1065.110 Work inputs and outputs, accessory work, and operator demand.§ 1065.110 Work inputs and outputs, accessory work, and operator demand.
(a) Work. Use good engineering judgment to simulate all engine work inputs and outputs as they typically would operate in use. Account for work inputs and outputs during an emission test by measuring them; or, if they are small, you may show by engineering analysis that disregarding them does not affect your ability to determine the net work output by more than ±0.5% of the net expected work output over the test interval. Use equipment to simulate the specific types of work, as follows:
(1) Shaft work. Use an engine dynamometer that is able to meet the cycle-validation criteria in § 1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle.
(i) You may use eddy-current and water-brake dynamometers for any testing that does not involve engine motoring, which is identified by negative torque commands in a reference duty cycle. See the standard setting part for reference duty cycles that are applicable to your engine.
(ii) You may use alternating-current or direct-current motoring dynamometers for any type of testing.
(iii) You may use one or more dynamometers.
(iv) You may use any device that is already installed on a vehicle, equipment, or vessel to absorb work from the engine's output shaft(s). Examples of these types of devices include a vessel's propeller and a locomotive's generator.
(2) Electrical work. Use one or more of the following to simulate electrical work:
(i) Use storage batteries or capacitors that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(ii) Use motors, generators, and alternators that are of the type and capacity installed in use.
(iii) Use a resistor load bank to simulate electrical loads.
(3) Pump, compressor, and turbine work. Use pumps, compressors, and turbines that are of the type and capacity installed in use. Use working fluids that are of the same type and thermodynamic state as normal in-use operation.
(b) Laboratory work inputs. You may supply any laboratory inputs of work to the engine. For example, you may supply electrical work to the engine to operate a fuel system, and as another example you may supply compressor work to the engine to actuate pneumatic valves. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of laboratory work inputs to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(c) Engine accessories. You must either install or account for the work of engine accessories required to fuel, lubricate, or heat the engine, circulate coolant to the engine, or to operate aftertreatment devices. Operate the engine with these accessories installed or accounted for during all testing operations, including mapping. If these accessories are not powered by the engine during a test, account for the work required to perform these functions from the total work used in brake-specific emission calculations. For air-cooled engines only, subtract externally powered fan work from total work. We may ask you to show by engineering analysis your accounting of engine accessories to meet the criterion in paragraph (a) of this section.
(d) Engine starter. You may install a production-type starter.
(e) Operator demand for shaft work. Operator demand is defined in § 1065.1001. Command the operator demand and the dynamometer(s) to follow a prescribed duty cycle with set points for engine speed and torque as specified in § 1065.512. Refer to the standard-setting part to determine the specifications for your duty cycle(s). Use a mechanical or electronic input to control operator demand such that the engine is able to meet the validation criteria in § 1065.514 over each applicable duty cycle. Record feedback values for engine speed and torque as specified in § 1065.512. Using good engineering judgment, you may improve control of operator demand by altering on-engine speed and torque controls. However, if these changes result in unrepresentative testing, you must notify us and recommend other test procedures under § 1065.10(c)(1).
(f) Other engine inputs. If your electronic control module requires specific input signals that are not available during dynamometer testing, such as vehicle speed or transmission signals, you may simulate the signals using good engineering judgment. Keep records that describe what signals you simulate and explain why these signals are necessary for representative testing.[70 FR 40516, July 13, 2005, as amended at 73 FR 37292, June 30, 2008]