Title 29 Part 453 → §453.18
Title 29 → Subtitle B → Chapter IV → Subchapter A → Part 453 → §453.18
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 29 Part 453 → §453.18
§453.18 Bonds “individual or schedule in form”.
(a) General consideration. In addition to such substantive matters as the personnel who must be bonded and the scope and the amount of the prescribed bonds, which have been discussed previously, the form of the bonds is the subject of a specific provision of section 502(a). Under this provision, a bond meeting the substantive requirements of the section may be either “individual or schedule in form.” These terms are not specially defined and could be descriptive of a variety of possible forms of bonds. According to trade usage, an individual bond is a single bond covering a single named individual to a designated amount, and bonds “schedule in form” may include either name schedule or position schedule bonds. A name schedule bond is typically a single bond covering a series or list of named individuals, each of whom is bonded separately to a designated amount. A position schedule bond is typically a single bond providing coverage with respect to any occupant or holder of one or more specified positions during the term of the bond, each office or position being covered to a designated amount. In a statute relating to trade or commerce, it is frequently helpful to consider whatever trade or commercial usages may have developed with respect to the statutory terms.9 References to individual, schedule and position schedule bonds may be found in other acts of Congress and indicate a clear awareness of trade usages and terminology in this field.10
9See 2 Sutherland, Statutory Construction (3d ed. 1943) §4919.
10Act of August 24, 1954, 68 Stat. 335, 12 U.S.C. 1766(g); Act of August 9, 1955, 69 Stat. 618, 6 U.S.C. 14.
(b) Particular forms of bonds. If the phrase “individual or schedule in form” is considered in light of the trade usages, section 502(a) at least permits bonds which are individual, name schedule or position schedule in form. Of course, section 502(a) does not require any particular type of individual or schedule bonds where different types exist or may be developed. It could not be said, for example, that a bond which schedules positions according to similarities in duties, risks, or required amounts of coverage is not “schedule in form” within the meaning of section 502(a) merely because the particular form of scheduling involved was not employed in bonds current at the time the section became law. A more specific illustration would be a bond scheduling shop stewards as a group because of the similar duties they perform in collecting dues, or members of an executive board as a group because of the fact that duties are imposed upon the board as such. A bond of this type would be “schedule in form” within the meaning of section 502(a) and, assuming adequacy of amount and coverage of all persons whom it is necessary to bond, such a bond would be in conformity with the statute. Also, a bond scheduling positions or groups of positions according to amounts of funds handled by occupants of the positions could be viewed as “schedule in form.”
(c) Additional bonding. Section 502(a) neither prevents additional bonding beyond that required by its terms nor prescribes the form in which such additional coverage may be taken. Thus, so long as a particular bond is schedule in form as to the personnel required to be bonded and schedules coverage of these persons in at least the minimum required amount, additional coverage either as to personnel or amount may be taken in any form either in the same or in separate bonds. A bond which provided name or position schedule coverage for all persons required to be bonded under section 502(a), each scheduled person or position being bonded in at least the required minimum amount, would clearly be “schedule in form” within the meaning of section 502(a) regardless of the extent or form of additional schedule or blanket coverage provided in the same bond.