Title 42 Part 495 → Subpart D → §495.348
Title 42 → Chapter IV → Subchapter G → Part 495 → Subpart D → §495.348
Electronic Code of Federal Regulations e-CFR
Title 42 Part 495 → Subpart D → §495.348
e-CFR data is current as of January 24, 2020
§495.348 Procurement standards.
(a) General rule. Procurements of HIT equipment and services are subject to the following procurement standards in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this section regardless of any conditions for prior approval. These standards—
(1) Include a requirement for maximum practical open and free competition regardless of whether the procurement is formally advertised or negotiated.
(2) Are established to ensure that such materials and services are obtained in a cost effective manner and in compliance with the provisions of applicable Federal statutes and executive orders.
(3) Apply when the cost of the procurement is treated as a direct cost of an award.
(b) Grantee responsibilities. The standards contained in this section do not relieve the Grantee of the contractual responsibilities arising under its contract(s).
(1) The grantee is the responsible authority, without recourse to the Departmental awarding agency, regarding the settlement and satisfaction of all contractual and administrative issues arising out of procurements entered into in support of an award or other agreement. This includes disputes, claims, and protests of award, source evaluation or other matters of a contractual nature.
(2) Matters concerning violation of statute are to be referred to such Federal, State or local authority as may have proper jurisdiction.
(c) Codes of conduct. The grantee must maintain written standards of conduct governing the performance of its employees engaged in the award and administration of contracts.
(1) No employee, officer, or agent must participate in the selection, award, or administration of a contract supported by Federal funds if a real or apparent conflict of interest would be involved.
(2) Such a conflict would arise when the employee, officer, or agent, or any member of his or her immediate family, his or her partner, or an organization which employs or is about to employ any of the parties indicated herein, has a financial or other interest in the firm selected for an award.
(3) The officers, employees, and agents of the grantee must neither solicit nor accept gratuities, favors, or anything of monetary value from contractors, or parties to sub agreements.
(4) Grantees may set standards for situations in which the financial interest is not substantial or the gift is an unsolicited item of nominal value.
(5) The standards of conduct provide for disciplinary actions to be applied for violations of such standards by officers, employers, or agents of the grantees.
(d) Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition.
(1) The grantee must be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as noncompetitive practices among contractors that may restrict or eliminate competition or otherwise restrain trade.
(2) In order to ensure objective contractor performance and eliminate unfair competitive advantage, contractors that develop or draft grant applications, or contract specifications, requirements, statements of work, invitations for bids and requests for proposals must be excluded from competing for such procurements.
(3) Awards must be made to the bidder or offer or whose bid or offer is responsive to the solicitation and is most advantageous to the grantee, price, quality, and other factors considered.
(4) Solicitations must clearly set forth all requirements that the bidder or offer or must fulfill in order for the bid or offer to be evaluated by the grantee.
(5) Any and all bids or offers may be rejected when it is in the grantee's interest to do so.
(e) Procurement procedures. All grantees must establish written procurement procedures. These procedures must provide, at a minimum, the following:
(1) Grantees avoid purchasing unnecessary items.
(2) When appropriate, an analysis is made of lease and purchase alternatives to determine which would be the most economical and practical procurement for the grantee and the Federal government.
(3) Solicitations for goods and services provide for all of the following:
(i) A clear and accurate description of the technical requirements for the material, product or service to be procured. In competitive procurements, such a description must not contain features which unduly restrict competition.
(ii) Requirements which the bidder or offer must fulfill and all other factors to be used in evaluating bids or proposals.
(iii) A description, whenever practicable, of technical requirements in terms of functions to be performed or performance required, including the range of acceptable characteristics or minimum acceptable standards.
(iv) The specific features of brand name or equal descriptions that bidders are required to meet when such items are included in the solicitation.
(v) The acceptance, to the extent practicable and economically feasible, of products and services dimensioned in the metric system of measurement.
(vi) Preference, to the extent practicable and economically feasible, for products and services that conserve natural resources and protect the environment and are energy efficient.
(4) Positive efforts must be made by grantees to utilize small businesses, minority-owned firms, and women's business enterprises, whenever possible. Grantees of Departmental awards must take all of the following steps to further this goal:
(i) Ensure that small businesses, minority-owned firms, and women's business enterprises are used to the fullest extent practicable.
(ii) Make information on forthcoming opportunities available and arrange time frames for purchases and contracts to encourage and facilitate participation by small businesses, minority-owned firms, and women's business enterprises.
(iii) Consider in the contract process whether firms competing for larger contracts intend to subcontract with small businesses, minority-owned firms, and women's business enterprises.
(iv) Encourage contracting with consortia of small businesses, minority-owned firms and women's business enterprises when a contract is too large for one of these firms to handle individually.
(v) Use the services and assistance, as appropriate, of such organizations as the Small Business Administration and the Department of Commerce's Minority Business Development Agency in the solicitation and utilization of small businesses, minority-owned firms and women's business enterprises.
(5) The type of procuring instruments used (for example, fixed price contracts, cost reimbursable contracts, purchase orders, and incentive contracts) must be determined by the grantee but must be appropriate for the particular procurement and for promoting the best interest of the program or project involved.
(6) The “cost-plus-a-percentage-of-cost” or “percentage of construction cost” methods of contracting must not be used.
(7) Contracts must be made only with responsible contractors who possess the potential ability to perform successfully under the terms and conditions of the proposed procurement.
(8) Consideration must be given to such matters as contractor integrity, record of past performance, financial and technical resources or accessibility to other necessary resources.
(9) In certain circumstances, contracts with certain parties are restricted by agencies' implementation of Executive Orders 12549 and 12689, “Debarment and Suspension” as described in 2 CFR part 376.
(10) Some form of cost or price analysis must be made and documented in the procurement files in connection with every procurement action.
(11) Price analysis may be accomplished in various ways, including the comparison of price quotations submitted, market prices, and similar indicia, together with discounts.
(12) Cost analysis is the review and evaluation of each element of cost to determine reasonableness, allocability, and allowability.
(13) Procurement records and files for purchases in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold must include the following at a minimum:
(i) Basis for contractor selection.
(ii) Justification for lack of competition when competitive bids or offers are not obtained.
(iii) Basis for award cost or price.
(f) Contract administration. A system for contract administration must be maintained to ensure contractor conformance with the terms, conditions and specifications of the contract and to ensure adequate and timely follow up of all purchases. Grantees must evaluate contractor performance and document, as appropriate, whether contractors have met the terms, conditions, and specifications of the contract.
(g) Additional contract requirements. The grantee must include, in addition to provisions to define a sound and complete agreement, the following provisions in all contracts, which must also be applied to subcontracts:
(1) Contracts in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold must contain contractual provisions or conditions that allow for administrative, contractual, or legal remedies in instances in which a contractor violates or breaches the contract terms, and provide for such remedial actions as may be appropriate.
(2) All contracts in excess of the simplified acquisition threshold (currently $100,000) must contain suitable provisions for termination by the grantee, including the manner by which termination must be effected and the basis for settlement.
(h) Conditions for default or termination. Such contracts must describe conditions under which the contract may be terminated for default as well as conditions where the contract may be terminated because of circumstances beyond the control of the contractor.
(i) Access to contract materials and staff. All negotiated contracts (except those for less than the simplified acquisition threshold) awarded by grantees must include a provision to the effect that the grantee, the Departmental awarding agency, the U.S. Comptroller General, or any of their duly authorized representatives, must have access to any books, documents, papers and records and staff of the contractor which are directly pertinent to a specific program for the purpose of making audits, examinations, excerpts and transcriptions.