of the ground which extends rearward from cylinder N to a point not less than 61 meters from the mirror surface.

(2) For the mirror system on the left side of the bus, the entire top surface of cylinder M in Figure 2, and that area of the ground which extends rearward from cylinder M to a point not less than 61 meters from the mirror surface.

S9.3(a) For each of the cylinders A through P whose entire top surface is not directly visible from the driver's eye location, System B shall provide, at that location:

(1) A view of the entire top surface of that cylinder.

(2) A view of the ground that overlaps with the view of the ground provided by System A.

(b) Each mirror installed in compliance with S9.3(a) shall meet the following requirements:

(1) Each mirror shall have a projected area of at least 258 cm2, as measured on a plane at a right angle to the mirror's axis.

(2) Each mirror shall be located such that the distance from the center point of the eye location of a 25th percentile adult female seated in the driver's seat to the center of the mirror shall be at least 95 cm.

(3) Each mirror shall have no discontinuities in the slope of the surface of the mirror.

(4) Each mirror shall be installed with a stable support.

(c) Each school bus which has a mirror installed in compliance with S9.3(a) that has an average radius of curvature of less than 889 mm, as determined under S12, shall have a label visible to the seated driver. The label shall be printed in a type face and color that are clear and conspicuous. The label shall state the following:

“USE CROSS VIEW MIRRORS TO VIEW PEDESTRIANS WHILE BUS IS STOPPED. DO NOT USE THESE MIRRORS TO VIEW TRAFFIC WHILE BUS IS MOVING. IMAGES IN SUCH MIRRORS DO NOT ACCURATELY SHOW ANOTHER VEHICLE'S LOCATION.”

S9.4(a) Each image required by S9.3(a)(1) to be visible at the driver's eye location shall be separated from the edge of the effective mirror surface of the mirror providing that image by a distance of not less than 3 minutes of arc.

(b) The image required by S9.3(a)(1) of cylinder P shall meet the following requirements:

(1) The angular size of the shortest dimension of that cylinder's image shall be not less than 3 minutes of arc; and

(2) The angular size of the longest dimension of that cylinder's image shall be not less than 9 minutes of arc.

S10. Requirements for motorcycles.

S10.1   Each motorcycle shall have either a mirror of unit magnification with not less than 8065 mm2 of reflective surface, or a convex mirror with not less than 6450 mm2 of reflective surface and an average radius of curvature not less than 508 mm and not greater than 1524 mm, installed with a stable support, and mounted so that the horizontal center of the reflective surface is at least 279 mm outward of the longitudinal centerline of the motorcycle. The mirror shall be adjustable by tilting in both the horizontal and vertical directions.

S11. Mirror Construction. The average reflectance of any mirror required by this standard shall be determined in accordance with SAE Standard J964 OCT84 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5). All single reflectance mirrors shall have an average reflectance of at least 35 percent. If a mirror is capable of multiple reflectance levels, the minimum reflectance level in the day mode shall be at least 35 percent and the minimum reflectance level in the night mode shall be at least 4 percent. A multiple reflectance mirror shall either be equipped with a means for the driver to adjust the mirror to a reflectance level of at least 35 percent in the event of electrical failure, or achieve such reflectance level automatically in the event of electrical failure.

S12.   Determination of radius of curvature.

S12.1   To determine the average radius of curvature of a convex mirror, use a 3-point linear spherometer, which meets the requirements of S12.2, at the 10 test positions shown in Figure 1 and record the readings for each position.

S12.2   The 3-point linear spherometer has two outer fixed legs 38 mm apart and one inner movable leg at the midpoint. The spherometer has a dial indicator with a scale that can be read accurately to .0025 mm, with the zero reading being a flat surface.

S12.3   The 10 test positions on the image display consist of two positions at right angles to each other at each of five locations as shown in Figure 1. The locations are at the center of the mirror, at the left and right ends of a horizontal line that bisects the mirror and at the top and bottom ends of a vertical line that bisects the mirror. None of the readings are within a 6.4 mm border on the edge of the image display.

S12.4   At each position, the spherometer is held perpendicular to the convex mirror-surface and a record is made of the reading on the dial indicator to the nearest .0025 mm.

S12.5   Convert the dial reading data for each of the 10 test positions to radius of curvature calculations using Table I. Consider the change as linear for dial readings that fall between two numbers in Table I.

S12.6   Calculate the average radius of curvature by adding all 10 radius of curvature calculations and dividing by ten.

S12.7   Determine the numerical difference between the average radius of curvature and each of the 10 individual radius of curvature calculations determined in S12.5.

S12.8   Calculate the greatest percentage deviation by dividing the greatest numerical difference determined in S12.7 by the average radius of curvature and multiply by 100.

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Table I—Conversion Table From Spherometer Dial Reading to Radius of Curvature

Dial readingRadius of curvature
(Inches)
Radius of curvature
(mm)
.0033085.22164.1
.0035080.42042.92
.0037475.21910.1
.0040270.01778.0
.0041667.61717.0
.0043265.11653.5
.0045062.51587.5
.0046860.11526.5
.0047659.11501.1
.0048458.11475.7
.0049257.21452.9
.0050256.01422.4
.0051254.91394.5
.0052253.91369.1
.0053652.51333.5
.0054451.71313.2
.0055450.81290.3
.0056649.71262.4
.0058048.51231.9
.0059247.51206.5
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S13. School bus mirror test procedures. The requirements of S9.1 through S9.4 shall be met when the vehicle is tested in accordance with the following conditions.

S13.1   The cylinders shall be a color which provides a high contrast with the surface on which the bus is parked.

S13.2   The cylinders are 0.3048 m high and 0.3048 m in diameter, except for cylinder P which is 0.9144 m high and 0.3048 m in diameter.

S13.3   Place cylinders at locations as specified in S13.3(a) through S13.3(g) and illustrated in Figure 2. Measure the distances shown in Figure 2 from a cylinder to another object from the center of the cylinder as viewed from above.

(a) Place cylinders G, H, and I so that they are tangent to a transverse vertical plane tangent to the forward-most surface of the bus's front bumper. Place cylinders D, E, F so that their centers are located in a transverse vertical plane that is 1.8288 meters (6 feet) forward of a transverse vertical plane passing through the centers of cylinders G, H, and I. Place cylinders A, B, and C so that their centers are located in a transverse vertical plane that is 3.6576 meters (12 feet) forward of the transverse vertical plane passing through the centers of cylinders G, H, and I.

(b) Place cylinders B, E, and H so that their centers are in a longitudinal vertical plane that passes through the bus's longitudinal centerline.

(c) Place cylinders A, D, and G so that their centers are in a longitudinal vertical plane that is tangent to the most outboard edge of the left side of the bus's front bumper.

(d) Place cylinders C, F, and I so that their centers are in a longitudinal vertical plane that is tangent to the most outboard edge of the right side of the bus's front bumper.

(e) Place cylinder J so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane 0.3048 meters (1 foot) to the left of the longitudinal vertical plane passing through the centers of cylinders A, D, and G, and is in the transverse vertical plane that passes through the centerline of the bus's front axle.

(f) Place cylinder K so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane 0.3048 meters (1 foot) to the right of the longitudinal vertical plane passing through the centers of cylinders C, F, and I, and is in the transverse vertical plane that passes through the centerline of the bus's front axle.

(g) Place cylinders L, M, N, O, and P so that their centers are in the transverse vertical plane that passes through the centerline of the bus's rear axle. Place cylinder L so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane that is 1.8288 meters (6 feet) to the left of the longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the bus's most outboard left surface (excluding the mirror system). Place cylinder M so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane that is 0.3048 meters (1 foot) to the left of the longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the left side of the bus. Place cylinder N so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane that is 0.3048 meters (1 foot) to the right of the longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the right side of the bus. Place cylinder O so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane that is 1.8288 meters (6 feet) to the right of the longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the right side of the bus. Place cylinder P so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane that is 3.6576 meters (12 feet) to the right of the longitudinal vertical plane tangent to the right side of the bus.

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S13.4   The driver's eye location is the eye location of a 25th percentile adult female, when seated in the driver's seat as follows:

(a) The center point of the driver's eye location is the point located 68.58 centimeters (27 inches) vertically above the intersection of the seat cushion and the seat back at the longitudinal centerline of the seat.

(b) Adjust the driver's seat to the midway point between the forward-most and rear-most positions, and if separately adjustable in the vertical direction, adjust to the lowest position. If an adjustment position does not exist at the midway point, use the closest adjustment position to the rear of the midpoint. If a seat back is adjustable, adjust the seat back angle to the manufacturer's nominal design riding position in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations.

S13.5   Adjustable mirrors are adjusted before the test in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations. Such mirrors are not moved or readjusted at any time during the test.

13.6   Place a 35 mm or larger format camera, or video camera, so that its image plane is located at the center point of the driver's eye location or at any single point within a semicircular area established by a 15.24 centimeter (6 inch) radius parallel to and forward of the center point (see figure 3). With the camera at any single location on or within that semicircle look through the camera and the windows of the bus and determine whether the entire top surface of each cylinder is directly visible.

S13.7   For each cylinder whose entire top surface is determined under paragraph 13.4 of this section not to be directly visible at the driver's eye location,

(a) Place a comparison chart (see figure 4) above the mirror that provides the fullest view of the cylinder in situations where a cylinder is partially visible through more than one mirror.

eCFR graphic ec01au91.042.gif

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The width of the bars in Figure 4 indicating three minutes of arc and nine minutes of arc are derived from the following formula:

For 3 minutes of arc:

X = D × 0.000873,

Where:

X = the width of a line, in the unit of measurement D, representing 3 minutes of arc;

D = distance from center point of driver's eye location to the center of the mirror's surface; and

0.000873 = tangent of 3 minutes of arc.

For 9 minutes of arc:

X = D × 0.002618,

Where:

X = the width of a line, in the unit of measurement D, representing 9 minutes of arc;

D = distance from center point of driver's eye location to the center of the mirror's surface; and

0.002618 = tangent of 9 minutes of arc.

(b) Photograph each cylinder through the mirror(s) that provides a view of the cylinder. Photograph each cylinder with the camera located so that the view through its film or image plane is located at any single location within the semicircle established under 13.4, [POINT A,B,C, OR D] ensuring that the image of the mirror and comparison chart fill the camera's view finder to the extent possible.

13.8   Make all observations and take all photographs with the service/entry door in the closed position and the stop signal arm(s) in the fully retracted position.

S14. Rear visibility test procedure.

S14.1 Field of view and image size test procedure.

S14.1.1 Lighting. The ambient illumination conditions in which testing is conducted consists of light that is evenly distributed from above and is at an intensity of between 7,000 lux and 10,000 lux, as measured at the center of the exterior surface of the vehicle's roof.

S14.1.2 Vehicle conditions.

S14.1.2.1 Tires. The vehicle's tires are set to the vehicle manufacturer's recommended cold inflation pressure.

S14.1.2.2 Fuel tank loading. The fuel tank is full.

S14.1.2.3 Vehicle load. The vehicle is loaded to simulate the weight of the driver and four passengers or the designated occupant capacity, if less. The weight of each occupant is represented by 45 kg resting on the seat pan and 23 kg resting on the vehicle floorboard placed in the driver's designated seating position and any other available designated seating position.

S14.1.2.4 Rear hatch and trunk lids. If the vehicle is equipped with rear hatches or trunk lids, they are closed and latched in their normal vehicle operating condition.

S14.1.2.5 Driver's seat positioning.

S14.1.2.5.1 Adjust the driver's seat to the midpoint of the longitudinal adjustment range. If the seat cannot be adjusted to the midpoint of the longitudinal adjustment range, the closest adjustment position to the rear of the midpoint shall be used.

S14.1.2.5.2 Adjust the driver's seat to the lowest point of all vertical adjustment ranges present.

S14.1.2.5.3 Using the three dimensional SAE Standard J826 JUL95 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) manikin, adjust the driver's seat back angle at the vertical portion of the H-point machine's torso weight hanger to 25 degrees. If this adjustment setting is not available, adjust the seat-back angle to the positional detent setting closest to 25 degrees in the direction of the manufacturer's nominal design riding position.

S14.1.3 Test object. Each test object is a right circular cylinder that is 0.8 m high and 0.3 m in external diameter. There are seven test objects, designated A through G, and they are marked as follows.

(a) Test objects A, B, C, D, and E are marked with a horizontal band encompassing the uppermost 150 mm of the side of the cylinder.

(b) Test objects F and G are marked on the side with a solid vertical stripe of 150 mm width extending from the top to the bottom of each cylinder.

(c) Both the horizontal band and vertical stripe shall be of a color that contrasts with both the rest of the cylinder and the test surface.

S14.1.4 Test object locations and orientation. Place the test objects at locations specified in S14.1.4(a)-(f) and illustrated in Figure 5. Measure the distances shown in Figure 5 from a test object to another test object or other object from the cylindrical center (axis) of the test object as viewed from above. Each test object is oriented so that its axis is vertical.

(a) Place test objects F and G so that their centers are in a transverse vertical plane that is 0.3 m to the rear of a transverse vertical plane tangent to the rearmost surface of the rear bumper.

(b) Place test objects D and E so that their centers are in a transverse vertical plane that is 3.05 m to the rear of a transverse vertical plane tangent to the rearmost surface of the rear bumper.

(c) Place test objects A, B and C so that their centers are in a transverse vertical plane that is 6.1 m to the rear of a transverse vertical plane tangent to the rearmost surface of the rear bumper.

(d) Place test object B so that its center is in a longitudinal vertical plane passing through the vehicle's longitudinal centerline.

(e) Place test objects C, E, and G so that their centers are in a longitudinal vertical plane located 1.52 m, measured laterally and horizontally, to the right of the vehicle longitudinal center line.

(f) Place test objects A, D, and F so that their centers are in a longitudinal vertical plane located 1.52 m, measured laterally and horizontally, to the left of the vehicle longitudinal center line.

S14.1.5 Test reference point. Obtain the test reference point using the following procedure.

(a) Locate the center of the forward-looking eye midpoint (Mf) illustrated in Figure 6 so that it is 635 mm vertically above the H point (H) and 96 mm aft of the H point.

(b) Locate the head/neck joint center (J) illustrated in Figure 6 so that it is 100 mm rearward of Mf and 588 mm vertically above the H point.

(c) Draw an imaginary horizontal line between Mf and a point vertically above J, defined as J2.

(d) Rotate the imaginary line about J2 in the direction of the rearview image until the straight-line distance between Mf and the center of the display used to present the rearview image required in this standard reaches the shortest possible value.

(e) Define this new, rotated location of Mf to be Mr (eye midpoint rotated).

S14.1.6 Display adjustment. If the display is mounted with a rotational adjustment mechanism, adjust the display such that the surface of the display is normal to the imaginary line traveling through Mr and J2 or as near to normal as the display adjustment will allow.

S14.1.7 Steering wheel adjustment. The steering wheel is adjusted to the position where the longitudinal centerline of all vehicle tires are parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle. If no such position exists, adjust the steering wheel to the position where the longitudinal centerline of all vehicle tires are closest to parallel to the longitudinal centerline of the vehicle.

S14.1.8 Measurement procedure.

(a) Locate a 35 mm or larger format still camera, video camera, or digital equivalent such that the center of the camera's image plane is located at Mr and the camera lens is directed at the center of the display's rearview image.

(b) Affix a ruler at the base of the rearview image in an orientation perpendicular with a test object cylinder centerline. If the vehicle head restraints obstruct the camera's view of the display, they may be adjusted or removed.

(c) Photograph the image of the visual display with the ruler included in the frame and the rearview image displayed.

S14.1.8.1 Extract photographic data.

(a) Using the photograph, measure the apparent length, of a 50 mm delineated section of the in-photo ruler, along the ruler's edge, closest to the rearview image and at a point near the horizontal center of the rearview image.

(b) Using the photograph, measure the horizontal width of the colored band at the upper portion of each of the three test objects located at positions A, B, and C in Figure 5.

(c) Define the measured horizontal widths of the colored bands of the three test objects as da, db, and dc.

S14.1.8.2 Obtain scaling factor. Using the apparent length of the 50 mm portion of the ruler as it appears in the photograph, divide this apparent length by 50 mm to obtain a scaling factor. Define this scaling factor as sscale.

S14.1.8.3 Determine viewing distance. Determine the actual distance from the rotated eye midpoint location (Mr) to the center of the rearview image. Define this viewing distance as aeye.

S14.1.8.4 Calculate visual angle subtended by test objects. Use the following equation to calculate the subtended visual angles:

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where i can take on the value of either test object A, B, or C, and arcsine is calculated in units of degrees.

S14.2 Image response time test procedure. The temperature inside the vehicle during this test is any temperature between 15 °C and 25 °C. Immediately prior to commencing the actions listed in subparagraphs (a)-(c) of this paragraph, all components of the rear visibility system are in a powered off state. Then:

(a) Open the driver's door to any width,

(b) Close the driver's door

(c) Activate the starting system using the key, and

(d) Select the vehicle's reverse direction at any time not less than 4.0 seconds and not more than 6.0 seconds after the driver's door is opened. The driver door is open when the edge of the driver's door opposite of the door's hinge is no longer flush with the exterior body panel.

S14.3 Durability test procedures. For the durability tests specified in S14.3.1, S14.3.2, and S14.3.3, the external components are mounted on an environmental test fixture.

S14.3.1 Corrosion test procedure. The external components are subjected to two 24-hour corrosion test cycles. In each corrosion test cycle, the external components are subjected to a salt spray (fog) test in accordance with ASTM B117-03 (incorporated by reference, see §571.5) for a period of 24 hours. Allow 1 hour to elapse without spray between the two test cycles.

S14.3.2 Humidity exposure test procedure. The external components are subjected to 24 consecutive 3-hour humidity test cycles. In each humidity test cycle, external components are subjected to a temperature of 100° + 7°−0 °F (38° + 4°−0 °C) with a relative humidity of not less than 90% for a period of 2 hours. After a period not to exceed 5 minutes, the external components are subjected to a temperature of 32° + 5° −0 °F (0° + 3° −0 °C) and a humidity of not more than 30% ±10% for 1 hour. Allow no more than 5 minutes to elapse between each test cycle.

S14.3.3 Temperature exposure test procedure. The external components are subjected to 4 consecutive 2-hour temperature test cycles. In each temperature test cycle, the external components are first subjected to a temperature of 176° ±5 °F (80° ±3 °C) for a period of one hour. After a period not to exceed 5 minutes, the external components are subjected to a temperature of 32° + 5° −0 °F (0° + 3° −0 °C) for 1 hour. Allow no more than 5 minutes to elapse between each test cycle.

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S15 Rear visibility phase-in schedule. For the purposes of the requirements in S15.1 through S15.7, production year means the 12-month period between May 1 of one year and April 30 of the following year, inclusive.

S15.1 Vehicles manufactured on or after May 1, 2016 and before May 1, 2018. At any time during or after the production years ending April 30, 2017 and April 30, 2018, each manufacturer shall, upon request from the Office of Vehicle Safety Compliance, provide information identifying the vehicles (by make, model and vehicle identification number) that have been certified as complying with S5.5.1 or S6.2.1 of this standard. The manufacturer's designation of a vehicle as a certified vehicle is irrevocable.

S15.2 Vehicles manufactured on or after May 1, 2016 and before May 1, 2017. Except as provided in S15.4, for passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and low-speed vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less, manufactured by a manufacturer on or after May 1, 2016, and before May 1, 2017, the number of such vehicles complying with S5.5.1 or S6.2.1 shall be not less than 10 percent of the manufacturer's—

(a) Production of such vehicles during that period; or

(b) Average annual production of such vehicles manufactured in the three previous production years.

S15.3 Vehicles manufactured on or after May 1, 2017 and before May 1, 2018. Except as provided in S15.4, for passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, and low-speed vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kg or less, manufactured by a manufacturer on or after May 1, 2017, and before May 1, 2018, the number of such vehicles complying with S5.5.1 or S6.2.1 shall be not less than 40 percent of the manufacturer's—

(a) Production of such vehicles during that period; or

(b) Average annual production of such vehicles manufactured in the three previous production years.

S15.4 Exclusions from phase-in. The following vehicles shall not be subject to the requirements in S15.1 through S15.3 but shall achieve full compliance with this standard at the end of the phase-in period in accordance with S5.5(b) and S6.2(b):

(a) Vehicles that are manufactured by small manufacturers or by limited line manufacturers.

(b) Vehicles that are altered (within the meaning of 49 CFR 567.7) before May 1, 2017, after having been previously certified in accordance with part 567 of this chapter, and vehicles manufactured in two or more stages before May 1, 2018.

S15.5 Vehicles produced by more than one manufacturer. For the purpose of calculating average annual production of vehicles for each manufacturer and the number of vehicles manufactured by each manufacturer under S15.1 through S15.3, a vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer shall be attributed to a single manufacturer as follows, subject to S15.6—

(a) A vehicle that is imported shall be attributed to the importer.

(b) A vehicle manufactured in the United States by more than one manufacturer, one of which also markets the vehicle, shall be attributed to the manufacturer that markets the vehicle.

S15.6 A vehicle produced by more than one manufacturer shall be attributed to any one of the vehicle's manufacturers specified by an express written contract, reported to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration under 49 CFR part 585, between the manufacturer so specified and the manufacturer to which the vehicle would otherwise be attributed under S15.5.

S15.7 Calculation of complying vehicles.

(a) For the purposes of calculating the vehicles complying with S15.2, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it is manufactured on or after May 1, 2016 but before May 1, 2017.

(b) For purposes of complying with S15.3, a manufacturer may count a vehicle if it is manufactured on or after May 1, 2017 but before May 1, 2018 and,

(c) For the purposes of calculating average annual production of vehicles for each manufacturer and the number of vehicles manufactured by each manufacturer, each vehicle that is excluded from having to meet the applicable requirement is not counted.

[41 FR 36025, Aug. 26, 1976, as amended at 41 FR 56813, Dec. 30, 1976; 47 FR 38700, Sept. 2, 1982; 48 FR 38844, Aug. 26, 1983; 48 FR 40262, Sept. 6, 1983; 56 FR 58516, Nov. 20, 1991; 57 FR 57015, Dec. 2, 1992; 58 FR 60402, Nov. 16, 1993; 60 FR 15692, Mar. 27, 1995; 63 FR 28929, May 27, 1998; 63 FR 51000, Sept. 24, 1998; 69 FR 18497, Apr. 8, 2004; 77 FR 758, Jan. 6, 2012; 79 FR 19243, Apr. 7, 2014]

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§571.112   [Reserved]

§571.113   Standard No. 113; Hood latch system.

S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes the requirement for providing a hood latch system or hood latch systems.

S2. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, and buses.

S3. Definitions. Hood means any exterior movable body panel forward of the windshield that is used to cover an engine, luggage, storage, or battery compartment.

S4. Requirements.

S4.1   Each hood must be provided with a hood latch system.

S4.2   A front opening hood which, in any open position, partially or completely obstructs a driver's forward view through the windshield must be provided with a second latch position on the hood latch system or with a second hood latch system.

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§571.114   Standard No. 114; Theft protection and rollaway prevention.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies vehicle performance requirements intended to reduce the incidence of crashes resulting from theft and accidental rollaway of motor vehicles.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to decrease the likelihood that a vehicle is stolen, or accidentally set in motion.

S3. Application. This standard applies to all passenger cars, and to trucks and multipurpose passenger vehicles with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less. However, it does not apply to walk-in van-type vehicles. Additionally, paragraph S5.3 of this standard applies to all motor vehicles, except trailers and motorcycles, with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less.

S4. Definitions.

Combination means a variation of the key that permits the starting system of a particular vehicle to be operated.

Key means a physical device or an electronic code which, when inserted into the starting system (by physical or electronic means), enables the vehicle operator to activate the engine or motor.

Open-body type vehicle means a vehicle having no occupant compartment doors or vehicle having readily detachable occupant compartment doors.

Starting system means the vehicle system used in conjunction with the key to activate the engine or motor.

Vehicle type, as used in S5.1.2, refers to passenger car, truck, or multipurpose passenger vehicle, as those terms are defined in 49 CFR 571.3.

S5   Requirements. Each vehicle subject to this standard must meet the requirements of S5.1, S5.2, and S5.3. Open-body type vehicles are not required to comply with S5.1.3.

S5.1   Theft protection.

S5.1.1   Each vehicle must have a starting system which, whenever the key is removed from the starting system prevents:

(a) The normal activation of the vehicle's engine or motor; and

(b) Either steering, or forward self-mobility, of the vehicle, or both.

S5.1.2   For each vehicle type manufactured by a manufacturer, the manufacturer must provide at least 1,000 unique key combinations, or a number equal to the total number of the vehicles of that type manufactured by the manufacturer, whichever is less. The same combinations may be used for more than one vehicle type.

S5.1.3   Except as specified below, an audible warning to the vehicle operator must be activated whenever the key is in the starting system and the door located closest to the driver's designated seating position is opened. An audible warning to the vehicle operator need not activate:

(a) After the key has been inserted into the starting system, and before the driver takes further action; or

(b) If the key is in the starting system in a manner or position that allows the engine or motor to be started or to continue operating; or

(c) For mechanical keys and starting systems, after the key has been withdrawn to a position from which it may not be turned.

S5.1.4   If a vehicle is equipped with a transmission with a “park” position, the means for deactivating the vehicle's engine or motor must not activate any device installed pursuant to S5.1.1(b), unless the transmission is locked in the “park” position.

S5.2   Rollaway prevention in vehicles equipped with transmissions with a “park” position.

S5.2.1   Except as specified in S5.2.3, the starting system required by S5.1 must prevent key removal when tested according to the procedures in S6, unless the transmission or gear selection control is locked in “park” or becomes locked in “park” as a direct result of key removal.

S5.2.2   Except as specified in S5.2.4, the vehicle must be designed such that the transmission or gear selection control cannot move from the “park” position, unless the key is in the starting system.

S5.2.3   Key removal override option. At the option of the manufacturer, the key may be removed from the starting system without the transmission or gear selection control in the “park” position under one of the following conditions:

(a) In the event of electrical failure, including battery discharge, the vehicle may permit key removal from the starting system without the transmission or gear selection control locked in the “park” position; or

(b) Provided that steering or self-mobility is prevented, the vehicle may have a device by which the user can remove the key from the starting system without the transmission or gear selection control locked in “park.” This device must require:

(i) The use of a tool, and

(ii) Simultaneous activation of the device and removal of the key; or

(c) Provided that steering or self-mobility is prevented, the vehicle may have a device by which the user can remove the key from the starting system without the transmission or gear selection control locked in “park.” This device must be covered by an opaque surface which, when installed:

(i) Prevents sight of and use of the device, and

(ii) Can be removed only by using a screwdriver or other tool.

S5.2.4   Gear selection control override option. The vehicle may have a device by which the user can move the gear selection control from “park” after the key has been removed from the starting system. This device must be operable by one of the three options below:

(a) By use of the key; or

(b) By a means other than the key, provided steering or forward self-mobility is prevented when the key is removed from the starting system. Such a means must require:

(i) The use of a tool, and

(ii) Simultaneous activation of this means and movement of the gear selection control from “park;” or

(c) By a means other than the key, provided steering or forward self-mobility is prevented when the key is removed from the starting system. This device must be covered by an opaque surface which, when installed:

(i) Prevents sight of and use of the device, and

(ii) Can be removed only by using a screwdriver or other tool.

S5.2.5   When tested in accordance with S6.2.2, each vehicle must not move more than 150 mm on a 10 percent grade when the gear selection control is locked in “park.”

S5.3   Brake transmission shift interlock. Each motor vehicle manufactured on or after September 1, 2010 with a GVWR of 4,536 kilograms (10,000 pounds) or less with an automatic transmission that includes a “park” position shall be equipped with a system that requires the service brake to be depressed before the transmission can be shifted out of “park.” This system shall function in any starting system key position in which the transmission can be shifted out of “park.” This section does not apply to trailers or motorcycles.

S6. Compliance test procedure for vehicles with transmissions with a “park” position.

S6.1   Test conditions.

S6.1.1   The vehicle shall be tested at curb weight plus 91 kg (including the driver).

S6.1.2   Except where specified otherwise, the test surface shall be level.

S6.2   Test procedure.

S6.2.1

(a) Activate the starting system using the key.

(b) Move the gear selection control to any gear selection position or any other position where it will remain without assistance, including a position between any detent positions, except for the “park” position.

(c) Attempt to remove the key in each gear selection position.

S6.2.2

(a) Drive the vehicle forward up a 10 percent grade and stop it with the service brakes.

(b) Apply the parking brake (if present).

(c) Move the gear selection control to “park.”

(d) Note the vehicle position.

(e) Release the parking brake. Release the service brakes.

(f) Remove the key.

(g) Verify that the gear selection control or transmission is locked in “park.”

(h) Verify that the vehicle, at rest, has moved no more than 150 mm from the position noted prior to release of the brakes.

S6.2.3

(a) Drive the vehicle forward down a 10 percent grade and stop it with the service brakes.

(b) Apply the parking brake (if present).

(c) Move the gear selection control to “park.”

(d) Note the vehicle position.

(e) Release the parking brake. Release the service brakes.

(f) Remove the key.

(g) Verify that the gear selection control or transmission is locked in “park.”

(h) Verify that the vehicle, at rest, has moved no more than 150 mm from the position noted prior to release of the brakes.

[71 FR 17755, Apr. 7, 2006, as amended at 75 FR 15624, Mar. 30, 2010]

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§571.115   [Reserved]

§571.116   Standard No. 116; Motor vehicle brake fluids.

S1. Scope. This standard specifies requirements for fluids for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles, containers for these fluids, and labeling of the containers.

S2. Purpose. The purpose of this standard is to reduce failures in the hydraulic braking systems of motor vehicles which may occur because of the manufacture or use of improper or contaminated fluid.

S3. Application. This standard applies to all fluid for use in hydraulic brake systems of motor vehicles. In addition, S5.3 applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, trucks, buses, trailers, and motorcycles.

S4. Definitions.

Blister means a cavity or sac on the surface of a brake cup.

Brake fluid means a liquid designed for use in a motor vehicle hydraulic brake system in which it will contact elastomeric components made of styrene and butadiene rubber (SBR), ethylene and propylene rubber (EPR), polychloroprene (CR) brake hose inner tube stock or natural rubber (NR).

Chipping means a condition in which small pieces are missing from the outer surface of a brake cup.

Duplicate samples means two samples of brake fluid taken from a single packaged lot and tested simultaneously.

Hydraulic system mineral oil means a mineral-oil-based fluid designed for use in motor vehicle hydraulic brake systems in which the fluid is not in contact with components made of SBR, EPR or NR.

Packager means any person who fills containers with brake fluid that are subsequently distributed for retail sale.

Packaged lot is that quantity of brake fluid shipped by the manufacturer to the packager in a single container, or that quantity of brake fluid manufactured by a single plant run of 24 hours or less, through the same processing equipment and with no change in ingredients.

Scuffing means a visible erosion of a portion of the outer surface of a brake cup.

A silicone base brake fluid (SBBF) is a brake fluid which consists of not less than 70 percent by weight of a diorgano polysiloxane.

Sloughing means degradation of a brake cup as evidenced by the presence of carbon black loosely held on the brake cup surface, such that a visible black streak is produced when the cup, with a 500 ±10 gram deadweight on it, is drawn base down over a sheet of white bond paper placed on a firm flat surface.

Stickiness means a condition on the surface of a brake cup such that fibers will be pulled from a wad of U.S.P. absorbent cotton when it is drawn across the surface.

S5. Requirements. This section specifies performance requirements for DOT 3, DOT 4 and DOT 5 brake fluids; requirements for brake fluid certification; and requirements for container sealing, labeling and color coding for brake fluids and hydraulic system mineral oils. Where a range of tolerances is specified, the brake fluid shall meet the requirements at all points within the range.

S5.1   Brake fluid. When tested in accordance with S6, brake fluids shall meet the following requirements:

S5.1.1   Equilibrium reflux boiling point (ERBP). When brake fluid is tested according to S6.1, the ERBP shall not be less than the following value for the grade indicated:

(a) DOT 3: 205 °C. (401 °F.).

(b) DOT 4: 230 °C. (446 °F.).

(c) DOT 5: 260 °C. (500 °F.).

S5.1.2   Wet ERBP. When brake fluid is tested according to S6.2, the wet ERBP shall not be less than the following value for the grade indicated:

(a) DOT 3: 140 °C. (284 °F.).

(b) DOT 4: 155 °C. (311 °F.).

(c) DOT 5: 1 180 °C. (356 °F.).

S5.1.3. Kinematic viscosities. When brake fluid is tested according to S6.3, the kinematic viscosities in square millimeters per second at stated temperatures shall be neither less than 1.5 mm2/s at 100 °C. (212 °F.) nor more than the following maximum value for the grade indicated:

(a) DOT 3: 1,500 mm2/s at minus 40 °C. (minus 40 °F.).

(b) DOT 4: 1,800 mm2/s at minus 40 °C. (minus 40 °F.).

(c) DOT 5: 900 mm2/s at minus 40 °C. (minus 40 °F.).

S5.1.4   pH value. When brake fluid, except DOT 5 SBBF, is tested according to S6.4, the pH value shall not be less than 7.0 nor more than 11.5.

S5.1.5   Brake fluid stability.

S5.1.5.1   High-temperature stability. When brake fluid is tested according to S6.5.3 the ERBP shall not change by more than 3 °C. (5.4 °F.) plus 0.05° for each degree that the ERBP of the fluid exceeds 225 °C. (437 °F.).

S5.1.5.2   Chemical stability. When brake fluid, except DOT 5 SBBF, is tested according to S6.5.4, the change in temperature of the refluxing fluid mixture shall not exceed 3.0 °C (5.4 °F.) plus 0.05° for each degree that the ERBP of the fluid exceeds 225 °C (437 °F.).

S5.1.6   Corrosion. When brake fluid is tested according to S6.6—

(a) The metal test strips shall not show weight changes exceeding the limits stated in Table I.

Table I

Test strip materialMaximum permissible weight change, mg./sq. cm. of surface
Steel, tinned iron, cast iron0.2
Aluminum.1
Brass, copper.4

(b) Excluding the area of contact (13 ±1 mm. ( 12 ± 132 inch) measured from the bolt hole end of the test strip), the metal test strips shall not show pitting or etching to an extent discernible without magnification;

(c) The water-wet brake fluid at the end of the test shall show no jelling at 23 ±5 °C (73.4 ±9 °F.);

(d) No crystalline deposit shall form and adhere to either the glass jar walls or the surface of the metal strips;

(e) At the end of the test, sedimentation of the water-wet brake fluid shall not exceed 0.10 percent by volume;

(f) The pH value of water-wet brake fluid, except DOT 5 SBBF, at the end of the test shall not be less than 7.0 nor more than 11.5;

(g) The cups at the end of the test shall show no disintegration, as evidenced by blisters or sloughing;

(h) The hardness of the cup shall not decrease by more than 15 International Rubber Hardness Degrees (IRHD); and

(i) The base diameter of the cups shall not increase by more than 1.4 mm. (0.055 inch).

S5.1.7   Fluidity and appearance at low temperature. When brake fluid is tested according to S6.7, at the storage temperature and for the storage times given in Table II—

(a) The fluid shall show no sludging, sedimentation, crystallization, or stratification;

(b) Upon inversion of the sample bottle, the time required for the air bubble to travel to the top of the fluid shall not exceed the bubble flow times shown in Table II; and

(c) On warming to room temperature, the fluid shall resume the appearance and fluidity that it had before chilling.

Table II—Fluidity and Appearance at Low Temperatures

Storage temperatureStorage time (hours)Maximum bubble flow time (seconds)
Minus 40 ±2 °C. (minus 40 ±3.