94.108 Test fuels.§ 94.108 Test fuels.
(a) Distillate diesel test fuel. (1) The diesel fuels for testing Category 1 and Category 2 marine engines designed to operate on distillate diesel fuel shall be clean and bright, with pour and cloud points adequate for operability. The diesel fuel may contain nonmetallic additives as follows: cetane improver, metal deactivator, antioxidant, dehazer, antirust, pour depressant, dye, dispersant, and biocide. The diesel fuel shall also meet the specifications (as determined using methods incorporated by reference at § 94.5) in Table B-5 of this section, or substantially equivalent specifications approved by the Administrator, as follows:
Table B-5 - Federal Test Fuel Specifications
|Cetane||ASTM D 613-01||40-48|
|Initial boiling point, °C||ASTM D 86-01||171-204|
|10% point, °C||ASTM D 86-01||204-238|
|50% point, °C||ASTM D 86-01||243-282|
|90% point, °C||ASTM D 86-01||293-332|
|End point, °C||ASTM D 86-01||321-366|
|Flash Point, °C||ASTM D93-09||54 minimum.|
|Gravity, API||ASTM D 287-92||32-37|
|Aromatics, volume percent||ASTM D 1319-02a or D 5186-99||10 minimum|
|Olefins and Saturates (paraffins and napththenes)||ASTM D 1319-02a||Remainder|
|Total Sulfur, weight percent||ASTM D 129-00 or D 2622-98||0.03-0.80|
|Viscosity at 38 °C, centistokes||ASTM D445-09||2.0-3.2.|
1 All ASTM standards are incorporated by reference in § 94.5.
(2) Other diesel fuels may be used for testing provided:
(i) They are commercially available; and
(ii) Information, acceptable to the Administrator, is provided to show that only the designated fuel would be used in service; and
(iii) Use of a fuel listed under paragraph (a)(1) of this section would have a detrimental effect on emissions or durability; and
(iv) Written approval from the Administrator of the fuel specifications is provided prior to the start of testing.
(3) The specification of the fuel to be used under paragraphs (a)(1), and (a)(2) of this section shall be reported in the application for certification.
(4) Manufacturers may perform testing using the low-sulfur diesel test fuel or the ultra low-sulfur diesel test fuel specified in 40 CFR part 1065.
(b) Other fuel types. For Category 1 and Category 2 engines that are designed to be capable of using a type of fuel (or mixed fuel) instead of or in addition to distillate diesel fuel (e.g., natural gas, methanol, or nondistillate diesel), and that are expected to use that type of fuel (or mixed fuel) in service:
(1) A commercially available fuel of that type shall be used for exhaust emission testing. The manufacturer shall propose for the Administrator's approval a set of test fuel specifications that take into account the engine design and the properties of commercially available fuels. The Administrator may require testing on each fuel if it is designed to operate on more than one fuel. These test fuel specifications shall be reported in the application for certification.
(c) Service accumulation fuel. Fuel used for service accumulation shall be representative of the typical fuel expected to be used by the engines in service.
(d) Correction for sulfur - (1) High sulfur fuel. (i) Particulate emission measurements from Category 1 or Category 2 engines without exhaust aftertreatment obtained using a diesel fuel containing more than 0.40 weight percent sulfur may be adjusted to a sulfur content of 0.40 weight percent.
(ii) Adjustments to the particulate measurement for using high sulfur fuel shall be made using the following equation:PMadj = PM−[BSFC × 0.0917 × (FSF-0.0040)] Where: PMadj = adjusted measured PM level [g/kW-hr] PM = measured weighted PM level [g/kW-hr] BSFC = measured brake specific fuel consumption [g/kW-hr] FSF = fuel sulfur weight fraction
(2) Low sulfur fuel. (i) Particulate emission measurements from Category 1 or Category 2 engines without exhaust aftertreatment obtained using diesel fuel containing less than 0.03 weight percent sulfur shall be adjusted to a sulfur content of 0.20 weight percent.
(ii) Adjustments to the particulate measurement for using ultra low-sulfur fuel shall be made using the following equation:PMadj = PM + [BSFC × 0.0917 × (0.0020-FSF)] Where: PMadj = adjusted measured PM level [g/kW-hr] PM = measured weighted PM level [g/kW-hr] BSFC = measured brake specific fuel consumption [g/kW-hr] FSF = fuel sulfur weight fraction
(e) Test fuel for Category 3 engines. For testing Tier 1 engines, use test fuels meeting the specifications listed in the Annex VI Technical Code (incorporated by reference in § 94.5).[64 FR 73331, Dec. 29, 1999, as amended at 67 FR 68345, Nov. 8, 2002; 68 FR 9784, Feb. 28, 2003; 73 FR 37196, June 30, 2008; 77 FR 2463, Jan. 18, 2012]